(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "American Cinematographer (1931)"

LIBRARY 

THE * . UM 
OF ^DSRN ART 



Received: 



Scanned from the collection of 

The Museum of Modern Art Library 



Coordinated by the 

Media History Digital Library 
www.mediahistoryproject.org 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Media History Digital Library 



http://archive.org/details/amri11asch 






FL 







CWIS 



To the MOTION PICTURE 
INDUSTRY/^ 1931... 



TWELVE MONTHS 

of HAPPINESS and 
PROSPERITY ^S 




c 




with your Bell & Howell 

A fact of interest and importance to cameramen and producers — your 
regular Bel 1 & Howell Cameras can be used for the Bi- Pack color processes. 

A special intermittent mechanism, an adaptation of the famous 
B & H pilot pin mechanism, is used to handle the two negatives. This 
unit is readily interchangeable with the regular, ultra-speed, or silenced 
mechanisms. Simply by changing this mechanism and, of course, the 
magazine and the film, any Bell & Howell Camera can be converted 
for color from monochrome, and vice versa, at a moment's notice. 

The new mechanism is so constructed that the focal plane of the 
Bi-Pack films (which are run emulsion to emulsion) is in exactly the 
same position as the focal plane of the black and white film in the 
regular mechanisms. There is no necessity for any change or adjust- 
ment on the camera itself — the focusing ground glass is left in the 
standard position. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The new Cooke Speed Panchro and Panchro lenses are also ideal for 
Bi-Pack color processes, as they are corrected to the wave lengths 
utilized by the Bi-Pack emulsions. Their special correction adapts 
them equally well for modern monochrome work with panchromatic 
film and incandescent lighting. 

Write for further information on B & H Cameras or these new 
Cooke lenses. 



BELL & HOWELL 



BELL &HOWELL CO., 1849 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 
New York, 11 West 42nd Street • Hollywood, 6324 Santa Monica Blvd. 
London (B & H Co., Ltd.) 320 Regent Street • Established 1907 



R 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



ii^S 


■■ 




■• 1 w^k 


r^M 




tw 





An 

Ultra-Modern Unit 

Perfected by Mole- 



Richard 



son 



In 



c. 



If It 



Here is one of the newest mechan- 
ical contributions for the filming 
of talking motion pictures with 
sound proofed cameras » » » the 
Mole- Richardson Perambulator. 
With the use of blimps a need 
has arisen for a camera mounting, 
which could be used for either 
travel or stationary shots with 
equal facility. Mole-Richardson 
have solved the problem with the 

unit pictured above Such 

service is now taken as a matter 
of course by the industry. Over a 
period of years Mole - Richardson 
service has been anticipating the 
Studio requirements and will 
Isn't An fi?#J It Isn't An Inkie. continue to do so. 




» » » » 



MOLE-RICHARDSON 

INCORPORATED 

941 NORTH SYCAMORE AVENUE, HOLLYWOOD 



Interior view of Mole - Richardson 
plant where incandescent lighting, 
electrical and sound equipment is 
fashioned and perfected for the 
motion picture industry. 




Bei Aufragen und Bestellungcn beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



AMERICAN 



CINEMATOGRAPHER 



A Technical 


and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 


HAL MOHR 
President, AS. C. 


HAL HALL 

Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C. EMERY HUSE 
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA Technical Editor, A. S. C. 
BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren 


Volume XI 


JANUARY, 1931 Number 9 



CONTENTS 

Page 

SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich 9 

"VERSIONS," by Geoffrey Shurlock 10 

MACHINERY OR ART IN MOTION PICTURES, 

by J. Tarbotton Armstrong 1 1 

THE CAPTURE AND PHOTOGRAPHING OF VARANUS 

KOMODENSIS, by Philip M. Chancellor 12 

"NOISELESS RECORDING," by H. C. Silent 14 

STANDARDIZATION OF PHOTO-ELECTRIC CELLS, 

by N. R. Campbell .... 16 

HAL HALL SAYS 1 8 

AN INTERVIEW WITH LEWIS MILESTONE 19 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING, by William Stull... 30 

ABOUT LENSES 34 

Cover, by Russell Ball 



FOREICN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS, INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
stablished 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, S3 50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1930, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 



£aster Greetings 

C First Again, As Usual J 

THE NEW TANAR 
PORTABLE SOUND SYSTEM 



®>^® 



7 %/l 



COMPLETE 

OUTFIT 

PACKS IN THE 

TWO CASES 
HERE SHOWN 



WEIGHT 
60 lbs. per case 

SIZE 

18x9x12 inches 
20x10x10 inches 




NEW 
AMPLIFIER 

• 

NEW MOTOR 

DRIVE AND 

TACOMETER 

MOUNT 

• 

NEW TYPE 
BATTERIES 

• 

NEW TYPE 
CASES 



TANAR CORPORATION, Limited 

Originators of Portable Sound-on-Film Recorders 

General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Blvd. Laboratories; 1110-1112 N. Serrano Ave. 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 

New York Offices: Wafilms, Inc., 729 Seventh Avenue 

Telephone: HEmpstead 3939 Cable Address: TANARLIGHT 

and HEmpstead 3362 Postal Telegraph Private Wire 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehcn Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 




DOUGLAS FAIRBANKS 

Endorses 



TANAR 

PORTABLE SOUND SYSTEM 



ing a 



on 




u 



)) 



TANAR 
PORTABLE SOUND SYSTEM 

TANAR CORPORATION, Limited 



ORICINATORS OF PORTABLE SOUND-ON-FILM RECORDERS 



General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Blvd. 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 
New York Offices: Wafilms, Inc., 729 Seventh Ave. 
Telephone: HEmpstead 3939 and HEmpstead 3362. 



Laboratories: 1 1 10-1 1 12 N. Serrano Ave. 



Cable Address: TANARLICHT 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 



M.AZDA --not the name of a thing, but the mark of a research servic< 



Tour 




mm 



CONFIDENCE 

YOUR confidence in the quality, performance 
and leadership of General Electric MAZDA 
photographic lamps is justified. The sterling repu- 
tation of the General Electric Company and the 
zeal of the famous MAZDA research service are 
exemplified in every G. E. MAZDA lamp in service 
in modern cinematography. 

For every lighting task, general and specific, rely 
upon the superiority of G. E. MAZDA lamps. 
National Lamp Works of General Electric Com' 
Fom us I- +t General Electric Program, pany, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 

broadcast -»:rv Saturday evening over a 

natMn ' wtdc * R Q netw0Tk - GENERAL ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 

Bei Aufragen und Besrellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte au* die American Cinematographer. 





est OTtsfjes; 

for a $ro£perott£ 
anb Jlappp J^ e tp 
Hear to our jWanp 
Jfrtenbtf *m *m *** 



2jft inbeeb is; gratifying to rebieto tfje 
^ past pear conf ibent tfjat our Success 
is bue in great measure to tfje counts 
less expressions of appreciation anb 
tfte lopaltp anb i aitf) of tljose frienbs 
tottftout tofjom our best efforts 
tooulb babe been of no abail mz ss^ 

3n tbis realisation, toe are glab at 
tbis goob=toill season to extenb to 
tfjem our sincere greetings s& ^ 



Hafetn Corporation 

1707 J^aub Street losi gngeles^ California Capital 5387 

"If it's not a ^^ it's not silent!" 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



January, 1931 




Cameras 



Elmer C. Dyer, A. S. C. 



Screen Definition 



by DR. L. M. DIETERICH 

Consulting Engineer 



Part III 



CONSIDERING influence of filter use upon definition, we 
want to dwell at first upon the optical characteristics 
of the carrier medium for a filter color or tone. Leaving 
gelatine filters for later consideration, glass as a carrier medium 
becomes of interest, the more so as its optical characteristics 
are the same for glass diffusion discs and have not been ana- 
lyzed in Part II, so prevent repetition. 

It may be remarked here that they are also of interest when 
any glass plate is used in front of the photographic lens as, for 
example, in blimps. 

The optical characteristics are shown in exaggerated relative 
proportions in Diagram No. 1 . 

If O is the selected object point, it will image at I if lens 
system L produces a 1 :i magnification. If glass plate C is 
interposed between object point O and lens system L, then the 
sample light rays (six are shown), shown as dotted lines and 
converging at image point I are refracted by glass plate C and 
pass through lens system L as shown by full lines. They converge 
at image point I 1 which is identical to the image of object point 
O', produced by lens system L if there were no glass plate C 
placed in front of the lens L. Analysis of this diagram shows 
that the distance OO 1 and relative distance II' increase with 
the thickness of the glass plate, or in other words, the focal 
value in general increases with the interposition of a glass plate 
between the object and the lens system. This increase is not 
only governed by the conditions above mentioned but results 
also in a decrease of the depth of focus for a given lens posi- 
tion for the following reason: 

A scrutiny of Diagram No. 1 shows, as before mentioned, 
that for a given power of lens system L and a given separation 
between C and L, the distance II' increases with a decrease of 
the distance of object point O. 



The practical results can be most clearly shown when we 
consider a normally extreme depth of focus which we get when 
the lens covers at universal focus position a great depth of 
object field. 

For points O far distant from the lens, the distance II' 
becomes very small and the circles of confusion controlling 
out-of-focus effects are not increased. 

The closer O becomes to the lens, the greater becomes the 
distance II', the circles of confusion therefore increase and 
out-of-focus effects become apparent for object distances 
which are of acceptable focus without the presence of the glass 
plate. 

Analysis of the optical characteristics of the light rays pass- 
ing through the plate shows, furthermore, (see diagram 2) 
that a full spectrum white ray is spectrumized by the glass 
plate according to the obliquity of the incident ray, the thick- 
ness of the glass plate and the refractive index of the glass 
forming such plate. 

We have, therefore, another condition adversely influencing 
sharp definition by introducing chromatic aberrations which 
increase the residual aberrations of the well corrected lens 
system L. 

The combined results as deduced from above analysis 
should be known to the cameraman in order to enable him to 
safeguard the definition results he is striving for. 

It is, of course, supposed that the glass plate, be it used as 
a diffusion disc, a filter base, or a sound proofing element in 
"blimp" construction, is made of "optical" glass, i. e. with 
absolute parallel surfaces and of uniform optical material char- 
acteristics throughout. 

But even under those best glass plate conditions the following 
facts remain: 

(Continued on Page 26) 




Diagram No. I 



// 



V 



ersions 



// 



The Problem of Making Foreign-Language Pictures 
by GEOFFREY SHURLOCK 

Supervisor of Foreign Production, Paramount-Publix Studios 



PROBABLY the greatest single problem at present confront- 
ing the motion picture industry is that of properly serving 
foreign patrons. Until recently a motion picture — wherever 
it might be made — had a world audience to play to. The com- 
plete standardization of technical equipment made it possible 
to present a film in any movie theatre in the world. The only 
change needed to adapt a film to meet the needs of any for- 
eign-language group was the substitution of foreign-language 
titles for the original English ones. 

With the coming of the talking picture, this has changed. 
Dialogue, no matter how sparingly used, is nevertheless an 
essential part of the picture, and to adapt a talking picture 
to foreign consumption, this dialogue must all be in the 
language understood by the various language-groups. It has 
been irrefutably proven that foreign-language dialogue cannot 
be "dubbed" into a picture made in another tongue. There- 
fore, if today's pictures are to play to the same world-wide 
audience they formerly entertained, separate versions of the 
film must be made for each language-group which is to be 
reached. 

This gives rise to many problems, commercial, technical, 
esthetic, and psychological, which are as yet only half solved. 
The crux of the situation lies in the fact that the major part 
of the world's technical resources, both in men and material, 
is concentrated in Hollywood, while — despite that city's 
polyglot population — the majority of the outstanding foreign 
players are found elsewhere. The question therefore is: which 
group is it most advisable to bring to the location of the 
other; which arrangement will make for the most efficient 
production and the most satisfactory working conditions? In 
other words, which will make the best pictures? 

It is a most perplexing problem, and one that will in all 
probability remain unsettled for a long time to come, for each 
solution has much in its favor, and much against it. 

Viewed commercially, the plan of making all foreign- 
language pictures at the Hollywood studio has the advantage 
of speedier production, centralized control, and the availability 
of the vast technical resources accumulated through more 
than twenty years of intensive development. On the other 
hand, these advantages are offset by the considerable expense 
of importing and maintaining stock companies of actors, 
directors, and writers in five or six languages, and by the 
considerably lower costs of production in Europe. 

Viewed technically, conditions favor the centering of for- 
eign-language production in Hollywood, for there are found 
both the most experienced technicians, and the greatest array 
of modern equipment. On the other hand, equipment may be 
transported to where the foreign actors are available, and in 
the major producing centers of Europe — France, England, and 
Germany — there are enough capable technicians to form, 
with perhaps the addition of some Hollywood-trained experts, 
the nucleus of an excellent producing organization. 

Viewed esthetically, the question is simply: is the Art ot 
the Talking Picture sufficiently different from the Art of 
the Silent Picture to demand entirely separate production- 
treatment in order to appeal to the different language-groups 
(which formerly were equally receptive to the same silent 
production), or are the two sufficiently similar so that merely 
translating the dialogue, as formerly the captions were trans- 

10 



lated, will be enough to adapt a screen plot to meet the enter- 
tainment needs of the various groups? 

Psychologically, the problem is to decide whether the un- 
doubted theoretical advantage of having every person in the 
company — from the director and star to the meanest assistant- 
prop-boy — working, speaking and thinking in the same lan- 
guage is great enough to be of practical value, or not. 

Obviously, there are two equally good answers to each of 
these questions. Hence, each producing organization is attack- 
ing the problem in its own way. Some prefer one method, and 
some prefer the other. A few are even experimenting with 
both. 

The Paramount-Publix Corporation, for instance, has, after 
some experimentation determined upon the plan of making the 
majority of its foreign-language product abroad, except in 
cases where the star or stars — like Maurice Chevalier, Claudette 
Colbert, or Marlene Dietrich — is of unusual international 
popularity, and capable of playing in two or more languages. 
In such cases, it is obviously best to make such foreign versions 
at as nearly the same time and place as the English version as 
is possible. In the majority of cases, however, it has been 
found best to treat the foreign versions as entirely separate 
productions, making them abroad, with casts entirely composed 
of foreign players, and at any time which is convenient. 

Spanish pictures, however, may be made in Hollywood, due 
to the proximity of Mexico and Latin America. These countries 
not only furnish the necessary players, but also the largest 
market, which makes it advisable that the Spanish spoken in 
these versions should be of the Latin-American variety rather 
than that of Spain, which is not so popular with the people 
of these countries. 

To provide facilities for making all other foreign-language 
films, however, we have found it advisable to create an en- 
tirely new studio near Paris. The majority of existing European 
studios were found to be inadequate for large-scale produc- 
tion, and since the installation of sound equipment necessitates 
practically complete rebuilding of a studio, it was decided that 
the most economical procedure would be the creation of an 
entirely new film plant. To this end we have erected a com- 
plete sound studio at Joinville-sur-Seine. In every respect this 
plant is new throughout, and represents the most modern pro- 
duction plant in the world, as it embodies the lessons gained 
during more than twenty years of activity at the firm's New 
York and Hollywood Studios. Six months ago the site was a 
wheatfield; today it is a large, modern production plant includ- 
ing nine sound-stages, laboratories, recording-channels, power- 
plant, administration buildings, carpenter, machine, paint, and 
other shops, and every other minute detail of a fully-equipped 
studio. The technical equipment is almost completely American, 
including such familiar units as Western Electric recording 
equipment, Mole-Richardson Incandescent lights. Bell & 
Howell and Mitchell Cameras, Paramount "Blimps," Moviolas, 
and many other familiar devices. The personnel, on the other 
hand, is largely European, although many of the department 
heads, and technical experts are either Americans, or Holly- 
wood-trained Europeans. The executives are all well known in 
America; the chief being Robert T. Kane, who is well known 
for his long and distinguished career in this country. His assist- 
ant is Richard M. Blumenthal, and the General Manager is 
(Continued on Page 22) 



Machinery or Art in Motion Pictures 

by J. TARBOTTON ARMSTRONG 

Curator of Motion Picture Museum, University of Southern California 



THE MOTION PICTURE is big business, and as such it 
is operated. The objective of big business is money, and 
everything is being done by the various companies to 
outstrip each other in getting more theatres and better equip- 
ment. But the theatres and equipment are really for the pic- 
tures — not the picture for the theatres and equipment. And 
besides, with the increase of education, public taste is 
improving. 

The attempt to satisfy the intellect of a ten year old child 
is disgusting to the better educated portion of the motion 
picture audience. Likewise the producers forget that children 
are often the severest critics, and will detect fallacies in story 
development just as quickly as adults. What is more, the 
average child of today can understand almost all subtle develop- 
ments of plot. Even sex is not above the comprehension of 
many children. 

While equipment may be improved, the quality of the aver- 
age production continues on the same level. The same plots 
are used over and over. The success of one picture will bring 
sudden releases of pictures of the same type from every studio. 
By the time the whole cycle, including quite a few inferior 
productions, is released, the public will be so tired of that form 
of picture that the best offering would not have a chance of 
success for some time to come. It would be far better if the 
studios would stop this duplication of types of pictures. 

The reasons for avoiding duplication from the production 
standpoint may also be mentioned. In the first place getting 
a production ready in time to compete with another involves 
hasty producing. In the second place, it is impossible for all the 
writers at all the studios to get new ideas for the same topic 
at the same time. Ideas for stories do not come to order. In 
the third place, this attempt to imitate will often result in mis- 
casting, upon the principle that a picture of this type must 
be produced whether the acting talent be available or not. 
Much of this sort of thing happened during the recent musical 
comedy deluge. 

There is a false standard of measuring the greatness of a 
production by the cost. The cost of the picture is often included 
as an advertising feature. But acting, directing, and photog- 
raphy are arts, and writing is likewise an artistic venture. A 
picture employing ten characters may be as great as a dramatic 
achievement, and a greater artistic achievement, than a spec- 
tacular production involving an expenditure of a million dollars 
(and expected to bring back three million). 

There will always be some types of pictures involving heavy 
costs. With these pictures every care should be taken to have 
the result justify the cost. Mere pageantry will not satisfy 
the average audience. No matter how complicated the scenes, 
or how large the supporting cast, the story must be woven 
around a few main characters — and it must be a story, rather 
than an excuse for spectacle. Sometimes it is rather hard to 
keep the two together, but it can be done. 

These spectacular productions, however, often come closest 
to the development of one thing generally missing in the 
average talking picture. This is rhythm. With the succes- 
sion of scenes involving massive movements, carefully photo- 
graphed, some rhythm must result. With poor sound con- 
ception and continuity the result, of course, would be not 
rhythm, but chaos. Likewise the intermingling of trifling dia- 
logue would shatter the rhythm of these big scenes. By this 
it is certainly not meant that the dialogue writer should give 



pioneers, for instance, highly polished lines — but he should 
avoid lines which contribute nothing to the picture. Spectacular 
productions must depend a great deal upon rhythm for their 
success. 

But other pictures also demand rhythm, and very few have 
it. Some may regard rhythm as artificial, but acting is, after 
all, artificial. No play or motion picture can depict every single 
incident that might happen in a slice of real life, and most 
certainly, every speech that might be spoken in reality can 
not be spoken on the screen. 

Voices must be, for the most part, pleasing and harmonious. 
Every effort must be made to have what happens appear 
natural, but at the same time, the interest of the audience 
must be held. Actors should always remember that they are 
not speaking to a microphone, but to several million people, 
or rather, that several million people are watching their inter- 
pretation of their parts. They must also remember to keep their 
voices, as well as their bodies, in character. Of course racketeers 
and similar characters are permitted to have harsh voices, to 
a certain extent, but even they must speak distinctly. 

But keeping voices in rhythm is difficult unless proper 
dialogue is supplied, and memorized. Much of the dialogue so 
far has been rather spasmodic. Besides the voices, the various 
sounds included in a picture must also be kept in rhythm, or 
the effect upon the audience will be jarring. 

Lack of rhythm has been one of the faults with some of 
the musical productions. Songs were used with ridiculous fre- 
quency, and some were often included of such inferior qualiiy 
that it might have been better to have never released them. 
While music must have a rhythm, musical comedy is liable 
to be very lacking in rhythm unless the greatest care is taken 
The words of the dialogue must be almost as rhythmical as 
those of the songs, and both must fit together in a smooth 
pattern. 

There is rhythm even in slapstick. Perhaps it is to rhythm 
that many favorite comedians owe their popularity. Chaplin, 
Lloyd, Keaton, and Langdon, all leading comedians, and all 
depending upon the ridiculous for their popularity, at the 
same time work with far more perfected rhythm than some of 
the stars of more serious pictures. All fully realize the value 
of pantomime, and of slowing up their movements when 
necessary. And all, while slapstick artists, know how to elimi- 
nate excessive action. 

Some actors become stars because of their art, but some 
others become stars because of a type of acting which is not 
always art, but which the public grows to expect of them. 
The artist generally remains popular over a period of time, 
while the type actor loses popularity with unexplained sud- 
denness. Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and others remain 
popular because they are artists as well as actors — because 
they act — rather than merely take directing they might not 
understand. 

A few well done pictures mean more to the average star 
or featured player than a large number of mediocre ones. Of 
course, enough pictures must be made to supply the demand, 
but even so, more care can be taken with all of them. It is 
these pictures made to fill the general demand which have 
the greatest number of faults. The long-run pictures are fo" 
the most part of high calibre, but pictures which have but a 
week or so of big time are often not so great. 
(Continued on Page 36) 




**-* 






ONE of the main problems which confronted the expedi- 
tion was securing permits to collect and to photo- 
graph the Komodo Lizard. The Dutch Government very 
rightly protects the lizard, which is in some danger of becom- 
ing extinct. It is such a curiosity that it is greatly in demand 
for museums and zoological gardens. To the date of writing 
there have never been any successful cinematographic record- 
ings of the lizard in natural life outside of the sixteen thousand 
feet which we secured. 

The necessary permits being in order, a joint and co- 
operative expedition was formed for the trip to Flores Island, 
Chancellor-Stuart Field Museum and the Museum of Buiten- 
zorg, the latter under the capable leadership of Dr. de Jong. 
There were five white members in the party. 

The expedition sailed from Macassar bound for Flores 
Island in October, 1929. The little island steamer wound 
through a series of small islands, and arrived at Labuan Badjo 



The Capture and 

Photographing or 

Varanus Komodensis 

by Philip M. Chancellor, A. S. C, F. R. C. S. 

The accompanying report by Mr. Philip M. Chancellor dealing with 
the photographing of the almost extinct Varanus Komodensis, is one 
ot a series of reports which Mr. Chancellor, a member of the Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers, will present through this magazine 
in the coming months. The home of the Komodo Lizard is Flores 
island. Mr. Chancellor secured cinematographic records of these reptiles 
that in years to come should prove priceless to the scientific world. — 
Editor's Note. 

on the third day. Labuan was a small settlement whose main 
activity was pearling, an industry conducted by an Australian- 
Dutch concern. Here a few days were spent arranging for 
carriers and making test shots of the light, which proved to 
be of a very high actinic quality. We then proceeded into the 
mountains, the home of the lizard. 

Camp was established at a small rest-house sometimes used 
by the Resident for deer-shooting. The "rest-house" was en- 
tirely a bamboo and pandanas affair with three rooms. This, 
however, did very well as a kitchen, store-room and labora- 
tory. Sleeping was all under the stars. The laboratory consisted 
of a roughly made table and a box, where a changing bag 
could be operated easily, both for loading and to make tests 
in a field test tank. 

The natives thereabout had been informed of our coming 
and had selected likely spots for photographing the animals. 
The location proved to be a dried-up marsh, surrounded by 
mountains which practically formed a crater around it. A fallen 




12 



Mr. Chancellor in the "blind" photographing the lizards 



January, 1 93 1 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirteen 




A beautiful specimen of the Komodo Lizard. (Courtesy of Field Museum of Natural History!. 



tree made an excellent camera-blind. A problem presented 
itself immediately. The lizards would not come out in the full 
sunlight on account of the heat. Oddly enough, exposure to 
the sun would kill them in about an hour. For this reason 
filming them was restricted to before eight-thirty in the 
morning and after five in the afternoon. The light fortunately 
was particularly strong and the atmosphere free of haze, — 
quite the reverse of Java. Some of the shots were made with 
the sun not quite over the rim of the hills, with the subject 
in shadow. 

In the first attempt the lizards were baited to within twelve 
hundred feet of the camera, but later they were brought to 
eight hundred feet. An Akeley camera with a 17 'A" f 5.6 
Taylor-Hobson Cooke lens was used. Most of the shots were 
made at f5.6+. 

It was fascinating to see the lizards feeding. The bait was 
a colt which had died in the village. The carcass was staked to 
the ground with strong lashings to prevent its being carried 
off. The lizard would dive in up to his shoulders, and then, 
lifting his head as if in challenge, would gulp down tasty pieces 
of meat with blood and saliva dripping from his mouth. 

Certain noises would not disturb the animal. On one occa- 
sion when a feast was going on and there were two big fellows 
about, I changed four magazines and the slight click of the 
door did not disturb them in the least. Again by whistling in 
imitation of a bird to attract their attention, they would start 
and look about. There had been for some time a supposition 
that the Varanus was deaf, but evidently it was incorrect. 
One afternoon a squadron of four Dutch military aeroplanes 



flew over, and though I could not see the planes, the drone 
of the motors was plainly audible to the practically unbroken 
silence. The two lizards that were at the time feeding also 
heard it and took to the hills, not to return that day. That was 
about the last place in the world I would expect to have the 
day's shooting spoiled by aeroplanes. The Varanus could run 
with surprising speed, though they seem far too big and 
sluggish to be able to move at all. They could easily outrun 
a man, as one was chased before the camera one day. At first 
he looked puzzled and a bit undecided, but when he started 
he exercised such force that clods of dry dirt were flying 
behind him. 

In all, thirteen lizards were captured. These were distributed 
about the world in various museums, three going to Field 
Museum of Chicago where, at this time of writing, they are 
being prepared for a group. 

The natives caught them by the use of a noose and small 
hunting dogs. The lizard would stand and attempt to fight the 
dogs, while some brave soul would pass the noose over its 
head with the aid of a bamboo pole. After that they would 
close in, and, grabbing him by the tail, would bind him fast 
to a pole to which he was securely tied. However, they were 
so strong that they would work loose, and on several occasions 
we had to get up at night to make them fast. At Labuan they 
were put into suitable wooden boxes and so were trans- 
ported to Buitenzorg where the last time I saw them they 
were doing well and not minding captivity, tho there is a 
great question as to how they will live in any foreign country. 
(Continued on Page 43) 











- 



• 



Two of the huge lizards photographed by Mr. Chancellor. 



// 



N 



R 



di 



// 



oise ess Kecoraing 

Western Electric System 
by H. C. SILENT 

Development Engineer, Electrical Research Products, Inc. 






IT IS common knowledge that, when a sound print of the 
variable density type is played in a reproducing machine, 
the volume of the reproduction is low if the print is dark 
and if a compensating adjustment is not made by turning up 
the fader. In addition, the ground noise of the film is also 
low. It has been a problem to take advantage of this latter 
fact with the former methods of recording because the mere 
act of printing the sound track dark, while it reduced the 
ground noise, also reduced the volume of sound from the film. 
This, of course, was undesirable. In the method of recording 
which is now being employed, these undesirable effects are 
overcome by regulating the density of the sound track at the 
recorder automatically. 

It is well-known that there is a particular value of density 
or transmission of the photographic emulsion which permits 
of the loudest volume from the film without exceeding the 
photographic limits of good quality. Deviation from this point 
is possible without distortion if the volume or percentage 
modulation applied to the film is reduced. This can be taken 
advantage of by causing the film to be dark on low volume 
modulation, and as modulation becomes higher we lighten the 
film to the point where it has the greatest possible carrying 



capacity. If this can be done without distorting the volume of 
sound reproduced by the film, then we shall have a condition 
where the ground noise from the film is low during periods of 
low sound. Thus quiet intervals in the sound will be quiet 
and the ground noise, even though it rises with the sound, 
will always be more or less drowned out by the increased sound 
so that there is an effect of considerably reduced ground noise. 
In other words there is produced a constant signal to noise 
ratio in which the signal is always very predominant over the 
noise, and since noise is most noticeable in the quiet inter- 
vals there is a very real reduction in the amount of the ground 
noise. 

There are a number of methods by means of which this var- 
iation in the transmission of the film can be effected. If we 
examine for a moment the light-valve employed in the West- 
ern Electric System of Recording, we shall see how one of 
these methods can be applied. In the past, this system has 
employed a light-valve in which two ribbons were normally 
spaced .001" apart. These ribbons were vibrated by the sound 
currents, moving but a slight distance on weak currents and a 
considerable distance on loud currents. The strongest currents 
would just bring the ribbons into contact as they vibrated. The 
space between them was therefore greater than necessary to 





\ 




















































































































































































\A 




















































































































































































\B 
































































































































































DEN 


5ITY 




















.1 .2 .3 A .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 ID i.l 12 13 14 15 16 



100 90 60 70 60 50 40 



30 20 15 10 9 8 

PER CENT TRANSMISSION 



FIGURE 1 
Approximate Variation of Reproduced Noise vs. Density of Sound Track. 



14 



January, 1 93 1 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Fifteen 



permit the free vibration of the ribbons on weak currents. A 
sound track recorded under this method had a constant den- 
sity corresponding to the one mil spacing between the ribbons 
and this density was caused to vary with the voice currents 
but maintained always its constant average. 

Under the new system of recording an auxiliary electrical 
circuit is associated with the light-valve, so that when the 
sound currents are small and the ribbons need vibrate over 
but a very small amplitude, they are brought close together 
and this small vibration almost entirely fills the space between 
them. Then, as the sound increases in loudness, so that the 
ribbons are required to vibrate with a greater amplitude, the 
spacing is automatically increased by the electrical circuit, 
so that it is always just a little more than sufficient to permit 
this vibration of the ribbons. This is equivalent to altering 
the average spacing of the ribbons, so that it is at all times 
proportional to the envelope of the sound currents. Now, if 
we regard the amount of light which passes through the 
average spacing of the ribbons to the film, we find that this 
light is considerably reduced during moments of silence or of 
low sounds, which results in a dark sound print. As the ribbons 
open up for increased sound currents, the amount of light 
correspondingly increases and a lighter sound print results. 
Since the actual vibration of the ribbons under the action of 
the sound currents has been undisturbed in this process, the 
amount of change of light which reaches the film and in turn 
the reproducing photoelectric cell has been unaltered even 
though the total amount of light has been decreased. Since 
the amount of change of light is unaffected, there is no 
volume distortion on reproduced sound as a result of this 
method of recording. 

The extent to which the light-valve ribbons may be closed 
during quiet intervals is necessarily limited. They must not be 
completely closed, because it is not possible to construct a 



device which can instantaneously sample the amplitude of the 
sound currents and set the ribbons to their proper spacing 
without introducing expensive delay circuits as auxiliary equip- 
ment. Therefore, in setting up the device, the spacing of the 
ribbons is reduced to something considerably less than their 
normal spacing but not as far as complete closure. Furthermore, 
the latitude of the photographic emulsion is not infinite and 
also limits the extent to which the closure of the ribbons may 
be effected without exceeding the straight line part of the 
emulsion characteristic. Since this new method contemplates 
recording over the same part of the film characteristic, and 
within the limits of this characteristic previously utilized, 
there is no change in film technique. The processing which 
produced the best quality of reproduction with the former 
method gives the best quality with this new method. 

Referring to Fig. 1, which is an approximate characteristic 
of the ground noise obtained from film of various densities, 
the point A indicates the approximate density employed in 
normal recording. By shifting the ribbons to have something 
less than their normal spacing, we can increase the density 
during the quiet portions of the sound track to point B. This 
results, then, in a reduction of the noise in the quiet intervals. 
Then, as the sound currents are applied to the valve, its spacing 
automatically varies, so that it at all times has sufficient carry- 
ing capacity, as represented by the spacing between the rib- 
bons, to carry the applied sound currents. A slight amount 
of margin is always established as a factor of safety, in order 
that a sound which builds up suddenly will not clash the rib- 
bons. The manner in which the carrying capacity of the light 
valve or, in other words, the spacing of the ribbons varies with 
the applied sound currents is illustrated in Fig. 2. It will be 
seen from this that for weak sound currents below a certain 
minimum amplitude the ribbon spacing is always the minimum, 
and the average spacing is unvarying. As the sound currents 
(Continued on Page 20) 



(J 

o 
z 
> 
a. 
or. 

5 





























: 

/ 
/ 

/ 


























/ 

/ 


























/ 
/ 
/ 


























/ 


























/ 

/ 


, 


LV 


FULL 


OPEN 












Ji 


t/ 






/ 






















V 


1 




r/ 






N 


R. 


















1 


/ 






















LOPD 


ilNG 




/ 

/ 










' 


F 








L 


V MIC* 


/ 
/ 






M- 


-MAR 


GIN 
















/ 
/ 
/ 








N.F 


t- NOI 


SE RE 


DUCT 


ON 










/ 
/ 


























/ 
/ 


























/ 





























INPUT 

FIGURE 2 
Light Valve Carrying Capacity vs. Input. 



Stand ardization of Photo -Electric Cells 



by N. R. CAMPBELL 



A Communication from the Staff of the Research Laboratories of the General Electric Company, Ltd., Wembley, England. 

Courtesy of the Physical and Optical Societies, London 



PHOTO-ELECTRIC cells are now regular articles of com- 
merce, but there is a very wide divergence in their manu- 
facture. There are some purposes for which every maker 
of photo-electric cells offers to provide cells; and yet those 
made by different makers for the same purpose agree in 
hardly a single feature. The object of these notes is to suggest 
that it is desirable that photo-electric cells should be standard- 
ized in some respects at least. 

Standardization may have two objects. It may seek to fix by 
convention certain properties of the standardized article, or 
it may seek to establish some agreed system of describing 
its properties. The two kinds of standardization are, of course, 
properly applicable to different kinds of properties. The first 
kind is applicable to properties that do not affect materially the 
efficiency of the article or to those that affect it so little that 
the gain arising from uniformity is greater than the loss arising 
from standardizing any but the most efficient form. The 
second kind is applicable to the properties that directly deter- 
mine efficiency. 

In the matter of photo-electric cells there is room for both 
these kinds of uniformity. A very large proportion of the 
cells sold at the present time (perhaps 90 per cent.) are used 
for the reproduction of talking films and for picture teleg- 
raphy. The efficiency of cells for these purposes is not affected 
very greatly by their geometrical form or by the arrangement 
of their terminals, while any lack of uniformity in this matter 
makes it impossible to substitute the cells of one maker for 
those of another; users of cells and, in the long run, all but 
the least competent makers must suffer from this lack of 
interchangeability. Here is a clear case for the first kind of 
standardization. On the other hand, the standardization in 
this sense of the cathode emission, which is one of the main 
factors determining the efficiency of the cell, would be dis- 
astrous to progress. Here, however, there is room for a stan- 
dardization of the second kind which would persuade makers 
to give data of the emission that they offer according to some 
uniform system, so that the promise of one maker may be 
directly compared with that of another. 

Standard Gas-Filled Cells 

Let us start with the first problem and consider, first, size 
and shape. 

Designers of talking-film and picture-telegraphy apparatus 
like their cells to be small. On the other hand, there is a 
limit to the size of cells below which they become difficult 
to make and — possibly this is not exactly the same limit — 
below which the highest efficiency is unattainable. Maximum 
dimensions for cells and minimum dimensions for the appar- 
atus to take them should therefore be fixed, preferably in the 
form of the dimensions of a cylinder enveloping the cell. For 
the diameter of this cylinder 45 mm. may be suggested. Some 
existing cells have greater diameters and some existing ap- 
paratus smaller diameters; but this appears to be a reasonable 
compromise between the needs of makers and users. 

The length of the cylinder will be determined in part by the 
terminals and by the optical arrangements. The use of a 
standard 4-pin valve cap for at least one of the terminals is 
becoming general; it should be prescribed universally, for it 
provides the most convenient way of supporting the cell in a 
fixed position. It is less certain whether both terminals should 
be connected to separate pins on the same cap. The objection 
to this plan is insufficient insulation. There is no difficulty in 
obtaining an insulation resistance of 10 megohms, which is 

16 



sufficient when the cell is to be used with rapidly varying 
lights; for then it is necessary to connect across the cell a re- 
sistence of not more than 1 megohm. But cells of this type, 
though primarily intended for use with such lights, are also 
suitable for other purposes, which may require an insulation re- 
sistance of at least 100 megohms; this is not easily attainable 
when both leading-in wires are brought out at the same end 
of the cell into the same cap. However, it may be observed 
that the leads, even if they are not brought out at the same 
end of the cell, may be connected to pins on the same cap 
by means of an exterior wire; this wire can be severed and 
separate connection made, if higher insulation is required. Ac- 
cordingly the question may be left to the decision of users. If 
a second terminal, independent of the valve cap, is used, it 
should be a screw terminal of standard size, and a convention 
laid down as to which of the terminals is to be the anode and 
which the cathode. 

The position of the window must now be fixed; by "win- 
dow" is here meant generally the part of the wall of the cell 
on which the light should fall so as to strike the cathode in 
the most appropriate fashion. The centre of the window should 
be at some standard distance from the bottom of the valve 
cap and the top of the base into which the pins of the cap 
fit. 55 mm. may be suggested here; this would bring the 
centre about 25 mm. above the junction of the valve cap and 
the glass of the cell; but valve caps differ a little in length. 
Further the area of the window should be prescribed. So long 
as all the light enters the window, the efficiency of the cell 
generally increases somewhat as the area of the window is 
diminished; hence a minimum area should be prescribed. It is 
probably sufficient that the cell should use efficiently all the 
light falling on a circle 15 mm. in diameter. 

When these matters are fixed, makers will not differ very 
widely in the overall length of the cell, although those who 
prefer the cylindrical form will want more length than those 
who prefer the spherical. The length of the enveloping cylinder 
might be fixed at 120 mm. The framework into which the 
maker will have to fit his cell and for which the user will have 
to provide in his apparatus will then be that shown in the ac- 
companying figure. 

Lastly, there is the anode voltage. Here, at present, there 
is wide divergence of practice. Some cells on the market can- 
not be used with voltages as high as 100, others are apparent- 
ly designed for voltages greater than 300. A low anode voltage 
presents advantages to the user who has to provide the H. T. 
supply, but, if it is very low, it necessarily involves some 
sacrifice of efficiency. Up to a certain limit, increase of anode 
voltage, and consequent decrease of the pressure of the gas- 
filling, can be made to give greater magnification, especially 
under light varying with high frequency. Accordingly it is 
desirable to fix the standard voltage as high as other consider- 
ations permit. 

In the circumstances in which cells of the type that we are 
considering will be used, it is probably necessary to suppose 
that the cell will be connected permanently to the standard 
voltage. The cells are liable to be subjected occasionally to very 
great illuminations, and it is necessary that they should be 
made so that a glow discharge cannot be maintained in them 
by this voltage, however great the illumination; that is to say, 
the standard voltage must be less, not only than the starting 
voltage of the discharge, but also than its stopping voltage. 
Since the illumination to which the cells are subjected in 



January, ] 931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP HE R 



Seventeen 



normal use is so small that, if they were to be subjected to 
no greater illumination, they could be used at voltages approach- 
ing very nearly the starting potential in the dark, the limita- 
tion thus imposed involves a very considerable sacrifice of out- 
put; the current will often not be as much as a quarter of 
what it might be if the voltage could be adjusted to the illu- 
mination. This is probably unavoidable; but makers of cells 
should aim at making the difference between the starting and 
stopping potentials as small as possible, and the magnification 
below the stopping potential as great as possible, so that the 
sacrifice may be as small as possible. Of course the limitation 
of the voltage applied to the cells in this particular connection 
will not prevent users who can work with adjustable voltages 
using them at full efficiency. 

Other Cells 

Cells made according to this standard specification would serve 
for many purposes other than that for which they are primarily 
intended. But they would not serve all purposes. In the class 
of gas-filled cells intended for use with white light, very much 
larger cells are occasionally required (e. g. for television by 
the scanning-spot method) and also very much smaller cells. 
Further, there are the distinct classes of vacuum cells in- 
tended for accurate measurement and of cells for use with 
ultra-violet light. But the number of these cells sold is so 
small and the variety of the purposes to which they are put is 
so large that it would be unwise to attempt at present any 
standardization of the first kind. 

Specification of Emission 

We turn now to standardization of the second kind, that is 
to say, the prescription of standard methods of stating the 
properties of cells. 

The most important property is the relation of the current 
through the cell to the illumination. This relation depends, of 
course, on the nature of the light and the voltage applied to 
the cell. In vacuum cells the second factor needs no considera- 
tion; the voltage for which data are given should be the satura- 
tion voltage. Further, since in vacuum cells the current is 
closely proportional to the illumination, when the nature of 
the light is constant, the relation should be described by giv- 
ing the emission, that is to say, the ratio of the saturated 
current to the rate at which radiation falls on the window. 
Since this ratio varies somewhat with the mode of incidence of 
the illumination, perpendicular incidence upon the window of 
the cell should be specified. There still remains some am- 
biguity, because the cathode is not always uniform over its 
surface, and the emission may vary with the part of the window 
illuminated; the average value should be given, obtained by an 
illumination uniform over the whole window. 

For scientific purposes the most suitable way in which to 
describe the variation of the emission with the nature of the 
light is to give a curve relating o> and 7, where o y is the 
emission for wave-length Y. But the question of units remains. 
o y is sometimes given in coulombs per calorie, sometimes in 
coulombs per erg, and sometimes in amperes per watt. The 
first method has historical priority, but it is less convenient 
practically than the third, which is, moreover, the method uni- 
versally adopted for stating thermionic emission. 

When cells are to be used with visible light, this is not the 
best method for practical purposes. The light to which such 
cells are most often subjected is that from a gas-filled in- 
candescent lamp, and data referred to this light are essential. 
The color temperature of the tungsten filament may vary from 
2600°K. to 3100° K., according to the size and life of the 
lamp; it would probably be sufficient to take as a standard a 
single temperature, say 2800° K. The emission for such light 
should be given in amperes per incident lumen, or per incident 
watt; lumens are to be preferred, partly because lamps are 
now usually rated in lumens, partly because, if watts are used, 
there is liable to be confusion between the watts consumed 
in the lamp and the watts radiated by it. Further, if a spectral 



distribution curve is given (and it is desirable) , it should take 
into account the distribution of energy in the spectrum of 
this source. A curve giving simply o> is misleading, because it 
fails to take into account the much smaller amount of energy 
available at the shorter wave-lengths. If such a curve is given 
for a potassium cell and a caesium-on-silver oxide cell, the 
maximum of the potassium curve is higher than that of the 
caesium, and it might be concluded that their emissions under 
white light were of the same order; actually that of the 
caesium is much higher, because its maximum lies in a region 
where far more energy is available. We suggest that the ordi- 




Window 



Valve cap 



nates of the curve should be, not o v , but o y P y , where P y is 
proportional to Planck's function for the standard temperature. 
The area under the curve between two ordinates will then be 
proportional to the current obtained in response to that part 
of the radiation from the source which would be isolated by a 
filter perfectly transparent between these ordinates and opaque 
elsewhere. The factor of proportionality should be stated by 
giving the factor by which the product of this area in cm. 2 by 
the incident illumination in lumens (or alternatively in watts) 
must be multiplied, in order to obtain the current in amperes 
(or alternatively microamperes). On the other hand, when the 
emission outside the visible spectrum, and particularly in the 
ultra-violet, is given, there is no reason to give anything but 
o,; for the illuminants used vary so greatly in their spectral 
distribution that this will always have to be taken into account 
in estimating the current. 

Less complete methods of stating the spectral distribution 
of the sensitivity are also worthy of consideration. Thus there 
might be given the mean emission for each of a series of wave- 
length ranges, e.g. 700-600, 600-500, . . . mM; or the range 
of wave-length over which the emission does not fall below 
some prescribed minimum, together with the wave-length 
for maximum emission; or any of the other alternatives that 
will suggest themselves. If such methods are adopted, the 
emission should be given in amperes or microamperes per watt 
of energy incident on the window. 

(Continued on Page 44) 



Happy New Year! 



NOW COMES the season of resolutions, most of which we 
all break within a few weeks. Sometimes we feel that this 
business of resolving to do this or that, or not to do this or 
that, is wasted effort. However, if our resolution is good and 
we stick to it for only a week, our guess is that the world, 
perhaps, is better for it. 

This has been a pretty rough year for a lot of us. The old 
wolf has howled at many a door, and the bank roll has become 
thinner than a sheet of Scotch tissue paper — but, it might have 
been worse. And present indications make us feel that things 
will be much brighter during the coming year. 

As far as the American Cinematographer is concerned, the 
past year has been unusually kind. Circulation has increased 
more rapidly than any year in its history. Business has been 
excellent. 

To all of you who have been responsible for this successful 
year, we extend our heartfelt wish for a Happy and Prosperous 
1931. 

Costs! 

WE KNEW it was coming! This matter of bankers sug- 
gesting that negative costs be pared! And now Mr. 
Harley L. Clarke, President of the Fox organization, makes 
said suggestion. 

Mr. Clarke, being a capable businessman with much ex- 
perience in finance and public utility management, suggests 
that a top figure of $400,000 be set as negative cost. That no 
picture go beyond that in cost. You see, Mr. Clarke believes in 
control of manufacturing cost in proportion to earning power. 
Sound and logical reasoning makes him advance the idea of 
making pictures with the same idea in mind. 

What Mr. Clarke, being a wise businessman, cannot under- 
stand is why invest sums from $1,000,000 to $3,000,000 in 
a picture when the potential profit is a dubious factor. Rather 
good judgment he shows, at that. 

Of course, there are a lot of individuals in Hollywood who 
are beginning to shout that Mr. Clarke is all wrong, or words 
to that effect. Naturally, for there are a lot of useless heads 
that would have to drop by the wayside if his idea should be 
put into practice. If Mr. Clarke's suggestion would do noth- 
ing but eliminate some of those useless heads it would be 
worth while. Everyone connected with the picture business 
knows that there is a lot of dead wood attached to all the 
studios. If this were removed and the picture making business 
placed on a sound business basis there would be better times 
for those who really contribute to the making of pictures. 

This writer has no quarrel with any of the dead wood, but 
he has often wondered, for example, why when an excellent 
director is hired to direct a picture, a gentleman called a 
supervisor has to be paid a big salary to see that the director, 
who has perhaps forgotten more in an hour than the super- 
visor has ever known, does his work well. 

Perfectly ridiculous it seems, to pay a man to supervise the 
preparation of a story when said man sometimes cannot speak 
correct English. But it is done. Maybe Mr. Clarke has been 
wondering about that angle himself. More money paid to the 



technical men who for years have been relegated to the back- 
ground, less to useless deadwood — that is this writer's sug- 
gestion. Then, perhaps, the studios would be able to keep 
negative costs down. 

Some are already saying that entertainment value cannot 
be placed on the screen at $400,000 per picture. Well, we bet 
a plugged nickel that Columbia has been doing it for much 
less than that, and Columbia has given some good entertain- 
ment. 

Wide Film 

WIDE FILM, which for a time was practically the sole topic 
of conversation wherever two or more members of the 
film industry met, apparently has been relegated to the back- 
ground for some time to come. At least, so it would seem; 
for now one finds himself being politely but firmly ushered out 
of any office in which he mentions wide film. 

Sex Stuff! 

THERE is a certain type of individual who apparently would 
sell his own soul or his grandmother's dead body for a few 
nickels. At any rate, that is the impression one sometimes 
gets when he hears of doings of some producers. I do not 
mean producers of the better class. I refer to those who 
duck around the corners when the shooting begins and who 
dirty up the motion picture bed by their manner of dealing. 

Just heard that a film dealing with homo-sexual idea is 
being put out of State rights. It was shot by a foreign company. 
Maybe all right for those who have that type of mind that 
leans to delving into things of that sort. But not for the 
theatres of America where our wives and families go for 
recreation, amusement and education. Without a doubt such 
a subject, exploited properly, would drag in a lot of the morbid 
morons and bring in a let of dollars. But such dollars in this 
writer's opinion are dirty. We of the picture industry have 
been fighting censorship. It is such tripe that brings it on. 

Congratulations 

MR. MARTIN QUIGLEY is to be congratulated upon secur- 
ing Red Kann as editor of Motion Picture Daily, his new 
daily publication. In Kann he has secured a man who will 
be a real editor and who will carry with him the respect of 
the industry. Under his able guidance the paper should 
prosper. We congratulate Mr. Kann on being associated with 
Mr. Quigley, also. They are both fortunate. 

Greetings 

WE take this opportunity of welcoming Gilbert Warrenton, 
Jr., to Hollywood. The young man, whose father is one 
of Hollywood's best known cinematographers, arrived December 
27, and weighed 7% pounds. 

His dad says he will be an A. S. C. man some day. If he 
is as good a photographer as his dad, we hope so. 



An Interview with Lewis Milestone 



by HAL HALL 



WRITERS cannot grind out excellent stories to order in 
a period of a few weeks. The weakest link in the 
motion picture chain is the story. Dialogue in many 
otherwise good pictures is inane. In some cases it is in- 
excusably stupid. 

Dialogue should be one of the greatest picture assets. 

If picture artistry could keep pace with the amazing de- 
velopment made in the technical field of picture making we 
would soon attain a standard well nigh perfection. 

There you have a few pertinent observations from a motion 
picture director who turned out what the industry has pro- 
claimed the finest picture of the year. Lewis Milestone, director 
of "All Quiet On the Western Front." 

When a man like Milestone speaks he usually says some- 
thing. He said several mouthsful when he made the above 
remarks. A half hour with him and this writer knew fairly 
well why Milestone is an excellent director — why he makes 
pictures that are good. In the first place, he talks but little 
and thinks much. In the second place, he has intestinal forti- 
tude enough to stand upon his own feet and say what he thinks, 
and then prove he is right by making pictures that are a credit 
to the motion picture industry. 

His slant on talkies is particularly interesting. Since sound 
swept into the picture business a lot of directors who in the 
silent days were on top of the pile, have gone by the boards. 
Sound proved too much for them. This writer has heard many 
of them wail and lay the blame at the door of sound. But not 
Mr. Milestone. 

"Sound has been the greatest asset that has been handed 
the director," says Milestone. "This is the way I see it. A man 
who is deaf and dumb goes into a grocery store and wants some 
sugar. He has to go through some peculiar motions before he 
can make the grocer understand what he wants. But overnight 
he acquires speech. He goes into the store the next morning 
and says 'Give me five pounds of sugar.' Just like that. Simple, 
isn't it? Well, that is the case with the picture making and 
directors. In the old silent days a director had to sweat blood 
many times to devise a way of putting over a situation. Today 
with sound someone simply tells it in a few words. 

"And that brings me to dialogue," continued Milestone. 
"You hear a lot of picture people yelling that there is too much 
dialogue. Well, perhaps they are right — too much dialogue of 
the kind we have been given in our stories. 

"But ... let me go on record right now with this ... I 
maintain that we can hold a screen audience for two hours 
with a screen play that is filled with conversation just as easily 
as you can hold them in the theatre of the spoken drama 
with a play of conversation. However, the dialogue, in con- 
versation, must be scintillating. Scintillating conversation can 
hold and entertain just as well as action, many times better. 
Take the plays of Shakespeare for an example. They have come 
down through the years because of the scintillating conversa- 
tion. So with the screen play. If an audience in the legitimate 
theatre can be held for two hours with the brilliant lines of a 

; Shaw, Molnar, Chekhov or a Coward play, the same can be 
true with the screen. In everyday life we enjoy listening to a 

| brilliant conversation by the hour, but we are bored to tears 
if the conversation is stupid. So it is with pictures. 

"But, sad to relate, most of the dialogue is inane and stupid. 
! But this is not the fault of the writers. I have no quarrel with 
jthem. They are to be pitied. Many a magnificent playwright 
jhas been brought out here and after being shown to a box of 



an office has been given a few weeks in which to turn out a 
screen play to order. That cannot be done. The ordinary good 
playwright takes a year to write a play. And that play is not 
written to order, either. It is a brain-child of the writer. That 
is why that play will run for perhaps two years in one theatre 
in New York and continue to run throughout the country. It 
has a real story and brilliant lines. In short, it was not turned 
out to order in a few weeks. And as long as writers are given 
that handicap in the picture business we will have poor dialogue. 

"I am not attaching undue importance to dialogue. In 'All 
Quiet On the Western Front' you will recall that I depended 
mostly on action and psychological reactions. But when the 
characters spoke they had real thoughts to utter. Remarque 
put them there. 

"In 'Front Page' which I am doing now I must depend upon 
dialogue more than action. With the brilliance, virility and 
humor of the lines, and with the advanced sound technique 
to use, the responsibility for its success or failure rests upon 
my own shoulders." 

And right there is where Mr. Milestone differs from so many 
people in the picture industry. He is willing to assume responsi- 
bility and stand or fall with his work. No supervisors to tell 
him what to do. "Today I am freelancing," he says, "because 
I am determined to produce and direct pictures for which I 
can be responsible. There can be no set rules for the picturizing 
of a story. You cannot use factory methods. In my brief career 
as a director I have enjoyed versatility. Comedy in 'Two Ara- 
bian Knights', melodrama in 'The Racket,' tragedy in 'All Quiet 
On the Western Front,' and now comedy-drama in 'Front 
Page.' And in 'Front Page' I expect we will have success 
principally because of the sparkling dialogue written by Charles 
MacArthur, the author." 

And then Milestone turned to the technical end and paid 
a compliment to cameramen and sound engineers. Throughout 
the years the cameramen have been steadily advancing in their 
art, he declares, and now the sound engineers are doing like- 
wise. 

"The technicians of the industry," he declares, "have indeed 
set a pace that will necessitate a terrific effort to follow. During 
the six months I have been away in Europe such progress has 
been made in talking picture technique that I am amazed. 
This progress in technique should prove a real inspiration to 
all of us. From our directorial, writing and producing points 
of view, we must strive to take every advantage of the new 
developments placed at our disposal by these technical geniuses. 

"While the technicians have been laboring day and night to 
perfect sound inventions that make talking pictures possible, 
not enough attention has been paid to the writing and telling 
of stories. Our weakest link is the story. That must be improved. 

"As I look about me in this industry and see the work that 
the technical men are doing and have done it makes me proud 
of the fact that I started in pictures as a technical student, 
thence to become a film editor. And as a student I shall con- 
tinue to sit at the feet of the masters." 

So, there you have a few real thoughts from a real thinker 
and doer. There may be many who will disagree with him. 
There always are in the picture business. But — he insists upon 
standing upon his own feet, and he has given us something 
to look upon in "All Quiet On the Western Front." One rather 
likes taking his hat off to such a man. 



19 



Twenty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



January, 1 93 1 



Noiseless Recording 

(Continued from Page 15) 
build up to near their maximum amplitude, it is seen that the 
average spacing of the ribbons (or their carrying capacity) is 
gradually increased up to a maximum which corresponds to 
that of the normal light valve. As the input is further in- 
creased, there is no further increase in the ribbon spacing, and 
clash occurs as in the normal light-valve. 



decibels is a very noticeable reduction and permits an extension 
of the volume range to a point where sound previously com- 
pletely obscured in ground noise becomes definitely a part of 
the reproduction with a consequent considerable enhancing of 
the dramatic effect and naturalness. The practical elimination 
of this ground noise in the theatre gives to the audience a 
feeling of being present at the action and a removal of the 
mechanical from the sound. The average theatre goer's reaction 




Figure 3. Noise Reduction Amplifier 




Figure 4. Noise Reduction Control Unit 



It is entirely possible to continue the carrying capacity of 
the ribbons upward by allowing their spacing to exceed the 
normal spacing. No useful purpose is served by this, however, 
since the carrying capacity of the photographic emulsion would 
be exceeded by so doing and an effect equivalent to clashing 
of the light-valve would be obtained. Therefore, the device 
has been purposely arranged so that photographic overload and 
light-valve overload occur simultaneously, if the recording lamp 
has been set for normal recording. 

The general principles of noise reduction for sound records 
on film may be applied to other than the present form of 
light-valve recorders by making circuit changes as required by 
the particular type of equipments involved. 

Operation of the apparatus employed in this recording system 
is relatively simple, although considerable time and effort have 
been spent in its development. The equipment is divided into 
two units — an amplifier located usually at the location of the 
main amplifiers and a control unit fed by the amplifier and 
located at the film recorder. These units are shown in Fig. 3 
and Fig. 4. Adjustment of these units is simple and means 
are provided for checking the adjustments quickly and at fairly 
frequent intervals. 

At the present time commercial recordings are being made 
with a reduction of ten decibels in the ground noise. It is 



expected that as more experience is gained in the use of this 
equipment, the noise reduction may be increased. Even ten 
seems to be one of finding the picture "easy to listen to" and 
possessing a naturalness which all but places it in the class of 
"original" instead of "reproduction." 



THE ABOVE PAPER was presented at a meeting of the 
Technicians Branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts 
and Sciences, held at the Universal Studios, Thursday, Decem- 
ber 11, 1930. It was accompanied by the presentation of 
special demonstration reels and a scene from the Paramount 
picture, "The Right To Love," which was recorded with the 
noise reduction device described above. This paper was pub- 
lished by the Academy and permission given for reproduction 
in this magazine. IThe Editor). 



Fox Newsreel Outfit- Going to South Seas 

FOX is planning to send a news-reel unit to the South Seas 
to secure stock shots as well as material for its reel. The 
trip will occupy about eight months, the party leaving in 
January. 




c 



a £&»M'ZP*>^ 



{ ^»jhm 



c ^-» 



=**s 



» -» -» .-» -» --» /?//* ^rr* <— »-« ~ - 




(Advertisement) 



21 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



January, 1 93 



"Versions" 

(Continued from Page 10) 
Fred Bacos, who served in the same capacity with Rex Ingram. 
Several of the heads of the technical departments are former 
Hollywood men. Prominent among them are H. V. McAleenan, 
the Chief Recording Engineer; A. Ellis, the Chief Cutter, and 
Phil Tannura, the head of the Camera Department. Other 
former Hollywood Cinematographers now at Joinville are Harry 
Stradling, Georges Rizard, and Teddy Paull. 

With these exceptions, the technical personnel is mainly 
European. The unanimous opinion of American film people 
who have travelled in Europe has heretofore been that the 
reason for the general technical inferiority of European produc- 
tions has been due not to a lack of expert technicians, but 
to the lack of sufficient and proper equipment for them to 
work with. In a recent interview, Ernst Lubitsch recalled the 
fact that when he made one of his most famous early films 
in Germany, his lighting equipment consisted of exactly eight 
lamps, converted from wartime use. Of course, this situation 
has been more or less improved during the intervening years, 
but the limitation has still existed. It was the unavoidable result 
of the infrequent production which, for various reasons, could 
not be avoided. Yet there were — and are — many trained 
technicians there, capable of obtaining results of surprising 
quality even with the limited facilities that existed. Today, 
with ample technical and financial resources behind them, 
these men are being given a chance to prove their capability 
by entering production at an unheard-of scale. 

The proportions of this new large-scale production can per- 
haps be best appreciated when it is recalled that all the studios 
of France together produced but 67 feature films in 1927, 
and 94 in 1928, while the 1930 production schedule at the 
Paramount Joinville plant alone calls for the production of 
1 10 feature pictures and more than fifty short-subjects. 

This production is regularly in at least four languages — 
French, German, Italian, and Swedish, while occasional pro- 
ductions are made in at least ten other tongues. A glance 
at the production records of the Joinville plant shows that: 
20 productions have been made in French; 18 in Spanish; 1G 
in German; 14 in Swedish; 12 in Italian; 8 in Polish; 6 in 
Czecho-Slovakian ; 7 in Hungarian; 5 in Portuguese; 3 in 
Roumanian; 2 in Dutch; and one each in Croatian, Norwegian, 
and Japanese. 

The method of making these foreign-language productions 
has been planned with an eye to removing all possible hazard 
from production. The English version is first made in the Holly- 
wood or New York studio in the usual manner. When this has 
been completed and previewed, the response is carefully 
studied, to determine whether or not the picture is likely to 
prove sufficient of a success to warrant foreign-language pro- 
duction. If the verdict is favorable, all possible information 
on the production of this English version is at once forwarded 
to the Paris plant. A complete script is sent, together with 
blue-prints and photographs of all the sets, costumes, etc., 
diagrams of each shot — including placement of lights and 
microphones — copies of the various production schedules, cost- 
sheets, etc., and, finally, a print of the completed film. From 
this pattern, the Paris Studio Staff make the required foreign- 
language versions. The scripts are translated by expert scenar- 
ists who are natives of the countries for which the different 
versions are intended, and who make whatever minor changes 
may be necessary in the treatment in order to perfectly please 
the residents of that particular country. Then the picture is 
cast, produced and edited in the usual manner. 

Each foreign-language company is a complete unit in itself. 
Each comprises not only a director and cast, but a complete 
technical crew, and operates as an independent unit. The 
French unit may start first, to be followed closely by the 
German one, which, in turn, may be followed by the Swedish 
or Italian troupe, and so on down the line. The various 
schedules, however, are arranged so that there is no confusion 
between the units, and no friction. 



By this method, it has been found that each foreign-languagj 
version can be made at a minimum production cost, which 
is as a rule approximately 33 > '■ below the production cost 
of the American-made, English version of the same film. This 
saving is due to two main causes. In the first place, salaries 
and material-costs are appreciably lower in Europe, and in the 
second place, the expenses of story-preparation, etc., which 
forms so large a part of both production time and cost, are 
practically eliminated for the foreign versions. 

The question then arises, is all this trouble economically 
justified? The answer to this is, most emphatically, yes. It 
must be remembered that in the days of silent films, by far 
the larger part of the revenue derived from a picture was that 
derived from the foreign market. This is attested by the fact 
that a number of independent producers in Hollywood 
prospered solely on the strength of their foreign releases, 
having very inferior releasing arrangements in this country. 
and, in some cases, none at all. That foreign market still exists. 
Its theatres are still exhibiting pictures, and still demanding 
films to show. Furthermore, these theatres are, in increasing 
numbers, being equipped with quality sound-apparatus. 
Therefore, foreign-language talking-pictures must be made for 
these theatres. And they must be made to talk the languages 
which the patrons of these theatres understand. For the last 
fifteen years these audiences have shown an increasing 
preference for American pictures. This indicates that American 
story-material and construction appeal to them. Therefore, the 
only remaining question is how to give them this type of 
entertainment, in the form of talking pictures which speak 
their own language, in the most economical way. And that, 
in the experience of one of America's oldest and most success- 
ful producing firms, is the method outlined above. In this 
fast-changing industry, it may not be the method of tomorrow, 
but today it is the most efficient method of providing cinematic 
entertainment for the millions throughout the world who have 
by their patronage helped to make the motion picture the 
institution it is today, and who are, in consequence, entitled 
to the best in screen entertainment. 



Acoustical Engineers Convene in Hollywood 

LATEST developments in acoustical research were discussed 
_ at a series of meetings held in Hollywood December 12-13 
when the Acoustical Society of America met in semi-annual 
convention with the co-operation of the Technical Bureau of 
the Academy of M. P. Arts and Sciences. Among the papers 
relating to the motion picture field were: 

"Acoustic Power Levels in Sound Picture Reproduction," 
by S. K. Wolf and W. j. Sette, Electrical Research Products; 
"Direct Reading Phase Meter for Audio Frequencies," L. J. 
Sivian, Bell Telephone Laboratories; "Measurement of Rever- 
beration Time and its Application to Acoustics of Talking 
Pictures," F. L. Hopper, ERPI; "Problems of Sound Picture 
Production," M. C. Levee, Paramount Studios; "Sound in the 
Artistry of Motion Pictures," Lester Cowan, Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Academy; "Factors Affecting Quality of Sound 
Pictures," F. L. Hunt, Bell Laboratories; "Relation of Room 
Acoustics to Sound Pictures," C F. Eyring, Bell Laboratories; 
"Combined Reverberation Time of Recording and Reproducing," 
A. P. Hill, ERPI; "Power Requirements for Theatres," S. B. 
Epstein and J. G. Stewart, RCA Photophone. 



RCA Photophone to Record Films in India 

MADAN THEATRES, LTD., controlling more than 100 
theatres in India, Burma and Ceylon, has acquired a 
complete sound recording unit and seven sound reproducing 
equipments from R-C-A Photophone, and upon arrival of the 
sound reproducing apparatus in Calcutta, will begin production 
of sound pictures for exclusive exhibition in its chain of the- 
atres. F. Madan, director of Madan Theatres, has been in New 
York for the past two months. 





ALL 



The Boothe Company 

A I ii in in ii in Contest Ends on 




ANUARY 1 DTH 



15 



200. 00 in Cash Prizes 

YOUR Entry Must Be in the Office of the 

American Cinematographer by Midnight, January 

15th, 1931, to be elegible. SEND IT NOW! 

RULES OF CONTEST 

1. The BOOTHE COMPANY, ALUMINUM MODEL — CASH PRIZE CONTEST began with October issue of the AMERICAN CINEMATOC- 
RAPHER and ends at midnight of January 15th, 1931. Winners' names will be announced in the February number of this magazine. 
It is not necessary to be a subscriber to this periodical in order to compete. 

2. Cash awards of $100 — $60 — and $40 — representing first, second and third prizes will be given by BOOTHE COMPANY to the 
three contestants whose models, in the opinion of the judges are considered best adapted to practical and beneficial use in the pro- 
duction of motion pictures. Contestants, in case of a tie, will receive like awards. 

3. Anyone associated with motion picture work may compete — amateurs as well as professionals. This also means all motion picture 
studio or motion picture theatre employees, or any organization whose products are used in motion picture work, except those in 
any way associated with the BOOTHE COMPANY or any other organization handling aluminum or aluminum alloys. 

4. The judges are representatives of various branches of the motion picture industry. Their decision will be final. 

5. Two photographs, a front and side view, with a description of the completed product, must be sent to "The BOOTHE COMPANY 
ALUMINUM CONTEST Editor," 1222 Cuaranty Building, Hollywood, on or before January 15th, 1931. Be sure that this is accom- 
panied by your name and address. No communications regarding this contest will be answered, unless accompanied by a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope. In no instance shall entries be sent until such request is made by the judges. Products must be 
made from aluminum or aluminum alloys. They may be wholly of aluminum or aluminum alloys, or may represent not less than 
seventy-five percent of these metals by weight. They may represent in their entirety a product useful to the motion picture 
industry, or may be a part, attachment or accessory to be used on some apparatus, machine or structure now employed. 

Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 

23 



Twenty-four 



AMERICAN Cli 



New Lighting, Electrical and 

LOOKING BACK over the year 1930 it i 
.considerable strides toward perfection. Thi 1 
velopment of various mechanical units in li 
productions are revealing a continued incre. 
color and many other technical effects. Pic 
quired. This in turn has necessitated the dc 
ment. The units displayed here, all of whic 
now stock equipment of, Mole-Richardson $■• 
has been accomplished during the past ye ; 
years Mole-Richardson 
scores of mechanical d< 
measurable part in the 
Foremost, perhaps, \ip 
descent lighting eqt 
the greatest problerrfi 
tion of talkies. On 
Richardson produc | 
This company, 
and renting all ty 
ment, specialize 
ing set, sounc 




ATOCRAPHER 



Twenty-five 



Units Developed During 1930 

nt that talking motion pictures have taken 
le attributed, in a large measure, to the de- 
electrical, set and sound equipment. Present 

ope, from the standpoint of sound, action, 
lay call for treatments heretofore not re 
nt of thousands of dollars of new equip- 
)een perfected and produced by, and are 

hting engineers, are illustrative of what 
s particular field. During the last three 
ntributed and perfected 
lich have played an im 
ment of sound cinema, 
ontribution of incan- 
which solved one of 
luction at the incep- 

most recent Mole- 
nera perambulator, 
manufacturing 
:andescent equip- 

ing and perfect- 
;ectrical pieces. 




Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCkAPHER 



January, ] 931 



Screen Definirion 

(Continued from Page 91 
Interposition of a glass plate between object and lens 
1 . Makes focusing or re-focusing imperative after glass plate 
is in fixed position, 

2. Class plate should be placed at right angles to optical axis 
of lens system, 

3. Class plate should be as close as possible to lens system, 

4. Class plate should be as thin as possible, 

5. Refractive index of glass plate material should be as low 
as possible, 

6. Realization of the fact that normal depth of focus is de- 
creased by glass plate, and 

7. That these adverse influences are more pronounced for 
"close ups" than for "distance shots." 

These optical facts are, as previously stated, characteristic 
of filters as well as diffusion discs and, but of less importance, 
for blimp glass plates. 

The practical realization of these facts by the experienced 
cameraman make him prefer a thin gelatine filter to a thick 
glass one (leaving permanency of filter value out of considera- 
tion! and make him place a diffusion disc as close as possible 
to the lens. 

If the ambitious cameraman mentally absorbs these facts, 
he will, by judicious observation of them in practical camera 
operation, find that he can materially improve the pictorial 
and especially definition results of his "takes." 

Having disposed so far of the optical influences of a glass 
plate as a filter carrier within the unavoidable limits of this 
article, the chromatic influence of filter means in general upon 
definition becomes of importance. 

Before starting the analysis of this most important and least 
understood influence, it might be mentioned that there seems 
sometimes to exist the opinion that the use of a filter adds 
its specific color value to the object light, whereas, in fact, it 




Diagram No. 2 

more or less restricts the actinic value of the object light to 
its specific color value and diminishes the spectrum values 
outside of its own sphere and that it always decreases the 
speed of the lens. 

The proper use of color filters in motion picture photography 
covers two very important fields. 

Firstly, the proper selection and use of color filters is a 
powerful means to control not only definition but also exposure 
results for different parts of the object field for a single 
exposure, and 

Secondly, that the proper selection and use of color filters 
enables the cameraman not only, as is well known and prac- 
tised, to produce interesting and even startling trick effects. 



but what is more important, to produce natural effects of 
surprisingly nature-true characteristics under actual perspect- 
ive and illumination characteristics of an entirely different 
composition. 

This absorbingly interesting phase of filter use shall be ana- 
lyzed in Part IV of this series of articles, but a well-balanced 
series of filters for above mentioned purposes as scientifically 
developed and practically used by Milton Moore since 1924 
is herein given for preliminary study by the reader. 

Although this series of filters has been developed and used 
to the number of twenty, only six of the most important of 
them are herewith given in an order of decreasing density. 
They consist of combinations of two Wratten filter numbers 
each: 

1 . No. 64 and 27. 4. No. E22 and B58. 

2. No. 64 and 23. 5. No. 23 and B57. 

3. No. 23a and B58. 6. No. E22 and B57 (A3). 
The practical results of their use will be shown in Part IV 

by comparative test photographs. 



Dropping of Multicolor Denied by 
J. C. Woolf 

RUMORS that Multicolor would be abandoned in favor of 
black and white or abandoned in its entirety are vigorously 
denied in a statement issued by J. C. Woolf, who is in charge 
of sales promotion. 

"Multicolor is proceeding as fast as is consistent with good 
business and first class mechanical methods, and will within 
the space of a few days be in its new home," Woolf stated. 



Movies Made on Class with German 
Invention 

BERLIN — George Creenbaum, German inventor, has developed 
a device enabling a scene lasting about one minute to be 
photographed on a 2'/t by 3 V2 inch dry plate. With the aid 
of a special projector the picture can be thrown on the screen. 
The plate is divided into a large number of small parts, 
which are exposed one by one in the same way as the sections 
of a strip of moving picture film. Pictures follow one another 
in a series of horizontal rows. 

Strenge Heads Local 644 

THE FOLLOWING officers were elected by Local 644, In- 
ternational Photographers, New York City, for the coming 
year: 

President, Walter Strenge; first vice president, Ulyate K. 
Whipple; second vice president, Harry Harde; third vice presi- 
dent, Willard Vander Verr; treasurer, Frank Kirby; secretary, 
Walter A. Lang; sergeant-at-arms, Frank Landi; trustee for a 
three-year period, William Miller. 

The new executive board is composed of the following mem- 
bers: George Folsey, William Steiner, Lawrence Williams, 
Charles Downs, Lester S. Lang, Ray Foster, George W. Peters, 
Joseph Seiden, Walter Scott, Herman Lutz, Hugo Johnson, 
Willard Vander Verr, Tom Hogan, Carl Larsen. 

Francis E. Zeisse continues as business agent of the local, 
which has a registration of 250 members. 

• 

450 Service Engineers Now Maintained 
by ERPI 

ELECTRICAL Research Products now has 450 service engi- 
neers in 220 localities throughout the U. S. to provide 
service for the 4,789 Western Electric sound systems in use 
at present. In New York there are 34 resident engineers, Chi- 
cago has 26, Los Angeles 18, Philadelphia 16, Boston 15 and 
Kansas City 1 0. 



TO THE 



jHotton picture 3nbu£trp 



WE EXTEND THE WISH THAT 



1931 



WILL BRING 



Happiness anb 3$vo$ptxity 






**«* 



Jlax Jf actor Jlafeeup ^tubtos; 



Tel. HO-6191 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Grand Ave. 



Cable Address "Facto" 



London, England 

10 D'Arblay St. 
Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Paseo de la Reforma 36 Vi 
Havana, Cuba 

H-130, Vedado 
Lima, Peru 

Edificia Mineria 



Other Foreign Branches 

Johannesburg, So. Africa 
Cor. loubert & Kerk Sts. 



Manila, Philippine Is'ands 
No. 39 Escolta St. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
500 Sarmiento 

Honolulu, T. H. 
720 South St. 



Max Factor's 

Theatrical 

Make-up 

for the 

Stage 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



27 



Twenty-eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



January, 1 93 1 



MOVIOLA 




FILM VIEWING AND SOUND 
REPRODUCING MACHINES 
FOR USE WITH: SEPARATE 
PICTURE FILM AND SOUND 
FILM, COMPOSITE FILM AND 
SOUND ON DISC RECORD. 
FOR EDITING 35 MM. FILM, 
16 MM. FILM, WIDE FILM. 



Write for Circulars Describ- 
ing the Different Models 




MOVIOLA COMPANY 



1451 CORDON STREET 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



New Portable Talker Set 

ASSOCIATED Portable Sound Equipments, Ltd., London, 
has been registered with a capital of $55,000, to market 
a portable sound set, which, it is believed, will be the most 
inexpensive device of its kind. Actual manufacture of the set, 
intended primarily for use with advertising films, will begin 
soon. 

Larger London Quarters for W. E. 

WESTERN ELECTRICS sales branch, headed by T. P. 
Depew, assisted by C. W. Le Grand, has taken more 
spacious quarters on the Aldwych floor of the Bush House. 



Two Bray Travel Units Going Out 
Next Year 

JR. BRAY will dispatch a crew in January to North Africa 
.and the far East to get travel material for his Rambling 
Reporter Series distributed by Columbia. Another unit will be 
sent out by Bray next Spring to Italy and the Balkan States. 
The trips will cover about 10 months each. 

Film Expedition to Brazil 

AN EXPEDITION to obtain sound pictures of jungle life in 
k Brazil is being organized by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania Museum and E. R. Fenimore Johnson, former vice presi- 
dent of the Victor Talking Machine Company. 

The expedition will sail from New York for Montevideo 
about December 20, it is announced. Captain Vladimir Per- 
filieff, explorer and photographer, will head the company. The 
route will be up the Paraguay river to the Matto Grosso coun- 
try. The party will return in a year. 

Investment Film 

THE BURTON HOLMES studios, Chicago, claims the dis- 
tinction of being the first concern to produce an educa- 
tional film dealing with the investment field. The picture, 
called "An Investment in American Prosperity," was given its 
first showing before a group of investment bankers at the 
Tavern Club. 

In story form, the film relates the strength and scope of 
28 of America's leading corporations. The importance of 
diversification in investment is emphasized. 

Plans are being made to place the picture at the disposal 
of 800 investment houses and banking institutions through- 
out the country, which will arrange local guest showings. 

Ceneral Electric Plans Studio in Schenectady 

CONSTRUCTION of a studio at Schenectady is being con- 
templated by General Electric. Industrials and shorts will 
be made there. Preliminary matters were discussed at a recent 
dinner. 

New S. M. P. E. Officers, Chicago 

ELECTION of new officers of the Chicago section of the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers has been announced. 
J. Elliott Jenkins is the newly elected Chairman; R. Fawn 
Mitchell is the Secretary and the Governors are Oscar B. Depue 
and Robert P. Burns. 

Members of this Section now total 77. 




^A Happy andTrosperous lS[ewYear 



IS EXTENDED TO OUR MANY 
FRIENDS OF THE MOTION 
PICTURE INDUSTRY 

COMPOSITE LABORATORIES 





a 



Williams' Shots " 




January, 1 93 1 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP HER 



Twenty-nine 



HAPPY NEW YEAR . 




Of 

Raw Film 



C. KING CHARNEY 



RCA, Auto Cinema Perfect Automatic 
Ad Projector 

AN AUTOMATIC advertising projector that accommodates 
^ standard-size film has been perfected by RCA Photophone 
in association with Auto Cinema Corp., and will soon be put 
on the market, it is announced by Sydney E. Abel, general 
sales manager of Photophone. The machine, which will be leased 
by Auto Cinema and serviced by RCA Photophone, is com- 
pact, weighs less than 1 00 pounds and occupies less than two 
square feet of space. When placed in operation, the film is 
endless self-rewinding. Sound amplification can be controlled 
to any desired volume. 



International Projector Announces 
New Turret 

AN IMPROVED design lens turret which will accommodate 
three lenses of either quarter or half size, is announced 
by the International Projector Corp. of New York. All focal 
length lenses of standard make may be readily used in connec- 
tion with it. 

Each lens is separately adjustable with relation to the pro- 
jection aperture, this assuring perfect alignment and super 
imposition on the screen. The turret is readily moved around 
from one lens position to another by means of convenient trip 
levers. 



t 



/ AUDIC-CAMEX 



COMPLETE PORTABLE SOUND EQUIPMENT 



Camera Silencing Cover 

This Camera Cover will fit both Mitchell and Bell & Howell Cameras. 



IT ENABLES THE CAMERAMAN TO WORK 
WITH FINDER OUTSIDE THE "BLIMP" 



This is the first time a Camera Cover has ever been offered to the Craft. 

Price $ 50.00 




Ijoff/^AMEPA Exchange 

I y ^^y CABLEHOCAMEX15II CAHUENGABLVD -PHONE HO ?43I 




Amateur He vie Making 



by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C. 



THE WINTER months are perhaps the most critical ones in 
the entire year for the amateur cinematographer, for dur- 
ing these times of necessarily restricted photographic 
activity, he feels more and more frequently the urge to show 
his films to audiences. And, far too frequently, one such 
exhibition is enough to make the audience reluctant to attend 
another. Of course, people now-a-days are becoming increas- 
ingly skillful at these evasions, but when the mere suggestion 
of a home movie show brings forth a complete unanimity of 
headaches, previous engagements and sick friends, even the 
most rabid enthusiast can hardly fail to be a bit suspicious, 
especially when, as in most cases, these same evasive individuals 
are found surprisingly healthy, disengaged, and calloused to 
the ties of friendship when there is a good picture running at 
the local theatre. 

Of course even the most enthusiastic amateur will admit that 
there is quite a difference between his own attempts at film 
presentation and those of the de Luxe show house. But he 
will generally fail to perceive that it is not a difference of 
materials, but one of methods. It is not merely the difference 
between the quality of films available to him and those avail- 
able to the professional exhibitor. It is not the difference 
between silent films and talkies. It is not even the difference 
between a 4,000-seat "super-cinema" and an ordinary parlor. 
It is solely a question of Showmanship. 

Showmanship at Home 

To the average amateur, Showmanship seems a thing as 
remote as the hinterlands of Timbuktu, and as far beyond his 
understanding as the Theory of Relativity. Of course, he 
may realize that it is a certain knack of quality which makes 
its possessors — like de Mille, "Roxy," or Sid Grauman — great 
figures in the entertainment world; but more than that, what 
is Showmanship to him? 

But Showmanship is something which, if valuable to the 
professional impresario, is indispensable to the amateur. The 
greatest pleasure of amateur cinematography is the pleasure 
of showing films to other people, and Showmanship is the art 
of entertaining people. 

Being an art, it can hardly be reduced to a set of formal 
rules or formulae; nevertheless, there are certain facts which, 
if kept in mind, and certain suggestions which, if followed, 
will form a key to the understanding of this art. 

In the first place, no matter what you are doing, as long as 
you are working with an audience, the vital thing is to keep 
that audience entertained. Therefore, plan whatever you are 
doing with that one thought fixedly in your mind. 

To keep the audience entertained, keep it interested. As 
long as a show (even a poor one), is moving along steadily, 
all is well; but let one hitch or interruption occur, and interest 
wavers; the spell is broken. 

Next, take a tip from the professional: never give an 
audience too much of any one thing — no matter how good. 
Always let them be asking for just a little more, rather than 
complaining because you gave them too much. Never repeat 
if you can help it; if you can't, repeat but once. 

Lastly, in planning a programme, plan it for your audience 
- — not for yourself. 

Now, how are these principles to be applied to the home 
movie show? For in the home presentation, we are naturally 

30 



limited in every respect. How can we rise above these 
inevitable limitations and give our friends a really interesting, 
entertaining show? 

Programme- Building 

First of all, we must have an entertaining programme with 
which to work. More than that, it must be entertainment 
that is suited to the audience in question. Obviously, a pro- 
gramme which will please an audience of children will not be 
likely to satisfy an audience of adults. Similarly, among adult 
audiences, there is a wide divergence of taste. It is to be 
noted that among the more recent professional film successes 
have been such entirely different sorts of entertainment as 
"Disraeli" and "The Life of the Party." Obviously, each of 
these films has given pleasure to its audiences, but each has 
appealed fundamentally to a different group. Therefore, in 
planning your own programmes, take care that you do not 
offer a "Disraeli" audience a "Life of the Party" programme — 
or vice versa! 

The professional impresario works under a considerable dis- 
advantage in that he cannot choose his audience, and must 
of necessity give his programme sufficient variety so that he 
is reasonably sure of finding something that will appeal to 
the highbrow, lowbrow, and mezzobrow contingents, as well 
as the inevitably large group of children and morons, who 
combine to bring him his bread and cheese. The amateur, on 
the other hand, can generally choose his audience, and then 
suit his programme to it. None the less, the principle of 
variety as practiced by the professional showman should to 
some extent be adopted by the amateur programme-builder. 

In the first place, with the many excellent 16mm. film 
rental libraries now operating, no programme should confine 
itself exclusively to the product of the individual camerist. 
One may have quite enough film which is technically accept- 
able, to make a full evening's show, but there is all too fre- 
quently too little variety in such a programme. The film may 
be technically satisfactory, and even of a fair variety of sub- 
jects, but, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, there will 
be at least such a sameness of treatment about it all as to 
make it a very drab and uninteresting programme. Therefore, 
the best plan is to make up a well-balanced programme in the 
professional manner. Now, the best professional programmes 
usually consist of a newsreel, a scenic or novelty, a comedy, 
and a feature production. With the single exception of the 
newsreel, each of these classifications is represented in the 
catalogue of every rental library. Therefore, such programmes 
can easily be made up of rented films, with one's own pro- 
ductions taking their logical places, as dictated by their par- 
ticular genre. The average amateur production, however, 
should almost always fall under one of the first three cate- 
gories; the feature "spot" should be filled by an amateur film 
only when it is of indubitable technical excellence and out- 
standing entertainment value. As a rule, however, the feature 
should be a professional dramatic film, of real worth. In their 
proper position on the programme, however, individual films 
have no equal, for they have — or should have — a personal 
interest which no purchased or hired film-subject could have. 
But such amateur films must be, in every sense, finished 
products. They must be well edited and titled, with no flaws 
such as bad frames or missing scenes. They must, in a word, 
I Continued on Page 32) 



NO FILMO HAS 
EVER WORN OUT 




Mr. John X McCutcheon's Filmo, purchased more than six years ago, has 
accompanied its famous owner on scores of jaunts into the dim and unknown places of the 
earth. The excellence of Mr. McCutcheon's movies reflects the constant dependability of the 
Filmo that made them . . . a Filmo that is working as perfectly today as the day it was made. 

Like the finest watches, the finest of motor cars, Filmo's value is appraised by what it 
will do and how long it will continue to do it. To say that no Filmo has ever worn out is 
the conclusive answer to the question of its performance, its stamina. That is why Filmo 
Personal Movie Cameras and Projectors are the first choice of discerning movie makers 
the world over. 

You would expect no one to make a better movie camera than Bell & Howell, 
manufacturers for nearly a quarter of a century of professional studio cameras for 
the major film producers of the world. Filmo unquestionably fulfills this expectation, 
from the moderately priced Filmo 75 at $92 and up, to the versatile Filmo 70-D at 
$245 and up. Ask your dealer for a demonstration, or write for Booklet No. 35 — it's 

full of fascinating information. 
Bell & Howell Co., 1848 
Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois. New York, Hollywood, 
London (B. & H. Co., Ltd.). 
Established 1907 



BELL 



FILMO 



HOWELL 

PERSONAL MOVIE CAMERAS AND PROJECTORS 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 



31 



Thirty-two 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOGR AP HER 



January, 1 931 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 30) 
be able to stand upon their own feet as screen entertainment, 
with no need of apologies or explanations from the maker. 

Presentation — or Projection? 

Once a programme has been chosen, it must be shown to its 
audience. But, how is it to be shown? Is it to be merely 
a matter of putting the projector on a table, and the screen 
on another, and "running off some films," or is there to be 
some attempt at presentation? Is the show to be a pleasure, 
or an ordeal? 

The answer to this rests solely with you. To answer it 
fairly, you must put yourself in the place of your guests. 

You, personally, are an enthusiast and a technician. 

They are neither. 

You understand the mechanical factors in film making and 
projection. 

They do not. 

You can overlook mechanical imperfections in both the 
film and its presentation. 

They cannot. 

You can judge a programme by all of the many factors, from 
camera to screen, which enter into its creation. 

They can judge only by the results they see on the screen. 

Therefore, since results are all that count with audience, 
either give them first-class results, or don't try to give them 
anything. There is no room for half-way measures. 

In securing such results, the first thing is to be completely 
prepared for every possible emergency. Have every detail of 
your performance carefully planned and well rehearsed, so that 
there can be no hitch during the actual showing. 

Make the mechanical features of your programme as un- 
obtrusive as possible. Of course, a motion picture per- 
formance is inescapably of a mechanical nature, but it need 
not be made too obviously so. Conceal as much of the me- 
chanics of the performance from your audience as you can. 
If it is at all possible, have the projector placed so that it 
is out of sight, and if possible, more or less out of ear-shot, 
as the clatter of a projection-machine is by no means a pleas- 
ant accompaniment. If you can arrange things so that the 
audience and screen are in one room, with the projector in 
another, you will have a very good arrangement. If your 
rooms do not allow this, another excellent method is back- 
projection: projecting the picture onto the rear of a translucent 
screen. This will, of course, necessitate re-spooling your films, 
in order that the action and titles may not be reversed. Another 
method of rear-projection, which does not involve re-spooled 
film, is arranging the projector and screen at right angles to 
each other, and projecting with the aid of a good, clear 
mirror. By this method, you may seat your audience in a 
room, and place your projector in an adjacent hallway, quite 
out of sight. 

Of course, however, the ideal method of home-movie 
presentation is in a room exclusively devoted to such service, 
and which may be a real home theatre. In such a room, you 
can give your artistic inclinations full play, placing your screen 
permanently, with artistic stage-settings and curtains in front 
of it. You can then have all sorts of footlight-and-floodlight 
arrangements, with which you can duplicate the lighting effects 
used in professional theatre practice. In such an installation, 
too, you can have everything — curtains, footlights, house lights, 
etc. — controlled from a bank of switches and dimmers near 
your projector, or your booth, if you have one. With such 
an equipment, you have everything at hand for the presenta- 
tion of de luxe home movie shows. Of course, unless you are 
decidedly richer than most of us, you will still be limited to 
a single projector, which will still necessitate the unpleasant 
pauses between reels. However, these can be bridged over very 
nicely by a number of means; closing the curtains, and pro- 
jecting upon them various patterned light-effects, and so on. 



But several other methods are available: the main thing being 
to keep the audience entertained during these necessary 
pauses. One friend of mine, for instance, has a small lantern- 
slide projector, with which projects onto the screen a series 
of slides with cleverly illustrated, witty, and somewhat racy 
lokes. 

Show It With Music! 

But perhaps the greatest aid to the de luxe film presentation 
is a musical accompaniment. Professional theatre-managers 
long ago learned this, and, until the advent of the Vitaphone, 
supported large symphony orchestras, expert organists, and 
highly-paid thematic-score-writers, all for the purpose of being 
able to give to each scene of each picture exactly the best 
and most fitting musical background. Naturally, this is 
beyond the amateur; but, if he has in his family a really 
accomplished instrumentalist, with a large and diverse reper- 
toire, he may call upon this obliging relative to serve as an 
orchestra. But, as most of us do not boast such talented rela- 
tions, there is, fortunately, an even better substitute in the 
phonograph. 

The modern electrically-reproducing phonograph, with a 
proper selection of well-chosen records, will give the amateur 
showhouse the equivalent of the best orchestras and organs 
in the world. Furthermore, the orchestra can be operated by 
the projectionist, which is another important advantage for 
the amateur. But what sort of equipment is the best for the 
amateur? 

First of all, the average "Automatic" phonograph is entirely 
useless for this purpose. In the first place, its cost is far 
greater than the need warrants. In the second place, it plays 
its selection of records straight through, playing the complete 
records from start to finish, whereas, for your purpose, you 
may want to start in the middle of a record, and only play a 
few bars, before repeating, or changing to another record. 
Therefore the "Automatic" machine is hardly suitable. 

The ordinary electric-reproducing phonograph, Victor, 
Columbia, Brunswick, Majestic. Philco, or what have you, is 
however quite well adapted to this service. However, it has 
the same drawback that a single projector has: the pauses 
while you change the records. And these pauses may become 
quite annoying, as they will occur more frequently than the 
changes of film, for you will seldom play a record through, 
but merely use a certain theme in it. 

Therefore, by all means the best reproducing outfit is one 
that contains two electrical pickups, two turntables, and a 
"Fader," for making musical lap-dissolves from one selection 
to another. Such an outfit can easily enough be assembled 
from such standard parts as a pair of "Columbia" or "Rotrola" 
portable turntable-and-pickup combinations, with the amplifi- 
cation and reproduction through any good radio and dynamic- 
cone speaker. The combination of these two units with one 
of the various efficient "midget" radios now so popular 
would make a very excellent sound installation at a cost ap- 
proximating $100. However, this price might easily be bet- 
tered, by using all, or parts of some of the non-synchronous 
outfits which so many of the smaller theatres installed in the 
earlier days of sound-pictures, and which they have since been 
forced to discard. The turntable part of such outfits are 
particularly handy for this use, as they were designed expressly 
for the same sort of work in theatres. Probably the most 
important feature is that the pick-up arms are generally con- 
nected to pointers working over graduated scales, by means 
of which the needle can be accurately set down at any pre- 
determined point. Any sort of amplifying apparatus may be 
used with these twin-turntable outfits, but it must be remem- 
bered that the better the amplifier and speaker, the better 
will be the sound. 

But whatever means of reproduction is used, the selection 
of records is the vital thing. This selection need not be large, 
but it should be sufficiently comprehensive to have appropriate 
music for every important type of scene. You may, if you 
wish, have your accompanying music exclusively of organ 



January, 1 93 ' 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-three 



recordings, or of orchestral ones, or of both. Both orchestras 
and organs were used for accompanying silent pictures, and, 
where the music was properly chosen and executed, the change 
from orchestra to organ, or vice versa, was practically im- 
perceptible. The truly important thing, however, is to have 
the right records, and to be so familiar with the picture that 
you can use the appropriate music for each scene. This in- 
volves some considerable rehearsal of film and records, but it 
is well worth it. It is a good plan, too, to make out a "cue 
sheet" for each reel on your programme, stating the selection, 
the part of the record, and the screen cue for each change. 
With this, and a little practice with the fader, you will have 
no trouble in duplicating the effects of the finest symphonic 
accompaniments of the greatest super-theatres. 

Naturally, the selection of the appropriate records is a some- 
what difficult task. However, it is lightened by the fact that 
each scene or sequence in a feature film will fall more or less 
closely under some arbitrary classification as to mood, and thus, 
by having music to suit every mood, you will be quite reason- 
ably sure of having music to fit every situation. This implies 
a moderately large library of recordings, but if you make your 
purchases discreetly and consistently — say one or two discs 
a week — a good collection can be built up rapidly and with 
the minimum strain upon the pocketbook. 

The best scoring library, of course, is the one which is 
large enough to afford the user a considerable variety of 
selections for each type of scene, and one which is large 
enough as well to avoid the use of the more obvious musical 
themes. But such a library is, of course, considerably beyond 
the means of most of us, so we must content ourselves with 
one which, if not so comprehensive, is yet sufficient to pro- 
vide for every mood, and give some variety. But the delightful 
thing about such a library is that it is in itself, quite apart 
from its utility in cinema presentation, something very much 
worth having. And of course such a library may be enlarged 
to any degree, as the means and the interest warrant. Here, 
however, is an outline suggesting a nucleus for a very effective 
scoring library, listed under the moods to which each is 
appropriate. 

BATTLES, RIOTS, EXCITEMENT— 

"Ruy Bias Overture" (Mendelssohn) — B. B. C. Orchestra — 
Columbia 501 1 9D. 

"Ride of the Valkyries" (Wagner) — Coates & Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor 9163. 

"Flying Dutchman Overture" (Wagner) — Berlin State Opers 
Orchestra — Victor 9275. 

"Egmont Overture" (Beethoven) — Victor Symphony Orches- 
tra — Victor 35790. 

BALLET 

"Dance of the Hours" — Ponchielli — Victor Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor 35833. 

"Faust Ballet Music" — (Gounod) — Royal Opera Orchestra, 
Covent Garden — His Master's Voice (English Victor) CI 462 
and 3. 

"Scarf Dance" IChaminade) — Columbia Symphony Orches- 
tra — Columbia 1658D. 

"Fantasy from Coppelia Ballet"- — Delibes — Dr. Weissmann 
and the Grand Symphony Orchestra, Berlin — Odeon 5162. 

CARNIVAL, JOY, ETC. 

"Merry Wives of Windsor, Overture" (Nicolai) — Victor 
Symphony Orchestra — Victor 35764. 

"Carneval Overture" (Dvorak) — Hollywood Bowl Orchestra 
— Victor 6868. 

"Bank Holiday" from the "Cockney Suite" (Ketelbey) — 
Albert W. Ketelbey and his Concert Orchestra — British Colum- 
bia — 9862. 

CHINESE 

"In a Chinese Temple Garden" — (Ketelbey) — Albert W. 
Ketelby and his Concert Orchestra — British Columbia 9859. 

"A Japanese Sunset" — (Jessie L. Deppen) — Victor Salon 
Orchestra — Victor 20998. 



-Victor Salon Orchestra- 



"Chinese Lullaby" — (Bowers) 
Victor 21970. 

DEATH SCENES, ETC. 

"Largo" from "New World Symphony" (Dvorak) — Phila- 
delphia Symphony Orchestra — Victor Album M-l. 

"Chanson Triste" (Tschaikowsky ) — String Bass Solo by 
Serge Koussevitski — Victor 7159. 

"Death of Ase" from Peer Gynt Suite iGreig) — Victor 
Symphony Orchestra — Victor 35793. 

"Unfinished Symphony" (Schubert) — Philadelphia Symphony 

DRAMATIC SCENES, ETC. 
Orchestra — Victor Album M 1 6. 

"Les Preludes" (Liszt) San Francisco Symphony Orchestra — - 
Victor 6863 and 4. 

"Traviata Fantasy" — (Verdi) — Marck Weber and his 
Orchestra — Victor V-50015. 

FIRES, GALES, ETC. 

Much as for BATTLE SCENES; 

"Fire Music from Siegfried" (Wagner) — Beyreuth Festival 
Orchestra — Columbia 67372D. 

GALLOPS, RACING, BUSTLE, ETC. 

"Orpheus in Hades" 'Offenbach) — Victor Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor 35881. 

"Light Cavalry Overture" (von Suppe) Victor Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor 21251. 

"Zampa Overture" (Herold) — Continental Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor V-50006. 

ITALIAN, SPANISH, SCOTCH, IRISH, ETC. 

These selections are all obvious, and hardly need to be listed 
here. 

LOVE SCENES 

These scenes require music which is predominantly by the 
string section of the orchestra, or violin or 'cello solos. 

"Simple Aveu" (Thome) — Cello solo by Alfred Wallen- 
stein — Victor 20104. 

"Narcissus" (Nevin) — Victor Concert Orchestra — Victor 
21449. 

"A Little Love, A Little Kiss" — (Ross-Sileseu) — Victor 
Salon Orchestra — Victor 20279. 

"When You and I Were Seventeen" ( Kahn-Rosoff ) ■ — - 
Victor Salon Orchestra — Victor 19702. 

"Londonderry Air" (Traditional) Organ solo by Reginald 
Goss-Custard, F. R. C. O. — H. M. V. B2375. 

"Serenata" (Tosselli) deGroot and the Piccadili Orchestra 
— H. M. V. B2086. 

ORIENTAL, EASTERN, ETC. 

"Ballet Egyptian" (Luigini) — Concert Orchestra — Victor 
35794 and 5; Movie Organ Solo by Quentin MacLean — 
Columbia 1 365 and 7 D. 

"Indian Love Lyrics" ( Woodforde-Finden ) deGroot's Pic- 
cadilly Orchestra — H. M. V. CI 257 and B2237. 

"Indian Love Lyrics" (Woodforde-Finden I Movie Organ, 
G. T. Pattman — British Columbia 9417. 

"Casse Noisette Suite" (Tschaikowsky) : "Danse Arabe" — 
British Broadcasting Company's Wireless Symphony Orchestra 
— Columbia 50106D. 

"Egyptian Suite — African Motives" (Bardi) — Dajos Bela 
and his Orchestra — Odeon 3256. 

"In a Persian Market" I Ketelbey i — International Concert 
Orchestra — Victor 35fff. 

NATURE; RUSTIC SCENES; SCENIC FILMS 

"Summer Days Suite" (Coates) Coates and Orchestra — 
British Columbia 9369-9370. 

"Peer Gynt Suite: Morning" (Greig) — Victor Recording 
Orchestra — Victor 35793. 

"Shepherd's Hey" (Grainger) Victor Concert Orchestra — 
Victor 20802. 

"Siegfried: Forest Murmurs" (Wagner) Philharmonic- 
Symphony Orchestra of New York — Victor 7192. 
(Continued on Page 36) 



About Lenses 

Part 3 

The Apertures of Lenses 

[First installment appeared in October issue.] 



LENSES differ in the amount of light they admit, and this 
is very important, because the more light admitted, the 
- shorter the exposure can be. The chief object in using a 
lens instead of a pinhole is to transmit more light to the 
film, and the amount of light that is transmitted depends 
upon the area of the glass in the lens. 

Suppose we place a piece of cardboard, instead of a film, 
in the back of a camera, and have a pinhole in the card through 
which we can look at the lens; then point the lens toward a 
window; the amount of light that reaches the eye through the 
hole in the card depends upon how much of the light from 
the window is passing through the lens; that is to say, it will 
depend on the area of the window which we could see if there 
was no glass in the lens. Since the visible area of the window 
is bounded by the edges of the lens mount, we could see more 
if the lens were of shorter focal length so that the eye would 
be closer to it. With a lens of long focal length only a small 
part of the window area is visible as in Fig. 1 5. 

With a lens of half the focal length, but of the same diam- 
eter as that shown in Fig. 15, four times as much of the win- 
dow area is visible, see Fig. 16. 

This shows that the brightness of the image projected by 
lenses of the same diameter varies inversely as the square of 
the focal length of the lens. It also varies as the area of 




Fig. IS 



the lens surface (aperture) which admits the light. The 
greater the lens aperture the more light it admits. The 
area of the lens aperture, of course, is proportional to the 
square of its diameter, so that all lenses in which the diameter 
of the aperture bears the same ratio to the focal length will 
give equally bright images. This means that the brightness 
of the image is determined not solely by the focal length, nor 
solely by the diameter of the lens aperture, but by the relation 
that exists between the lens aperture and the focal length of 
the lens, so that all lenses in which the diameter of the open- 
ing is, say, one-sixth of the focal length, will give equally bright 
images. Thus, in a lens of one-inch aperture and a focal 
length of six inches, the opening is one-sixth of the focal 
length, and in a lens of twelve inches focal length and two 
inches aperture, the opening is likewise one-sixth of the focal 
length. Both lenses are of the same f. value. This means 
that both give an image of the same brightness, and will 
require the same exposure. Lens "apertures" are, therefore, 
rated according to the ratio between their diameters and their 
focal lengths; thus, one in which the opening is one-sixth of 
the focal length is marked f.6; one in which the opening is 
one-eighth, f.8, and so on, and the larger the aperture, the 
more light the lens transmits, and the more light it transmits 
the shorter the exposure needed. 

But even when we have a lens with a large aperture we 

34 



shall have to regard this as a reserve power for use in special 
circumstances, and we should not by any means use it at its 
largest aperture all the time. 

Depth of Focus 

From the construction of a lens it follows that only the rays 
from a mathematical point can come together in a point again, 



-'' ' .J 

r I i _^+ — f i 

Y" -J 

i i 

f ! 



Fig. 16 

and that the rays from any point nearer or farther than the 
point focused cannot meet in a point image on the film, but 
must produce a small disc of light instead of a sharp point of 
light. 

The disc is termed the "circle of confusion." If the circle 
of confusion is small enough we shall not be able to dis- 
tinguish it from a point, and the picture will appear to be 
sharp. 

With what are known as "fixed focus" cameras such as 
the Model B Vest Pocket Kodak and the box Brownies, no 
attempt is made to secure a wholly sharp focus for objects 
at all distances, but the lenses are sharply focused on the 
nearest point to the camera which will enable distant objects 
to appear approximately sharp in the pictures, and in this way 
objects in the middle distance are perfectly sharp, and near 
objects are also sharp provided they are not too near. 

The following table of these distances, beyond which every- 
thing is sharp when the largest stop is used, may be useful: 

Vest Pocket Kodak (Model B) 7 '/z feet 

No. Brownie IVz feet 

No. 2 Brownie 1 1 feet 

Nos. 2A, 2C and 3 Brownies 1 3 feet 

If we are using a No. 2 Brownie, for instance, as long as 
everything is farther off than eleven (11) feet we can rely 
on getting a picture with everything focused sharply. 

With the focusing Kodaks we must judge the distance of 
the object on which we wish the focus to be sharpest and set 
the scale to that; then we shall find that objects somewhat 
nearer, and also objects a good deal farther from the camera 
are also sharp, and the distance from the nearest to the farthest 
objects that appear sharp in the negative is called the "depth 
of focus." This depth of focus depends on the focal length of 

Focus of Focus of 
Distant Near-by 
Object Object 




the lens and on the size of stop used in the lens; the greater 
the focal length the less the depth of focus, and the bigger 
the stop the less the depth of focus. Thus in Fig. 17, we have 



January, 1 93 ; 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOG R A P HE R 



Thirty-five 



a lens focusing near and far points at full aperture and produc- 
ing large circles of confusion. In Fig. 18 a smaller stop is 
used in the same lens, and the circles diminish in size in 
proportion to reduction in the size of the stop. 




Fig. 18 

Sometimes we have to focus near objects at the same time 
as distant ones, so that it is necessary to "stop the lens down" 
to some extent. 

Stops are marked on two different systems, though both 
are based on the fundamental ratio of the diameter to the 
focal length of the lens. In the one system the stop is ex- 
pressed simply as a fraction of the focal length; thus F./8 
(commonly written f.8) means that the aperture is one-eighth 
of the focal length of the lens; f.16, one-sixteenth, and so on. 
The rectilinear lenses that are fitted to some of the Hawk-Eye 
cameras are marked in the "Uniform System" (U.S.) in which 
the numbers are proportional to the expose required, f.4 being 
taken as unity, so that the scale is as follows: 

F. f.4 f.4.5 f.5.6 f.6.3 f.8 f.l 1 f.16 f.22 f.32 f.45 
U.S.I 1.26 2 21/2 4 8 16 32 64 128 

This table also shows the relative exposure that is required 
with the f. system stops, the exposure varying as the square of 
the f. value, so that f.l 1 requires twice the exposure of f.8; 
f.16 twice that of f.l 1 and so on. 

In the case of the larger stops, f.6.3 requires about twice 
the exposure of f.4.5; and f.8 twice that of f.5.6. 



Bobby Jones "Filmoed" by Prince of Wales 

THE PRINCE OF WALES is an enthusiast on the subject of 
taking golf movies, according to Colfdom magazine, and 
used his own personal Filmo movie camera to take pictures 
of Bobby Jones when the latter was playing in Britain last 
summer. 

The Prince is also greatly interested in the project which 
the Professional Golfers Association of America has been 
carrying through of making super-slow golf demonstration 
movies of such stars as Jones, Vardon and Wethered. 

After he learned of the taking of some of these movies in 
England he requested that a complete set be sent to him at 
the earliest possible moment. This was done by George Sargent, 
a director of the Association, who was abroad for some time 
in connection with making the Vardon and Wethered golf 
pictures. At the same time Mr. Sargent transmitted to His 
Royal Highness an invitation to attend the Ryder Cup inter- 
national Professional Matches at Scioto Country Club, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, next summer. 



Trespassers Will Be Prosecuted 

HOW OFTEN has the above notice prevented the capture 
of a beautiful or interesting photographic subject! Just 
remember that a telephoto lens will make the "No Trespass- 
ing" sign something that will be of no inconvenience to you. 
And, too, that interesting shot you want may be prevented 
because of a police cordon or a crowd. A telephoto lens will 
save it for you. 



Cine-Kodak in Arctic 




Here we see Dr. Knud Rasmussen, explorer, 
with his Cine-Kodak at Thule, Greenland. 



Paramount's New Color Process Out 
of Lab Stage 

PARAMOUNT'S new color process, details of which have 
been guarded closely over a two-year period, is understood 
to be ready for studio use. The method is said to use a new 
type color-cap over a regular camera lens. 



Wilcox Boosted 

HERBERT M. WILCOX has been elected vice president in 
charge of operating of Erpi. 
The new vice president has been operating manager in 
charge of installing and servicing Western Electric sound 
equipment. He has been associated with Western Electric since 
April, 1926, going in as operating manager of Erpi when the 
latter company was formed in January, 1927. Previous to that 
he was under Otterson for 1 1 years with the Winchester Re- 
peating Arms Company. 



College Adopts Talkers in Study 

TALKING pictures have been inaugurated as a part of the 
regular work of the undergraduate body, by Hunter College. 
Two educational subjects were shown. 



Talkers for Schools in England 

EDUCATIONAL authorities, in co-operation with Western 
Electric and British Movietone News, are working out plans 
for daily 40-minute talker programs in Middlesex schools. 
First subjects will be principally "general knowledge" types. 



Thirty-six 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



January, 1931 



Machinery or Art in Pictures 

(Continued from Page 1 1 ) 

Many of these pictures run to type, such as crook stories, 
wild party stories, college stories, and any number of others. 
Often they contain technical as well as artistic fallacies. Gen- 
erally they just cover the surface of the type of life they 
depict. Often several pictures with the same star are extremely 
similar in plot. 

College life, for instance, offers many story plots outside 
of football. Then, the idea of the hero planning to join a 
gang of crooks after some quarrel with his sweetheart, and 
then having her save him at the last minute before he has been 
given a real chance to go wrong, has been badly overdone. 
Lately, for some reason or other, there has been a fortunate 
succession of football stars being kept out of the game until 
the last few minutes, and then scoring the winning touchdown. 
Let us hope that when some more football stories appear, 
something different will occur. 

The advance of color photography offers many opportunities 
to the film world. Unfortunately, color has not yet been per- 
fected so as to leave out all streaks, or to include all color;, 
but color does not provide added artistry in spite of its short- 
comings. But colors, like anything else, should be chosen with 
care. While they will probably add only to the pictorial effect, 
rather than the dramatic possibilities, the use of poor color 
combinations will detract from the centralized interest of 
the plot. 

As time goes on color will be more and more in use. It 
will be especially valuable in outdoor photography, and in 
achieving effects which the black and white is unable to 
achieve. At present, however, it is still to be experimented 
with, and is expensive. But the time will no doubt come when 
the use of color will be as universal as the use of sound. 

While the artistry of a motion picture depends mainly 
upon those connected with the acting and directing, there 
are hundreds of semi-mechanical processes entering into the 
question and contributing a great deal toward artistic achieve- 
ment. Photography, sound-recording, projection, color record- 
ing, and numerous other technical processes are also necessary 
for the proper taking and showing of a picture. The work of 
these technicians receives little credit from the general public, 
and if their names be added to the list of credits shown at 
the beginning of a picture, the nature of their work is not 
known anyway. They are the stage hands of the motion picture 
industry. 

But the chief responsibility for the motion picture as an 
art rests with the producers. As long as their primary interest 
is that of earning money, the brand of pictures will be any- 
thing but the best. It is useless to acquire theatres and have 
nothing worth showing in them. 

American life has drifted too much toward making financial 
remuneration the reward of industry. In lines of work dull 
in themselves there is little wonder that such should be the 
accepted attitude. But a vocation itself should be of as much 
interest, or rather, of greater interest, than the money to be 
made — and this applies to every one from the president of a 
concern on down. 

Greater interest in the creative side of motion picture work 
from the producers will inspire greater activity from the artists, 
whose interest in their work is liable to be high to begin with. 
But a succession of mechanical plots arranged only to satisfy 
expected box office receipts will mean more or less mechanical 
acting. Unwillingness to experiment, especially when the failure 
of the experiment may mean looking for a new position, is 
a natural reaction of the director to present conditions. 

The motion picture industry must remember that somebody 
will have to break the trail. Waiting for a book or a play 
to make a name for itself before accepting it for motion pic- 
tures is the act of a parasite. Playing safe is all right to a 
certain extent, but there are limits. 

The popularity of the talking picture as a talking picture 



has worn off. Something new, or preferably, something better, 
is now demanded. Quality is generally an even better attraction 
than novelty. Wide screens are making their appearance, but 
are, after all, merely a technical improvement. 

Some machinery is necessary for carrying out anything, 
but the machine is only a method. It should not be of more 
importance than the work it is to do. Art is a matter of 
individualism, or careful study and preparation, and, in the 
motion picture, of cheerful cooperation. The motion picture 
production demands clearer thought and less impatience, more 
attention to major points, and less to minor technical details, 
greater attention to producing the worth-while pictures the 
public really does want, and less to production of the trash 
some morons believe the public wants. 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 331 

This list can, naturally, be extended almost without limits, 
as it covers a very broad variety of scenes, and may include 
many types of music. 

PROCESSIONS; HISTORICAL 

"Aida: Grand March" (Verdi) Creatore's Band — Victor 
35780. 

"Merchant of Venice: Doge's March" (Rossel — Movie 
Organ Solo by Quentin MacLean — British Columbia 9586. 

"Coronation March from The Prophet" (Meyerbeer) Men- 
gelberg and the Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra — Victor 
7104. 

"Cockney Suite: A State Procession" (Ketelbey) — Albert 
W. Ketelbey and his Concert Orchestra — British Columbia 
9860. 

RELIGIOUS; CHURCH SCENES 

"Ave Maria" (Gounod) Charles O'Connell, Organ — Victor 
21216. 

"In a Monastery Carden" (Ketelbey) — Movie Organ, Reg- 
inald Foort — Victor 35821. 

"Largo" (Handel) — Organ, Lew White — Brunswick 20083. 

STORMS 

"Flying Dutchman Overture" (Wagner) Berlin State Opera 
Orchestra — Victor 9275. 

"Adagio from New World Symphony" (Dvorak) Philadelphia 
Symphony Orchestra in Victor Album M-l. 

"The Storm" (Pattman) Movie Organ Solo by G. T. Patt- 
man — Columbia 50252-D. 

(Continued on Page 39) 



To 

ALL MY FRIENDS 
ALL OVER THE 
WORLD . . . 
I WISH A 

Happy 

and "Prosperous 

1931 

GLENN R. KERSHNER 




4145 Jelferson Avenue 



Culver City, California 



TELEPHONE CILVER CITY 515-t 




TART the 



JA^w 2ear Wisely 



by ORDERING a 



CI NEM ATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 



CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 

1930 



A book valuable to everybody directly or indirectly interested in the 
Motion Picture Industry . . . Production, Photography, Exhibition, 
Sound Laboratory, Color Effects ... A wealth of facts and statistics 
such as can be found nowhere else . . . forcefully written by 
Master Technicians and recognized authorities . . . has a definite 
place in the Library of all Production and Distribution Executives. 
Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting Engineers. 
Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and Home Movie Makers. 



5 oo 



_ per copy 



Beautifully bound in Blue and Gold. 675 pages 
Postage prepaid anywhere in the World 



SuBUSMEO 9Y 

THEAMIRICAN 50CUTY 

or 

CttidAKX-RAPHEKS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOCRAPHERS, 

1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five 

Dollars ($5.00) for which please send me prepaid, one copy of your 

Cinematographic Annual. 



Name 



Compiled and Published by 

The American Society of 
Cinematographers 

Hollywood, California 



Address^ 
City 



Stale 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



37 



Production Cost Up $46,000,000 

Interesting Figures Revealed by Census Bureau 



AN INCREASE of more than $46,000,000 in production 
r"\ costs from 1 927 to 1 929 is shown by figures gathered 
/ »in the ] 929 census of manufactures, made public yes- 
terday by the Census Bureau. The total cost of work done by 
143 establishments last year was $180,864,319, compared 
with $134,343,360 spent by 142 companies in 1927. Half 
of the increase was in theatrical films, of which 2,543 were 
produced last year at a cost of $118,692,733, against 1,347 
costing $92,593,732 in 1927. 

For the first time the bureau was able to segregate pro- 
ductions so as to show sound and silent pictures separately, 
the 1929 production including 344 negatives with sound, 
costing $34,186,010, 689 with dialogue, costing $67,719,- 
427, and 1,510 silent, costing $16,787,296. Expenditures on 
unfinished productions last year totaled $17,888,180, com- 
pared with $13,267,338 in 1927. 

News films are shown to have cost $2,923,286 last year, 
against $2,499,660 in 1927; advertising pictures, $3,367,- 



160 against $617,466, and educational films $192,242 
against $337,159. 

Other items listed are: Laboratory work, positive films, 
$10,698,678 against $12,491,088, and receipts for lab work 
done for others, $21,116,060 against $11,921,655; value of 
other work done, $1,647,698 against $615,262; and receipts 
for use of studio facilities, $4,338,282, not reported separate- 
ly in 1927. 

The report shows the number of salaried officers and em- 
ployes last year as 8,298, against 7,598 in 1927; the average 
number of wage earners, 10,785 against 8,415; salaries paid, 
$58,920,014 against $56,298,560, and wage payments, $24,- 
722,053 against $18,637,005. The cost of materials, fuel and 
purchased electric current is given as $38,166,988, against 
$34,867,472, and payments for contract work, $9,437,452 
against $15,476,548. 

The figures cover only production and do not extend to 
distribution or theatre operation. 



$18,000,000 PROGRAM AT UNIVERSAL 



A NNOUNCINC the largest budget in the history of Uni- 
/■A versal Pictures, Carl Laemmle, president, today revealed 
/ \that $18,000,000 would be spent in film production 
during the 1931-32 season. 

This is $3,000,000 more than the amount spent during 
the past season, which was the most active in the annals of 
the organization. 

Quality pictures, rather than quantity, with especial em- 
phasis on stories, will be the policy, Mr. Laemmle stated. 

The definite number of pictures for 1931 has yet to be 
determined, according to Carl Laemmle, Jr., in charge of pro- 



duction, but it is contemplated that the program will con- 
tain a few more feature pictures than last years. The num- 
ber of short reels and serials will remain the same. 

The $18,000,000 budget does not include the amount that 
Universal will spend on stage plays for Broadway production. 

Conferences are now being held on the pictures to be pro- 
duced, and the first of the group will be announced shortly 
after the New Year, Mr. Laemmle, Jr., stated. More original 
screen stories will be sought, and a number of new personalities 
introduced. 



Seventy Features Planned by Paramount 
for 1931-32 

PARAMOUNT will have between 70 and 75 features on 
its 1931-32 program, Adolph Zukor told "The Film Daily" 
recently as he arrived at Grand Central Station from the Coast. 
This would mean an increase of from five to ten over 1930-31. 
"Business is all right," he said, referring to his own organiza- 
tion. 



10 U. S. Films Banned Last Year in India 

A REPORT to the House of Commons, compiled by Wedg- 
wood Benn, Secretary of State for India, revealed that 10 
American subjects were prohibited from public exhibition in 
that country during the twelve months ended Sept. 30. Films 
barred were "Anarkali, or the Monument of Tears," "Charge 
of the Cauchos," "Drums of Love," "King of the Khyber 
Rifles," "The Letter," "The Red Dance," "Scarlet Lady," 
"Truth About Sex," and "The Very Idea." 



55 Photophones in Australia 

R-C-A PHOTOPHONE has just completed its 55th installa- 
tion of sound equipment in Australia. The list includes 
!8 houses in the Hoyt circuit. 



New Laboratory at Radio Pictures to 
Employ 500 Workers 

HAVING purchased four lots just across from the studios, 
at Gower and Waring streets, Radio Pictures immediately 
will start work on million-dollar laboratory, which when com- 
pleted, will give employment to at least 500 people. Several 
thousand artisans will be put to work constructing the build- 
ings. 9 

Theatre Wiring Increase in India 

MADAN BROTHERS, the biggest cinema in India, have so 
far only wired their houses which cater for the European 
population. They have now decided that the time is ripe to 
install talking picture apparatus in their other theatres which 
cater for the native population. That this decision is correct 
is proved beyond doubt by the great success of the recently 
equipped Crown Cinema, Calcutta, which is a native theatre, 
and which has been packed to capacity at each performance 
ever since it opened. % 

Technician Mission 

A SPECIAL mission of technicians has been commissioned 
by Gaumont of Paris to visit the principal film trade 
centers of the world. The mission is authorized to study the 
equipment of the ideal sound-film studio. It is expected to 
arrive in London at an early date. 



January, 1 931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR A P H E R 



Thirty-nine 



Relegated to the Junk Pile 




WHEN ALADDIN, some several thousand years ago, went 
crying through the streets, "New lamps for old," he 
was in search of that magic lamp that was able to produce 
anything that its bidder asked for. Heavily laden with all 
sorts and sizes of equipment that evidently would produce 
light, Aladdin, at great cost to himself, offered these lamps for 
the one type and design upon which he confidently could rely. 
It had produced everything that he had demanded. 

Several thousand years later, today to be exact, scores of 
modern Aladdins in our most profitable motion picture insti- 
tutions are gaining immediate response for efficiency and 
everything else that they demand from lamps that Aladdin 
would have coveted. 

Aladdin's lamp evidently was silent in operation, a feature 
mat would have pleased the producer of today — but that 



vital factor with the other merits of the Aladdin lamp, are 
to be found in modern Laco Lites. 

We know that had Aladdin lived in this age of precision 
and performance, and had been engaged in the production 
of motion pictures he would not be forced to search for the 
one and only proven efficient lite. For Laco Lites, made in a 
number of sizes and designs to meet every studio require- 
ment, are built with a precision that makes a battery of them 
work as one — and the sets of our studios are equipped with 
them — all there to do their magic bidding. 

The lamps illustrated on this page are not three thousand 
years old, yet they represent a few of the many whose places 
have been taken by Laco incandescent equipment — yes they 
ARE silent now. 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 36) 

TRAGIC SCENES 

"Prelude in C Sharp Minor" (Rachmaninoff) — V'ctor 
Concert Orchestra — Victor 35951. 

"Cockney Suite: Elegy ("Thoughts on Passing the Ceno- 
taph") (Ketelbey) — Albert W. Ketelbey and His Orchestra 
— British Columbia 9861. 

"New World Symphony" (Dvorak) — Philadelphia Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor Album M-l. 

WEIRD, MYSTERIOUS 

"Unfinished Symphony" (Schubert) — Philadelphia Symphony 
Orchestra — Victor Album M-l 6. 

"Fantastic Symphony" (Berlioz) — London Symphony 
Orchestra — Columbia Album 34. 

"Funeral March of a Marionette" (Gounod) — San Francisco 
Symphony Orchestra — Victor 6639. 

In addition to these general classes, it may be remarked 
that some types of film-subject may be used with almost any 
sort of music: Comedies, for instance, go well with up-to-date 
dance-music, news-films with military marches, and so on. 
Scenic or travel films allow the use of many beautiful and 
interesting compositions which can seldom be used otherwise: 
however, as in every other department of cinematic endeavor, 
it must not be forgotten that the score must be but an 
auxiliary to the picture on the screen — not a show in itself. 
Used Droperly, it is one of the most effective aids to successful 
presentation; abused, it can quite as easily spoil the show. 
Therefore, if you would please your audience, in your scoring, 
as in all other branches of your presentation, let good taste 
reign. 



AMATEURS 

Keep Step with the Professionals by Reading The 
Technical Cinematic Magazine of the Motion Pic- 
ture Industry. 

THE AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 

Published in Hollywood by the American Society 
of Cinematographers, the leading professional cam- 
eramen of the world. 
You cannot afford to be without it. 
For Amateurs — Service department, special tech- 
nical articles by the world's greatest authorities on 
cinematographic science. 
[Fill in and Mail Today 1 

American Cinematographer, 
1222 Guaranty Building, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars 
($4.00 for foreign rate) for one year's subscription 

to the American Cinematographer, to begin 

with the issue of 1930. 

Name 

Address - 

Town State 



Forty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



January, 1 93 1 



WILLIAMS' 


SHOTS 


Will give you the results you need. We have 


the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 


Cinematography in Hollywood. 


Any background, either real scenes or miniature. 


may be used. Scenes may be corrected 


without retakes. 


Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 


dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 


Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 


for a sequence or one scene. 


Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 


Composite Laboratories 


8111 Santa Monica Blvd. 


Tel. OXford 1611 






WILLIAMS' SHOTS 



# A New Color Film System # 

Extraordinary simplicity in take and projec- 
tion, 
Natural color pictures in a new purely mechan- 
ical way. Patent rights to sell. 
Apply to: 
W. B. BREDSCHNEIDER, 

Poland, Warsaw, Leszno 113-3 




produce Moonlnjnl and NiqWEffesrs in Ttaytinrc- 

Fco, Scenes- DitfaseeTocus and many vlW effects, 

just like they make 'em in Hollywood. ~~«» 

cAsfe [joup dealep or unite to 

GEORGE H. SCHEIBE 

PHOTO-FILTER SPECIALIST 



Mi 



Roy Davidge 
Film Laboratories 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 

exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

GRanite 3108 



Extensive 1931 Schedule Planned by 
Fogwell, Ltd. 

LONDON — Reginald Fogwell Productions, Ltd., has an- 
nounced plans for an extensive increase in production activi- 
ties for 1931. Having just completed "Madame Guillotine," 
the company early in January will star Percy Marmont in an 
adaptation of the Gilbert Frankau novel, "Martin Make Be- 
lieve." In March, "Black Damp," a mining story, will be 
placed before the cameras. Other vehicles for the new schedule 
are being lined up and Madeleine Carroll, who was recently 
signed to a 550,000 contract, will be featured. 

German Talkers in Prague 

PRAGUE — After being barred since the demonstrations of 
last September, German pictures will again be shown in 
three Prague houses. Lack of suitable domestic material 
compelled the decision. 

Austrian Production Revived 

VIENNA — Talkers have brought about a revival of produc- 
tion in Austria. The first sound picture to be exported 
from here is now showing in Berlin and its success is credited 
to the inventor of the Selenophon sound recording system. The 
Selenophon studio is available to foreign companies desiring 
to produce in Austria. 

Bank to Aid French Industry 

PARIS — Banque de la Cinematographic Francaise, formerly 
known as the Union Cinematographique Francaise, plans to 
act as a central body for financing of film industry projects in 
this country. 

W. M. Brown on British RCA Board 

LONDON — W. M. Brown, general manager of the Gramo- 
. phone Co. and a director of Associated Radio Pictures, British 
branch of R-K-O, has been appointed a member of the board 
of directors of R-C-A Photophone. 



Filmo Topics 



THE FOLLOWING is the list of contents for the January 
issue of "Filmo Topics," the very interesting and instruct- 
ive monthly publication issued by the Bell & Howell Company. 
Copies will be mailed free if you send your request to the Bell 
& Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, III.: 
FILMING EUROPE'S BEST SKI JUMPERS 

Movie making on the famous Holmenkollen Hill during 
International Sports Week in Norway. By Fred H. Harris, 
Treasurer, National Ski Association of America. 
LET SHOWMANSHIP BE USED AT HOME 

Master the art of making your home theatre audience want 
to come again. 
FROM CAPE TO CAIRO 

A movie maker's journey with his Filmo 70-D over Rhodes' 
dream route. By J. W. Albright. 
FILMO NEWS PICTORIAL 
TITLING YOUR FILMS 

No. 4 Trick Titles. 
SNOW CINEMATOGRAPHY 

How to capture winter's beauty with your Filmo. By E. 
Fawn Mitchell. 
FILM CONTROL IN THE CHANNEL 

Article No. 13 of the "Facts About Filmo" Series, explain- 
ing how film is accurately registered at the Filmo Projector's 
Aperture. By Joseph A. Dubray. 



January, 1 93 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP HE R 



Forty-one 



B. & H. Announce Talkie Reproducer with 
Microphone Feature 




A SPECIAL microphone arrangement which will enable the 
operator to interject remarks relative to any picture which 
is being shown and to have his voice come from the loud 
speaker in entirely satisfactory volume, is hailed as a revolu- 
tionary feature of the new Bell & Howell portable 16 mm. 
talkie reproducer, the Filmophone. 

This new combination is especially valuable for business, 
educational, church and small theatre use. It will also be 
warmly welcomed in the home. 

The Filmophone itself is absolutely portable in the true sense 
of that word. It comes in two cases, of approximately equal 
size, shape and weight, totaling 88 pounds. It employs a Filmo 
Projector for showing pictures, using 16 mm. amateur size 
film. Sound is obtained by a synchronized phonograph type of 
disc, the same as used in theatres. 

The Filmophone, it is stated, presents the ultimate in tonal 
qualities in portable sound movie reproducers. It produces 
volume sufficient for audiences of several thousand. With it 
perfect synchronization is achieved with greatest ease. It has 
a worm drive of unique design, thus eliminating the double 
motor feature and avoiding any possibility of slack in the 
mechanical coupling which would, of course, destroy synchron- 
ization. The Filmophone is a product of the Bell & Howell 
engineering laboratories and carries with it the Bell & Howell 
manufacturing guarantee. 




The microphone feature permits the operator to plug in 
conveniently at any time, automatically cut out the musical 
or verbal record accompaniment and make any comments de- 
sired in order to emphasize points of a film which may need 
any comments desired in order to emphasize points of a film 
which may need stressing to meet a specific situation. When 
a switch on the microphone is released the record sound ac- 
companiment is resumed. 

A notable advantage of this microphone arrangement lies in 
the fact that it will obviously make it possible to use many 



TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS 




For follow-up shots 
are known for their 
smoothness of operation, 
equal tension on all 
movements and beinzun- 
afTected by temperature. 



Model B 

The Model B is for Bell 
A Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their re- 
spective tripods. 

The handle is tele- 
scopic and adjustable to 
liny angle. 



The Model A is made 
for Amateur motion pic- 
ture cameras and also 
fits the Standard Still 
tripods. 



Trueball tripod heads 
are unexcelled for sim- 
plicity, accuracy and 
speed of operation. 



The Hoefner four-inch 
Iris and Sunshade com- 
bination is also a supe- 
rior product. 

FRED HOEFNER 

5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD 
GLadstone 0243 LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 



silent pictures to good advantage. A salesman, for instance, 
can talk into the microphone while showing a silent film and 
explain his company's product and have his voice accompany 
the picture in a volume equal to that of the Filmophone when 
it is presenting a sound picture, so that a large audience can 
hear him easily. The Filmophone will be marketed with the 
microphone attachment or it may be secured without the 
microphone feature which can then be added later. 

One of the two cases which house the Filmophone contains 
turn table with flexible shaft connection to the Filmo Pro- 
jector, magnetic pickup, amplifier with power pack, tubes, 
needles, needle cup, pocket for three 16 inch records, and 
necessary accessories. The second case houses the loud speaker 
permanently mounted in the case itself, together with the 
Projector, three extra reels of film, empty reel, connecting 
cords, cables and accessories. 

Talkies Increase Tax 

A REPORT issued by the customs and excise commissioners 
shows that taxes on entertainments have increased 700,- 
000 pounds, or approximately $3,500,000, during the past 
year. 

This gain is recorded in spite of England's 5,000,000 
pound drop in general revenue for the year. 

The increase in entertainment revenue is attributed, in a 
large measure, to the large number of sound installations in 
theatres. Talking pictures are credited with bringing thousands 
of new patrons. 



Forty-two 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCRAPHER 



January, 1 931 




Next! 

DISTINCTION of being the smallest town in the world with 
talking pictures is now claimed by the village of Hayes, La. 
Sound equipment has recently been installed in the Magnolia 
theatre there, operated by Felix Herbert. The town's popula- 
tion is given as 80. 

New Pathe Natan Paris House 

PARIS One of the two new Pathe Natan houses constructed 
on the Champs Elysees has been opened. It was originally 
planned to call the theatre, which seats 1,200, the Elysee 
Palace, but the name has been changed to Ermitage Pathe. 



Start the New Year RIGHT! 
Buy a 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL! 



Hal Mohr Picks Year's Cinematographic 
Plum 

AFTER some thirteen years of preparation, the life of George 
Washington is at last coming to the screen. Sponsored 
by the United States Government and financed by C. H. K. 
Curtis, head of the Curtis Publishing Company, and Clarence 
McKay, of the Postal Telegraph Company, the picture will be 
started in February, according to present plans. 

Hal Mohr, President of the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers, has been signed as Chief Cinematographer for the 
picture. Six months will be the shooting schedule, and Allan 
Crosland will direct. Belle Bennett has been chosen to play 
the role of Martha Washington, but no other members of the 
cast have been selected at this writing. Plans for the picture 
have been going along very quietly for some time and no pub- 
licity splurges have been made. Every effort will be made to 
make this the greatest picture of the coming year. Part of the 
picture will be shot in Hollywood and part in the East at Mt. 
Vernon and other locations. 



Banks Directing Sixteenth 

LONDON — Monty Banks is now directing "Show a Leg," 
his sixteenth comedy for B. I. P. in the past year. Leslie 
Fuller is enacting the title role, supported by Molly Lamont, 
Franklyn Silver, Sid Lewis and Alf Goddard. 

Rex Ingram's First 

PARIS — Rex Ingram, recently signed to direct for Paramount 
in France, will make as his initial vehicle under this ban- 
ner, "Le Dieu De La Mer" ("God of the Sea"), at Saint 
Maurice. 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 
1222 Guaranty Bldg., 
Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars 
(Foreign rates additional), for one year's subscription 
to the American Cinematographer, to begin with the 

issue of , 1 9 . 

Name 

Street No 

Town State 

Clubbing Rates 

U. S. Canada Foreign 

American 

Cinematographer $3.00 S3. 50 $4.00 

In Club with: 

Camera Craft 3.90 4.65 5.40 

Photo-Era 4.75 5.00 6.40 

The Camera 3.90 4.40 5.40 

Please make all remittances payable to 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



January, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Forty-three 



Stanley H. Twist 




WORD has just been received that Stanley H. Twist has left 
the Bell & Howell Company, where he was general 
manager of the Safes Promotion Department, and has become 
Sales Manager for the Metal Specialties Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 338-352 North Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, III. This con- 
cern builds the Presto Spray Painting Equipment. 

Instead of facing the coming year with a frown and a feel- 
ing of pessimism, Mr. Twist and the Metal Specialties Manu- 
facturing Company are putting into effect a well organized 
extension program, and predict an unusually successful year 
ahead. It was because of the desire to give this program a 
substantial start that Mr. Twist was secured as Sales Manager. 

Mr. Twist has a long and successful record of both sales 
promotion and advertising to his credit, and his legion of friends 
wish him more than well in his new position, where he will 
be associated with L. W. Colder, Treasurer and General Man- 
ager of the organization. 

Varanus Komodensis 

(Continued from Page 13) 
Tho to all outward appearances the reptile may look and 
act as a prehistoric monster, there is little reason to believe 
that he is any missing link or survivor of a lost period. Rather 
the evidence points to the fact that he is still in a period of 
development, and given a chance to feed, there is no doubt 
that he would grow to a far greater size than he is now, as 
has been proven by one which has been in captivity in the 
Soerabaja zoo for some years. Unfortunately for the Varanus, 
he has little food, and in consequence his development is re- 
tarded. According to the last information from Buitenzorg, 
there will be no more specimens allowed out of the country, 
as they are now making a survey and will no doubt in time 
turn the island of Komodo into a preserve. 



Ruby Exchange Moves 

RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, headed by Irving ("Ruby") 
Rubinstein, has moved headquarters to the second floor 
at 727 7th Ave., New York, where he now has the entire 
floor. The portable sound projector factory at Long Island City 
has also been switched to the new quarters. 




GOERZ 



CINE LENSES 

are optically accurate 
and photographically 
effective » » » » » 

Kino-Hypar f:2.7 and f:3, 35 to 100 mm. 
focal lengths. Simple in design . . . consists 
of only three lenses . . . affords microscopic 
definition in the image. Free from flare or 
coma. Fine covering power. 

Telestar f:4.5. 4Vs to 13V2" focal lengths — 
an ideal telephoto series for long distance 
shots and closeups . . . excels because of 
practical absence of distortion. 

Cinegor f:2 and f:2.5, a Superspeed series; 
ideal for work under unfavorable light 
conditions. 

A ncu) catalog listing the complete line of 

Gocrz Lenses and Accessories will be mailed 

on request. 



CRGOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 

317 EAST 34™ ST. NEW YORK CITY 



Forty-four 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCR AP HE R 



January, 1 93 1 



WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the 
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us, 
we have acquired an exclusive license to all "Trans- 
parency" patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX 
CORP. and ROY J. POMEROY. 

A few current releases containing Dunning Shots 

"WHAT A WIDOW" — Gloria Swanson 

"ON THE LEVEL" — Fox 

"SOUP TO NUTS" — Fox 

"HER MAN" — Pathe 

"ROMANCE" — M-C-M 

"HALF SHOT AT SUNRISE" — R-K-0 

"WOMEN EVERYWHERE" — Fox 

"LEATHERNECKINC"— R-K-0 

"MADAME DUBARRY" — United Artists 

"HOLIDAY" — Pathe 

"THE LOTTERY BRIDE" — United Artists 

"BORN RECKLESS" — Fox 

DUNNING 
PROCESS 

CCMPANy 

"You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow" 

Telephone CLadstone 3959 
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 



When you need 
engraving you 
need the BEST! 



<yi 



You GET it at the 



UPERIOR 

ENGRAVING 

fCOMPANY 

Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half-Tones 

Color Work Designing 

Electrotypes 

Mats, etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Photo-Electric Cells 

(Continued from Page 17) 
Specification of Characteristic 

In gas-filled cells, on the other hand, the effect of voltage 
must be taken into account. For the standard gas-filled cells 
considered earlier, the current for some standard illumination 
(e.g. 01 lumen) at the standard voltage will suffice, but 
others will require more information. This information is often 
given by a series of characteristic curves of the cell (i.e. curves 
relating current and voltage) for a series of different illumina- 
tions. These curves are very useful and should be encouraged. 
The illuminations for which they are drawn should be stan- 
dardized. When white light is to be used, the illumination 
should be given in lumens from the standard illuminants; 
curves for 0001 , 001 , 1, 10 lumen are suitable. For cells to 
be used in the ultra-violet the illuminations are probably most 
conveniently stated in terms of the primary photo-electric 
current that they excite, so that the ratio of the ordinate to 
the figure marked on the curve gives the magnification due 
to gas-filling at the corresponding voltage. This method, how- 
ever, is not wholly satisfactory. It gives the user more informa- 
tion than he wants — for a cell is seldom used at intermediate 
voltages — and it makes it difficult to take account of the 
inevitable variations between individual cells; it would be im- 
possible to give a complete set of curves for every cell. It might 
be desirable therefore to supplement a set of curves generally 
representative of cells of a given type by some smaller amount 
of information relating to each cell. Thus there might be given 
the ratio of current to illumination 

( 1 ) at a voltage so low that it represents roughly the emis- 
sion of the cathode, 

(2) at the highest practicable voltage. 

For (1) a voltage of 20 would be suitable; for though 
the current at this voltage is not always equal to the saturation 
current in the absence of gas, the ratio of this current to the 
saturation current does not seem to vary very greatly in cells 
of different types. For (2) it is necessary to define the highest 
practicable voltage. It might be taken as that at which the 
current increases by x per cent, (where x should be less than 
10) for an increase of 1 volt in anode voltage, the illumina- 
tion being so small that any further decrease of it does not 
change this figure. It is cleverly desirable to choose a small 
illumination for this purpose, because it is then that the maxi- 
mum voltage is most important. 

Other properties affecting materially the performance of the 
cell are the insulation resistance, the "dark current," and the 
stability. In any specification on which the acceptance of cells 
is to be based some account should be taken of these. The first 
two are, of course, to be specified in ohms and amperes re- 
spectively; the third, which is (or ought to be) important only 
in gas-filled cells, should be determined by the change in 
current over some period (say 1 hour) when the cell is sub- 
jected to a prescribed voltage and illumination; it is also neces- 
sary to determine whether the cell is or is not to be raised to 
its glow potential before the stability is determined, for the 
stability is usually greater if the glow discharge is first passed. 

All-Metal Variable Gear Put Out by 
Link Belt Co. 

A VARIABLE gear for speed transmissions, said to be the 
first all-metal product of its kind on the market and to 
consist of two pairs of wheels of the opposed conical disc 
type, between which a chain of special construction transmits 
power, has been put out by the Link Belt Supply Co. of Chicago. 
All the elements of this new mechanism are covered by an 
oil-tight housing which are automatically splash lubricated 
when in operation it is claimed. 



January, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P HE R 



Forty-five 



Foreign Notes 

Pathe-Rural Marketing Low-Price 
Talker Device 

PARIS — Pathe-Rural, manufacturers of low cost projection 
equipment for silent films, 6,000 of which are now in 
operation in rural districts of France, is planning to market an 
inexpensive sound apparatus invented by Vial-Coutarel. This 
device will be adaptable for both silent and talker pictures, 
and will also enable exhibitors with present Pathe-Rural 
machines to change over to sound. In addition, the company 
will issue films in sound and silent versions. 



Imitates Hollywood 

A BUILDING company in the west of Berlin has changed its 
name into "New Hollywood, Ltd." and intends to erect 
studios, laboratories and dwelling houses forming parts of a 
future city near Berlin. These plans may not eventuate in the 
near future, since the company has no important financial 
backing; the originator is an enterprising builder and estate 
owner, Heinrich Mendelssohn. 



Czech Industry Seeks American 
Co-operation 

PRAGUE — Cefid, the motion picture co-operative society of 
Czech directors and artists, financed partly by the 
Czechoslovakian government, is making efforts to enter into 
connections with English film workers in order to establish 
common production of Czech and English talkers. 



Audible Takes Second Welsh House 

LONDON — Audible Filmcraft, which recently acquired con- 
trol of the Lyceum, Newport, has now taken over the 
Pavilion, also in Newport. W. J. Wiffin, manager of the 
Lyceum, has been appointed general manager of the two 
houses. 



Ufa-Emelka Plan Paris House 

PARIS — M. Kohan, financier and member of the Emelka 
board of directors, is reported to be making plans for the 
building of a house here for the screening of Ufa and Emelka 
productions. Emelka, it is said, will first produce French and 
German talkers and then add English and Spanish. 



New Kinema for Bournemouth 



BOURNE 
tion of 



JEMOUTH, ENG. — Plans are under way for the erec- 
a new Theatre Royal on Westover Road. The new 
house will be located next to the Regent, and opposite the 
Bournemouth Pavilion. 



W. P.-Caumont to Produce One 

LONDON — Welsh-Pearson has joined forces with Gaumont 
for the production of "East Lynne on the Western Front." 
The film will soon be placed in work at the Shepherd's Bush 
Studios, under the direction of George Pearson, with Herbert 
Mundin as the star. 



ELMER G. DYER 

AKELEY SPECIALIST 

Aerial Photography Since 1918 



Phone HE. 8116 



Phone GL. 7507 



Hours 9 to 5 
Also by Appointment 

Dr. G. Floyd Jackman 

DENTIST 

706 Hollywood First National Building 
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave. 



HARRY PERRY, A.S.C. 

MULTICOLOR FILMS 



OXford 1908 



HEmpstead 1128 



HARVEY Wm. PRIESTER 

Insurance Experting 

CAMERA INSURANCE A SPECIALTY 

510 Guaranty Building 
6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California 
Tel: Chads tone 4811 



MITCHELL CAMERA 
FOR RENT OR SALE 

Speed Movement — Fully Equipped — 5 Matched Pan 
Tachar f.2.3 Lenses — 4-3-2-40 and 35 — two 1.000- 
ft. and four 400-ft. Magazines — Friction Head for Pan- 
ning — Gear Box for Different Speeds — Baby Tripod and 
High Hat — Cases for all with Yale locks. 

Glenn R. Kershner 

c/o A. S. C. 




Mitchell and ^ A K A C H A C 
Bell & Howell W\/ VI L KAj 

SALES and RENTALS 

J. R. Lockwood 



1108 North Lillian Way 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIF 



Cable Address 
"LOCKCAMERA" 
Hollywood 



Have you ordered your Cinematographic 
Annual? 



Forty-six 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCR AP HER 



January, 1 931 



INDEX to ADVERTISERS Classified Advertising 



Bell & Howell Co -1, 31 

Bredschneider, W. B 40 

Boothe Company - 23 

Charney, C. King.... 29 

Cinematographic Annual 37 

Composite Laboratories.. 28, 40 

Davidge, Roy 40 

Dunning Process Co 44 

DuPont Pathe Film Mfg. Co Inside Front Cover 

Dyer, Elmer 45 

Eastman Kodak Co.. 21, Inside Back Cover 

Factor, Max 27 

General Electric 6 

Goerz American Optical Co., C. P 43 

Hoefner, Fred.... 41 

Hollywood Camera Exchange .. 29 

Jackman, Dr. C. Floyd 45 

Kershner, Glenn R ..36, 45 

Lakin Corp •. 7 

Lockwood, J. R 45 

Mitchell Camera Corp 43, Back Cover 

Mole-Richardson, Inc _ 2 

Moviola Company.. 28 

Perry, Harry.... 45 

Priester, Harvey W._ 45 

Scheibe, George H 40 

Smith & Aller, Inc Inside Front Cover 

Superior Engraving Co 44 

Tanar Corporation 4, 5, 47 

Zeiss, Inc., Carl.... 42 



The TRAIL AHEAD ! 

Don't miss the February issue of the 

American Cinematographer! Better 

than ever! More Big Features! Be sure 

you 

Get Your Copy! 



Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar 
per insertion. 

WANTED For world tour. Young Sound and Color man with portable equip- 
ment or sound truck. Expenses and salary- Sail middle January. Send 
references. Wanderwell, Gen Del-. Houston. Texas. 

WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

WANTED — for cash. DeBrie. Pathe. Bell B Howell Standard cameras. Send 
full description. Bass Camera Company. 179 West Madison Street. Chicago. 

WANTED — From Globe-trotting cameramen, film of foreign countries. Ad- 
dress Rex Gordon, 1215 N June St., Hollywood. Calif. Phone 
GRanite 6933. 

FOR SALE— CAMERAS 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera No. 2 3 0. Tripod with Mitchell legs, baby tripod, 
high bat. adjustable shutter. 6 magazines: 2-2 in. F 2.7, 4 in. F 2.3. 
6 in. F 2.7. 12 in. F 5.6 lenses with finder lenses. Motor attachment, 
carrying cases, first class condition. J. P. Muller. 2629 Calhoun St.. 
New Orleans. I. a. 

FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits. $3500. Cj each. Special 
price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of CINEMATOGRAPHER. 

FOR SALE OR RFNT — First Class Akeley Outfit complete. Phone CR-4274. 
or write Dan B. Clark. A. S. C. office. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. Rea- 
sonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or GR. 4274. 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, equipped up to 6-inch 
lenses. Park J. Ries. 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 1185. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera Don B. Keves. Phone HE 18-11. 

FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR SALE — Carl Zeiss lenses. 50 M. M. F 3.5; 50 M. M. F 2.7: 40 M. M. 
F 2.7; each in B. y H. Mount. Hoefner Trueball head, only. Fits B. & H. 
camera and Mitchell legs. Alpha Films. 3437 Park Heights Ave.. 
Baltimore, Md. 

FOR SALE — One Bell 8 Howell Cinemotor. Like new. Used for one picture. 
J. R. Lockwood. 1108 N. Lillian Way GR-3177. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell Camera equipped for Sound. Al Gilks. 
HE-1490 or A. S. C. Office. GR-4274. 

FOR RENT— CAMERAS 

FOR RENT — Three Mitchell High Speed Cameras. Equipped for sound. 1000- 
Ft. Magazines. J. R. Lockwood. 1008 North Lillian Way. GR-3177. 

FOR RENT Eight Bell fc Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders. Mitchell 

tripods. Park J. Ries. 15 40 N. Cahuenga Ave. GR-1185 

'rOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit. Mitchell trinod. 6 magazines, equipped uo 
to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries. 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don B. Keyei, 
HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40. 50 and 75 mm. 
Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 It. magazines: loose head, tripod. Pliny Home. 
13 18 N. Stanley. HO 7682 or GL 2791. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40. 
5 and 7 5 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol. 
6507 Drexel Ave. ORegon 7492. 

FOR SALE Mitchell and Bell fcf Howell. Akeley Cameras. Lenses, accessories of 

all kinds, new and used — Bargains. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1511 
Cahuenga blvd 

FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR RENT — Cinemotors. Onp Mitchell and one Bell Cin^motors. J. R. 
Lockwood. 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3 17 7. 

FOR RENT — Two Mitchell Tiltheads. one with Bell K Howell adapter. J. R. 
Lockwood. 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3 177. 



FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell and 
Bell V Howell Cin-emotors with counter and batteries. Park J. Ries. 
1540 N. Cahuenga. GR 1 185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor: 1000 
ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes. HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell friction tilthead with Bell 8 Howell adapter. J. R. Lock- 
wood, 1108 N Lillian Way. GRanite 3177. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Plinv Hof>* I 3 l « 
N. Stanley. HO 7682 or GL 2791. 



WARNING! 



t. 



HE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE TANAR CORPORATION, 
LIMITED, HEREBY SERVES NOTICE THAT THE CORPORA- 
TION WILL INSTITUTE INJUNCTION PROCEEDINGS 
AGAINST ANY AND ALL PERSONS OR COMPANIES MANU- 
FACTURING, USING OR OFFERING FOR SALE ANY EQUIP- 
MENT SIMILAR IN DESIGN TO THAT NOW BEING MANU- 
FACTURED BY THE TANAR CORPORATION, LIMITED. 



P 



atents are now pending on all fundamental 
features covering the first successful portable 
sound-on-film recorder. design of the slit-block, 
rollers and method of tracking film in a motion 
picture camera is the sole property of the tanar 
corporation, limited. 

Prospective purchasers of portable sound-on-film 
recording equipment are hereby warned that 
they are undertaking a liability by purchasing 
equipment infringing tanar design. 



The TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd. 

5357 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD, 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 



47 



Forty-eight 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCR AP HER 



January, 1 931 




O &F 

HAL MOHR 
VICTOR MILNER 
ARTHUR MILLER 
CHARLES C. CLARKE 
JOHN ARNOLD - 
WILLIAM STULL 



F I C E 



R S 

President 

- First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 

- Third Vice-President 

Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 



Chas. C. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Alfred Cilks 



Fred Jackman 
Glenn R. Kershner 
Victor Milner 



Hal Mohr 
Arthur Miller 
Sol Polito 



John F. Seitz 
William Stull 
Ned Van Buren 



PAST PRESIDENTS 



Philip E. Rosen 



Fred W. Jackman 



John F. Seitz 



Caetano Caudio 
John W. Boyle 
Arthur Webb, General Counsel 



Homer Scott James Van Trees 

Daniel B. Clark 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. Georg€ 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 



Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Mr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease 



Abel, David — Pathe. 
Allen, Paul H. — 
Arnold, John — M-G-M. 
Archer, Fred — 
August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 

St. Paul. 
Benoit, Georges — Paris. 
Binger, R. O. — M-G-M. 
Boyle, John W. — R-K-O. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C. — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B.- — Fox. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 
Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 
tone. 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 

DeVol, Norman — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell, Chicago. 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners' Vita- 
phone. 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A. 
Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 

Fetters, C. Curtis — Fox. 
Fildew, William — 



Fisher, Ross G. — Multicolor. 

Flora, Rolla — Fox. 

Folsey, Geo. J., Jr. — New York. 

Gaudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros. 
Gilks, Alfred — Technicolor. 
Good, Frank B.- — Warner Bros. 
Gray, King D. — Thunder Bay 

Film, Ltd. 
Greenhalgh, Jack — F-B-O. 
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 

England. 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 
Hilburn, Percy — M-G-M. 
Home, Pliny — 
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 

Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 
Jackman, Fred — Technical 

Director, Warner Bros. 
June, Ray — United Artists. 

Kershner, Glenn — 1st National. 
Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Artists. 
Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner 

Bros. 
Kurrle, Robt. E. — Tec-Art. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 
Lindon, Curly — Paramount. 
Lockwood, J. R. — 
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 
Metropolitan. 

MacWilliams, Glen — Fox. 
Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M. 



Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 
McDonell, Claude — London, 

England. 
Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 
Milner, Victor — -Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Universal. 
Morgan, Ira H. — M-G-M. 

Nogle, George G. — M-G-M. 
O'Connell, L. Wm. — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 
Parrish, Fred — Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Polito, Sol — First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — 
Powers, Len — 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 

Vitaphone. 
Ries, Park J. — 
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 

Lasky. 
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 

Universal. 
Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 
Movietone. 

Schoenbaum, Chas. — Techni- 
color. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — Fox 

Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 
Doug. Fairbanks. 



Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich, Harold — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J- — -Metro- 
politan. 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 
Studios. 

Stevens, George — Hal Roach. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 

Tappenbeck, Hatto — Fox. 
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-G-M. 

Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Hollywood. 

Van Rossem, Walter J. — 

Van Trees, James — 

Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 

Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox. 
Walker, Joseph — Columbia. 
Walker, Vernon L. — Warner 

Bros. 
Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal. 
Wenstrom, Harold — - 
Westerberg, Fred — United 

Artists. 
Whitman, Phil H. — 
Wilky, L. Guy — 
Williams, Frank D. — 
Wrigley, Dewey — Metropolitan. 
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 

Zucker. Frank C. — Photo- 
phone, New York. 



It's to Your Interests 

IT is becoming common knowledge that in 
Eastman Panchromatic Negative, Type 2, 
there has been grouped the greatest combi- 
nation of film qualities ever placed at the 
disposal of the cameraman, director and pro- 
ducer. From its remarkably accurate and uni- 
form panchromatic balance to its tough, wear- 
resisting base, it offers you every opportunity 
to convey your art unimpaired from lot or 
studio to the screen. If you are not already 
using Eastman "Pan," Type 2, it is decidedly 
to your interest to try it in your next picture. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors 

New York Chicago Hollywood 







■ m 



% 









H^ 




(Advertisement) 



£mericci n 



nn 








apra 



Publication fc "Professionals * J ^Amateurs 



A Few More of Our Current 
Photographic Successes 




Negative? II f V J Naturally! 



ESTABLISHED 1802 

CAMERAMEN 

"Cimarron" .. R-K-0 Eddie Cron jaeger 

"Beau Ideal" -.. - .R-K-0 Roy Hunt 

"The Royal Bed" R-K-0 Leo Tover 

"Stampede" ~ .Paramount Archie Stout 

"Scandal Sheet" Paramount ...David Abel 

"The Gang Buster" — Paramount Harry Fischbeck 

"Tom Sawyer" Paramount Chas. Lang 

"The Great Meadow" M-G-M Wm. Daniels 

Clyde De Vinna 

"Reducing" M-G-M Len Smith 

"The Bachelor Father" M-G-M Oliver Marsh 

"One Heavenly Night" United Artists Geo. Barnes 

Gregg Toland 
"City Lights" Chaplin-United Artists. Roll ie Totheroh 

Gordon Pollock 

"Third Alarm" Tiffany ..Max Dupont 

"Aloha" Tiffany Chas. Stumar 

"Sin Takes A Holiday" Pathe John Mescal 

"The CBUPOHP T fd de Mark Has Never Been Placed on an Inferior Product" 



SMITH & ALLER, Inc 

6656 Santa Monica Boulevard ♦ HOIIywood 5147 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



PACIFIC COAST DISTRIBUTORS FOR 



DU PONT PATHE FILM MFG. CORP. 

35 West 45th Street New York City 



Bell & Howell 



EYEMO 



.... three-lens turret 
. . . seven film speeds 

• Bell & Howell's characteristic precision of design 
and workmanship has been carried even a step further 
in the new Eyemo 71-C Camera, which establishes a 
new record in flexibility of 35 mm. hand equipment. 

The variable speed governor has seven speeds rang- 
ing from 4 to 32 frames a second: 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 
32. A speed conversion dial is built into the side of the 
camera, giving correct lens openings for any speed. 

The permanently built-in hand crank in addition 
to the spring motor is a new feature. Its use is optional 
with the operator. The rotation of the crank is regu- 
lated according to the setting of the speed indicator. 
The governor acts as a brake, enabling the operation 
of the crank at no greater than the speed for which 
indicator has been set. 

The turret will accommodate all lenses ordinarily 
employed on the non-turret Eyemo. Lenses used on 
previous Eyemo models may be remounted at the 
Bell&Howell factory or branches for use with the new 
71-C Turret Head Model. Write for folder N0.35-E. 





• B & H AUTOMATIC COMBINATION • 
16-35 MM. FILM SPLICER 

Bell & Howell Standard Film Splicing Machines 
are well-known for the quick, permanent splice 
which they make — a splice which does not affect 
film flexibility or encroach upon picture space. A 
film joined on a B & H Splicer is perfectly welded 
in accurate alignment, eliminating misframes and 
other evils of inferior patching. With its new style 
cutter blades and the heating unit which maintains 
at a steady temperature all parts of the machine with 
which film comes in contact, the B & H Splicer does 
its work at highest efficiency. The new safety lock 
grounded plug more than meets the rigid require- 
ments of insurance underwriters. The Model No. 6 
Film Splicer, a standard 35 mm. 
positive splicer, is equipped with 
disappearing pilots for splicing 
16 mm. film. These pilot pins 
are set diagonally, producing 
the B & H diagonal splice with 
nearly 30% more bonding sur- 
face than a right angle splice. A 
lever drops the 16 mm. pins out 
of sight for 35 mm. splicing. 
Write for catalog No. 35-S. 

BELL & HOWELL 

Bell & Howell Co. 
1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

New York, 1 1 West 42nd St. Hollywood, 
6324 Santa Monica Blvd. London (B & H 
Co., Ltd.) 320 Regent St. Established 1907 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 



JUii 





now- the outstanding development 

in set lighting 

INTEGRAL 
INKIES 



Actually the most efficient light- 
ing unit ever conceived and pro- 
duced » » » the new Integral Inkie 
or Incandescent Lamp. 

Until now, noiseless recording and 
reduction of background noise 
has been the industry's major 
problem. However, the new 
Integral Inkie absolutely eliminates 



all cracking and popping sou 



nds. 



The lamp consists primarily of a 
single casting. There are no sheet 
metal parts to expand or contract 
. . .Made of a special alloy, light in 
weight, strong, and perfected in 
design. Here is the ultimate » » » 
the outstanding development for 
modern incandescent set lighting. 



If It Isn't An Hi It Isn't An Inkie. 



MOLE-RICHARDSON, INC. 

941 NORTH SYCAMORE AVENUE, HOLLYWOOD 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



• AMERICAN ■ 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 

HAL HALL 

HAL M O H R Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C EMERYHUSE 

President, A. S.C. SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA Technical Editor, A. S. C. 

BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren 

Volume XI FEBRUARY, 1931 Number 10 



CONTENTS 

Page 
MEXICO . . . THE WONDERLAND, by Hal Mohr 9 

THE FATE OF THE IODIDE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BROMO- 

IODIDE EMULSIONS, by M. L. Dundon and A. E. Ballard 10 

EIGHT YEARS PIONEERING IN CHINA, by W. H. Jansen 1 1 

SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich 13 

THE EXPEDITION TO AITUTAKI, by Philip M. Chancellor 14 

MANUFACTURE AND USE OF THE THIN-FILM CAESIUM CELL 

FOR SOUND REPRODUCTION, by L. J. Davies and H. R. Ruff 16 

HAL HALL SAYS - - ' 8 

AN INTERVIEW WITH FRANK CAPRA 20 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING. 30 

PORTRAIT PITFALLS, by Lawrence Grant. - 32 

A PROFESSIONAL AMATEUR PLANS UNIQUE FILM.. 34 



FOREICN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS, INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1930, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 




Irene Dunn, as she appears in the role of Sabra Cravat, first the girl, then the old lady, in 

"CIMARRON" 

A RADIO PICTURES PRODUCTION 
Cameraman, EDWARD CRONJAGER Make-up Artist, ERNEST WESTMORE 



Max Factor's 

USED EXCLUSIVELY 



-up 



Tel. HO-6191 



MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS 

Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Grand Ave. Cable Address "Facto" 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



Other Foreign Bra 

London, England 

10 D'Arblay St. 
Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Paseo de la Reforma 36 1/2 
Havana, Cuba 

H-130, Vedado 
Lima, Peru 

Edificia Mineria 


nches 

Johannesburg, So. Africa 
Cor. Joubert & Kerk Sts. 

Manila, Philippine Islands 
No. 39 Escolta St. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
500 Sarmiento 

Honolulu, T. H. 
720 South St. 




Max Factor's 

Theatrical 

Make-up 

for the 

Stage 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 




Postal Telegraph 
Private Wire 

CABLE »DDRll« 

TANARLIGHT" HOLLYWOOD 



HEMPSTEAD 3939 
HEMPSTEAD 3362 



TANAR CORPORATION, LTD 

TANAR RECORDING LIGHTS 

PORTABLE RECORDERS 

Offices: 8357 Santa Monica Blvd. 

laboratories! hoo-i1i2 no. serrano 

HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA. U. S. A. 

January 24,1931 



Mr. Hal Hall, 

Editor, The American Cinematographer, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Hall: 

Due to the number of orders which have 
come into our plant this month, the 
writer has been unable to take time out 
to prepare an Ad. for the American 
Cinematographer. 

We have seven orders in the plant at 
present and all the staff is working 
overtime. 

We will have an interesting announcement 
regarding separate recorder and D. C. 
synchronous motors for your next edition. 



st regards, 




Len. H. Roos,f.r.p.s. 
Vice Pres. & Gen. Mgr. 



LHR-B 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 




Scene from "Morocco" — A Paramount Picture 




NEW STAR 



N EW SUN 



I 



N winning popularity for a new star good photog- 
raphy is as essential as a good play and good acting. 
National Photographic Carbons give the brilliant illumi- 
nation and the same quality of light as natural sunlight. 
The cameraman asks nothing better. Good photography 
is assured by this new sun — the product of modern 
research, up-to-date manufacturing facilities and 
trained technical staff. 

and the star will appreciate the comfort of 

the stage — even with the maximum intensity of lighting 
— when National Photographic Carbons are used. 



NATIONAL 

PHOTOGRAPHIC 



CARBONS 




BRANCH SALES OFFICES 



Proved by test the most economical form of studio 
lighting. Maximum photographic light per watt of 
electrical energy. A size for any studio arc lamp. . . 

NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Carbon Sales Division » Cleveland, Ohio 
NEW YORK PITTSBURGH CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 

Unit of Union Carbide II I ■ ■ and Carbon Corporation 

Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



There is no 
second best! 



LAKIN CORPORATION was first to introduce a noiseless 
lighting product that embraces the essential and necessary 
factors demanded by modern motion picture production. 

Ever abreast of progression, JZ&&G incandescent lighting 
equipment, through its many individual and important 
features, has attained a deserved recognition as the best 

lighting equipment on the market ... it has set 

a standard by which all lighting equipment may be 
judged. 

Conclusive proof of the ability of J%ax>cJ ^te4 . to appreci- 
ably cut labor costs and render a superior service has 
been demonstrated in a vast number of the industry's 
most successful productions. 

"If it's not a ^Zizccr it's not silent!'' 



LAKIN CORPORATION 

1707 Naud Street LOS ANGELES CApitol 5387 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



Eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T C R A P H E R 



February, 1931 




BEAUTY SPOTS IN OLD MEXICO 

SOME unusual photographs of this romantic country brought back by Mr. Mohr. 1 . Some of the Pilgrims to the Shrine 
of Guadalupe. 2. An interesting street market. 3. A typical street in Cuenevaca. 4. Ruins of an old convent, rich 
in beauty. 5. The Pyramid of the Moon. 6. A roof-top view of Puebla. 7. A charming vista on a canal at 
Xochomilco. 8. Mr. Mohr in one of the charming gardens. 



Mexico ... the Wonderland 



by HAL MOHR 

President, the American Society ot Cinematographers 



TO THE ordinary United States citizen the name Mexico 
brings visions of revolutions in which the rattle of gun- 
fire and the buzzing of bullets makes life a thing of more 
than passing excitement; of bold, bad bandits waiting behind 
trees to seize important looking foreigners for ransom purposes; 
of blood-thirsty individuals waiting to blow up railroad trains 
while the passengers sleep. 

My job is not that of being a publicity man for Mexico, 
but after spending six glorious weeks in that marvelous coun- 
try, I cannot keep quiet. I must shout that the world is 
wrong; that instead of being all the things so many people 
imagine, it is one of the loveliest spots that I have ever had 
the privilege to visit. And, as for bandits and all that rot — 
well, here is something to ponder over. 

Mrs. Mohr and I were on our way to the station in Los 
Angeles at the start of our trip. As we passed a certain Los 
Angeles bank we noticed a big, armored truck in front of it. 
The truck bristled with guns. Three men, armed with wicked 
looking pistols stood guard on the sidewalk while several 
other guards carried bags of money into the bank. A crowd 
had gathered to watch it. The reason was because of the 
many bank holdups in our own peaceful community. 

Now — the day we arrived in Mexico City this is what we 
saw: Walking down the street we noticed an old-fashioned, 
horse-drawn wagon stop in front of a bank. There were two 
men on the wagon. They both climbed down off the seat and 
started throwing bags onto the sidewalk. The bags were filled 
with money. When the load was on the sidewalk the two men 
each picked up a bag and walked into the bank, leaving the 
remainder of the money unguarded on the street. We watched 
this strange happening for some time. No one even stopped 
to look at the money bags. There were no armed guards. The 
money apparently was as safe as though the bags were filled 
with potatoes. 



That is Mexico today. Quite a contrast to Chicago, say, or 
any of our large cities. The gunmen is an unknown quantity. 

Mexico today is a country of progress. Rarely will you find 
a nation in which so much effort is being concentrated for the 
advancement of the people. And as for brigandage and revo- 
lutions; those are things of the past, and if the present ad- 
ministration has anything to do with it, will never be again. 
Every official of the country from genial and progressive 
President Ortiz Rubio on down is bubbling over with enthu- 
siasm for the new order of things and a greater and more 
progressive Mexico. 

Speaking of President Rubio brings me to one point that 
is an outstanding feature among the men responsible for the 
conduct of Mexican affairs. That feature is the hospitality and 
unusual friendliness shown the foreign visitor who is in Mexico 
either for real, honest business reasons, or for a friendly visit. 
None of these leaders hide behind a stone wall of under- 
secretaries, but, rather, they are much more easy of access 
than many petty officials of city or county organizations in 
our own country. As long as they know that you are not in 
Mexico for the purpose of "putting something over on them," 
that you are honest and decent, the hospitality of the nation 
is yours. 

Contrary to the cries of certain individuals who continually 
try to stir up bitter feeling between Mexicans and citizens 
of our own country, there is no feeling against us. Instead, 
it seemed to me from my contact with Mexican officials, that 
the United States is the model which Mexico is following in 
its progressive development along educational and industrial 
lines. And great strides are being made in the matter of 
education. Schools and colleges are being provided, and com- 
pulsory education is doing much to raise the general standard 
among the lower classes. Hygiene is being given particular 
(Continued on Page 25) 




A typical bit of Mexican scenic beauty 




Mrs. Mohr in one of the charming gardens 



The Fate of the lod ide in the Development 
of Bromo- Iodide Emulsions 



by M. L. DUNDON and A. E. BALLARD 

Communication No. 417 from the Kodak Research Laboratories 



IT IS commonly known that the high-speed negative emul- 
sions contain silver bromo-iodide in which the iodide con- 
tent may be from one to ten per cent of the total silver 
salt. It appears, however, that the simple question of what 
happens to the iodide on development has not been given the 
attention which it deserves. A search of the literature showed 
that Liesegang 1 has already suggested that the iodide in an 
emulsion may be quantitatively significant in its effect on the 
course of development because the iodide released would con- 
vert adjacent silver bromide into silver iodide. The purpose of 
this communication is to direct attention to the probable be- 
haviour of the iodide during development and to show that 
such a behavior is in accord with experimental data. It is felt 
that this picture of the behavior of the iodide will be of value 
in interpreting certain development phenomena. 

It has been shown by Wilsey 2 that the iodide atoms in bro- 
mo-iodide emulsions of the ordinary type are substituted for 
bromide atoms in the cubic lattice of the silver bromide crys- 
tal, thereby producing a strained condition which, as sug- 
gested by Tri velli , ;: probably makes it more easily ruptured than 
pure bromide. Baldsiefen, Sease, and Renwick 4 found that in 
a given emulsion the larger crystals contained a higher per- 
centage of iodide than the smaller ones. As the larger crystals 
are usually more sensitive, and are exposed and developed 
first, if such crystals develop completely, their iodide must be 
liberated along with the bromide in the form of a soluble 
iodide salt. Renwick and Sease 5 also found that the ripening 
process brings about gradual changes in the distribution of 
iodide in the individual grains, and stated that emulsified silver 
iodide added before mixing gives the same result as potassium 
iodide. 

Because of the fact that silver iodide is less soluble than the 
bromide, the iodide is precipitated first from a mixture of the 
two halides. Further, if silver bromide is treated with a solu- 
tion of soluble iodide, the bromide is rapidly replaced and sil- 
ver iodide is formed. If, for example 1 , a positive film is im- 
mersed in a one per cent solution of potassium iodide, within 
a minute the silver bromide is converted very largely to silver 
iodide. 

When potassium iodide is added to a developer it diminishes 
fog very greatly, but only a small quantity remains in the de- 
veloper after use, as it is rapidly taken out by developing film. 
On the other hand, Southworth" has stated that a very small 
quantity of potassium iodide is effective in diminishing fog in 
strong developers, and that the decreased fogging action of 
used developers can be explained largely by the effect of the 
minute quantity of iodide taken from the emulsion during de- 
velopment. A small amount of iodide has also been used to 
prevent the development of abrasion marks, as the surface 
layers become iodised so quickly that surface development is 
prevented. 

Probable Fate of the Iodide 

With these facts in mind we can state the probable behavior 
of the iodide to be as follows. When a crystal of silver bromo- 
iodide develops, both the iodide and the bromide go into solu- 
tion as the dissociated ions to form the alkali salt. In this form 
the bromide diffuses through the film, and most of it gets out 

10 



into the developer and remains there. The iodide, however, 
immediately replaces the bromide in any undeveloped grains in 
its vicinity, forming a deposit of silver iodide on their surface 
and freeing an equivalent quantity of bromide. Thus, those 
grains which have already started to develop continue, and de- 
velop to completion because of their large and growing nucleus. 
Undeveloped grains, however, especially those in which no de- 
velopment is taking place, are coated with iodide to an extent 
determined largely by the percentage of iodide in the original 
emulsion and by the number of available undeveloped grains 
on which the iodide may be deposited. 

It seems logical that if single iodide atoms are interspersed 
among the bromide atoms in the crystal lattice, when develop- 
ment occurs such iodide atoms would be liberated along with 
the bromide. Once liberated, and in the form of iodide ions, 
they would not re-combine with silver to form silver iodide in 
the reducing environment of a developer. Further, they would 
be as free to migrate as the bromide ions and would be removed 
from solution only by substitution for bromide in a solid par- 
ticle of unreduced silver bromide. With sufficient exposure 
and full development, if all the grains develop completely, the 
iodide must diffuse out into the developer or into an adjacent 
area of less exposure. 

Experimental Data 

The fact that most of the iodide in the original emulsion 
remains in the undeveloped portion when exposure is not com- 
plete was demonstrated as follows. Two pieces of film were 
carefully flashed and developed in caustic hydroquinone de- 
veloper for five minutes. The flash exposure was so adjusted 
that at least two-thirds of the original emulsion was exposed 
and developed. Without fixing, the negative silver was dis- 
solved by treatment with an acid solution of potassium perman- 
ganate and the manganese dioxide cleared out with sodium 
bisulphite. The residual emulsion on each film was then an- 
alyzed for the percentage of bromide and iodide, with the re- 
sults given in Table I : 



TABLE I 

Sample Emulsion Treatment 

1 . Type A Untreated 

2. Type A Residual emulsion after 

development 

3. Type B Untreated 

4. Type B Residual emulsion after 

development 



Developable Percent 
Density Iodide 



4.0 

1.02 
3.80 

1.30 



4.0 

17.8 
1.25 

3.70 



Thus it was established that after removing part of the avail- 
able silver by exposure and development, the residual emulsion 
contained a much greater percentage of iodide than it did 
originally. In fact, it appeared that nearly all the iodide in the 
original film remained in that part of the emulsion which was 
left. The question still remained as to whether the iodide in 
the residual emulsion was there because the bromide had de- 
veloped out, leaving a skeleton of silver iodide from the original 
bromo-iodide crystals, or whether the iodide had been devel- 
I Continued on Page 22) 



Eight /ears Pioneering in China 



by W. H. JANSEN 

Industrial and Educational Films, Inc., Shanghai, China 



FEW of us realize how little we know about any country 
other than our own, until after we have spent a consider- 
able number of years in that country, and it is only by 
contact and experience among its inhabitants that one can 
grasp an idea of the actual conditions regarding the customs 
and manner of living of its people. No amount of printed news 
without picture illustrations, no matter how vivid the de- 
scription,, can convey to the imagination the true conditions 
as they appear through personal contact, and that which we 
see through our own eyes. 

Next in value or importance to our eyes is that which we 
see through the lense of a camera, and brought to us in the 
form of a picture, especially the motion picture, bringing 
actual life before us, which has done more for us in the field 
of education than any other known device. America's foremost 
position in the world, one might venture to say, has been 
largely due to the advantage of having the world's wonders 
brought to her screens. The quoting of an old Chinese proverb: 
"one picture being worth 10,000 words" is proved by the 
following story of my eight years pioneering the motion picture 
industry in China. 

Arriving in Shanghai in 1922, the motion picture activities, 
in the city termed the "Paris of the Orient," with a population 
of about one million, boasted in those days of about three 
"movies," and just a scattered few ramshackle galvanized iron 
affairs, way below the standard of our old-time converted store 
"nickelodeons" existed — in fact, they lacked the megaphone 
barker and old hurdy-gurdy piano in the lobby, and with the 
dim lights and a few hand painted posters made them very 
dismal looking places. The clientele of not more than about five 
of this handful of movie houses was made up mostly by Eu- 
ropeans or as termed in China "foreigners." The first two 
front rows of seats were set aside for the Chinese at 20 cents 
"small money," which was equivalent at that time to about 
7 Vz cents in American money, and were rarely ever filled. 

The pictures shown were mostly either "duped" copies or 
were picked up on the San Francisco market at about from 
$5.00 to $10.00 a reel, and many of them were resurrected 
from the "film morgues." Most of them had from one-third 
to a half of the story missing, so this will give you an idea 
of the average picture we had in "them good old days." So 
far as this story goes, it seems like history repeating itself, and 
brings us back to the beginning of pictures in America, but 
the difference being that this story is dealing with the con- 
ditions as recent as only eight years ago, whereas these so- 
called "good old days" existed in America as far back as 
twenty years ago. 

Searching around for an opportunity in this field, I found 
that there had been only one previous attempt at making 
motion pictures in China, the effort being a series of 200 foot 
lengths of funeral and marriage processions and such othe.' 
phases of native life. 

Not being any too pleased with the prospects of this field, 
I was just on the point of making my departure for more 
fertile soil, when I received a note requesting my presence at 
the office of the British-American Tobacco Company. The next 
morning when I had my interview with one of the directors of 
this company, I was asked whether I would consider remain- 
ing in China if a satisfactory offer were made. Having already 
bought my ticket for passage to Manila, I was in a rather un- 
decided mood, and more so when I was asked whether I 
could make cartoons. Up to this time I had never given a 



single thought to a cartoon, or how it was made, excepting the 
enjoyment I remembered getting out of the old Mutt and )eff 
series I used to see when I was in South America. After a 
rather lengthy discussion of the matter, I accepted the offer 
made to me, as I thought I could at least try anything once. 

Without knowing the first thing about cartoon making, I 
found space in a garage, setting up my equipment I carried 
with me on my tour through India and Africa and on my 
general globe trotting, and proceeded to solve the mystery of 
mechanical action on the screen. Three months was the time 
agreed upon to produce my first cartoon. Well, it is too long 
a story to relate all the details of how I solved the mystery of 
this intricate work, but I can assure you that it is a true say- 
ing that there are more crazy people outside of asylums than 
there are inmates. However, it will ever remain a pleasant 
memory to me to have seen the enthusiasm shown by every- 
one concerned upon the showing of what I then considered 
my masterpiece, the subject of which was a donkey wagging 
its ears and refusing to move until it smelled the smoke of a 
cigarette its Chinese leader lit; the smoke spelling the name 
of the cigarette in the air, making the donkey roar with 
laughter, the motto being "Contentment for the smoker — 
contentment for the ass." 

The exhibition of the donkey cartoon being declared a 
roaring success, and would meet with the company's cigarette 
advertising needs, it was agreed that I would continue, but I 
found my quarters far too cramped to meet the needs of what 
I had in mind for future development. When I suggested to 
the Company that I should have more adequate space in which 
to work, they were somewhat reluctant to expend to what I 
thought would meet the needs of the future. 

Having been up to this time a resident for about three 
months, I had an opportunity to become more acquainted with 
the future possibilities China presented, and I decided that if 
the Company was not willing to put up something more like 
a studio, I would put it up myself, and instead of being in their 
employ, I would do the work for them, which would give me 
scope to promote that what I saw would in time be one of the 
world's most promising fields. 

Leasing a roomy, old-fashioned house, I transformed it into 
quite an up-to-date miniature studio, which outgrew its use- 
fulness in less than one year. 

It then became necessary to seek a suitable piece of ground 
and erect one of the most modern and best motion picture 
studios that at that time could be found anywhere in the 
world outside of the United States of America. This splendid 
plant was built entirely of good hard brick and had hardwood 
floors, steam heat, and electric ceiling fans in every room. The 
studio consisted of an entirely closed stage, over 100 feet in 
length, dressing rooms, cabinet shops, scene painting depart- 
ment, and a lighting equipment of over 3000 amperes. The 
laboratory building was fully equipped, modern and up to date 
in every respect. 

The product of these studios, in a little over a period of 
two years, was 191 reels, 1000 ft. length of town topics, 59 
one-reel scenic pictures, 1 5 one-reel educationals, 6 two-reel 
comedies, and 4 feature length pictures, among them being 
the famous "Legend of the Willow Pattern Plate," the first 
Chinese film to be sold on the world market having its premier 
showing in London before Her Majesty Queen Mary and other 
members of the royal family. This film had a record of 263 
(Continued on Page 26) 

11 



Twelve 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



February, 193' 



f D 




Fig. 1. 



L£A/SSP££&-C///l/?r- 

APSRTl/RE 700% FOR/-/ 
%5 70/5 20 25 30 35 40 4-5 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 /OOX, 




f^P^ 7% & 



APERTURE 
% 

Fig. 2 



g 6.25% 
7..M Uteterich 



Screen Definition 



by DR. L. M. DIETERICH 



Consulting Engineer 



PART 4 



FOR REASONS beyond the control of the author it was 
impossible to properly prepare for this issue the compara- 
tive test photographs necessary to show some classical 
results of proper filter applications. 

This, part 4 of the analytical study of Screen Definition, is 
therefore published ahead of schedule. It deals with some of 
the optical details of motion picture lens construction, which 
should be understood by the practical cameraman in order that 
he may obtain correct exposures, so necessary for good screen 
definition. 

One of these details relates to the proper handling of lens 
stops. 

It is the intention of the following study to fully acquaint 
the adolescent cameraman with the relationship of lens speed 
or light transmission to the f values for which nearly all lenses 
are calibrated. 

In Fig. 1 f is equal the focal value F of the lens divided by 
the diameter D of its working aperture. As an example: If a 50 
mm (2") lens has a working aperture of 25 mm diameter then 

F 50 
f = — is — — 2 or it works at f :2. 
D 25 
If the diameter of the selected stop should be 20 mm 
50 
then f would be — = 2.5 or the lens would be working at 

20 
a speed of f:2.5 and so forth. 

The actual speed of a lens, however, depends on the amount 
of light that passes through it, and this again of the size of the 
circular opening of the lens system left uncovered by the stop. 
The area of this circle determines the amount of light passing 
through the lens and acting upon the film emulsion. The 

D-7T 

area of a circle of the diameter D is A = or as the 

4 
speed of a lens is in direct proportion to the area of its work- 
ing aperture or stop it increases with the square of the diameter 
of such working aperture or stop. 

In the above example a 50 mm lens working at f:2 has 

25 L V 

a working diameter of 25 mm or a stop area of A = = 

4 
490.62 square mm; working at f:2.5 it has a working diameter 

20 L V 

of f:2.5 or a stop area of A, ~ =314 square mm or 

4 
( 490.62 ) 



at f:2 it works about 1 V2 times 



as at f:2.5. 



= 1.56 > as fast 



314.00 



It takes a great deal of practical experience to correctly 
judge lens speeds from the f value stops usually calibrated 
upon the lens barrels. To facilitate such judgment the author 
shows in Fig. 2 a diagram from which aperture areas (lens 
speeds! can be directly read for any f value. 

At first glance this diagram looks rather complicated and 
may be bewildering to the non-technical cameraman, but the 



author hopes that the following explanation will make it a 
reliable and easy workable tool for any cameraman. 

On its left hand f values are shown from f:l to f:4 and on 
its upper edge aperture area values in percent, starting on the 
upper right hand corner with 100'r for f:l. 

The method of ascertaining the correct lens speed for any 
f value between f:l and f:4 is shown by two examples. 

Locate f:1.8 on the f scale, follow its location horizontally 
(marked by arrows) until you strike the curve A. Follow from 
the intersection point a the vertical line (marked by arrows) 
upward until you strike the (aperture) speed scale and read 
the lens speed: in this case 30.86 or about 30% f v of the f:l 
speed. 

If you repeat this method for f:4 you strike the '/< scale 
at 6.25 or get a lens speed of 6Va°A of that of f:l. If you 
divide 30% by 6V2 you get approximately 5 or a lens work- 
ing at f:1.8 is about 5 times as fast as the same lens working 
at f:4. 

On the right hand side of the diagram, Fig. 2, the f values 
from f:4 to f:32 are shown and using the corresponding 
curve B the relating lens speeds can be read on the lower 
speed scale. 

f:4 is the start on this scale showing again 6.25 ','c of the 
f:l speed as read before the help of the A curve. 

f:ll, following the arrowed lines, gives on the lower scale 
a speed value of 0.82 ' '< , f:22 a speed value of 0.20% or a 
lens working at f:22 is about 4 times slower than the same 
lens at f :1 1 . 

The two f scales emphasize by underlining the standard 
f scale from f:l to f:32 and the reading of their correspond- 
ing speed values is facilitated by lead lines. 

The circles marked according to this standard scale enable 
the cameraman to get a quick comparison of the relative 
sizes of stop openings for the different stop numbers. For 
the above cited examples f:1.8 — f:4 — f:ll and f:22 these 
stop sizes have been partly shaded. 

Fig. 3 shown on page 38 is a table which shows for the 
standard f values, used for lens calibrations, the corresponding 
lens speeds, or light transmission values in correct (column 1 ) 
for practical quick comparison, sufficiently correct (column II) 
and according to the usual calibration scale on the multiple 
basis for practical purposes also approximately correct (column 
111) values. 

Co'umn III shows the tremendous difference in lens speeds 
for different f values and has been especially shown, because 
very often these large differences are underestimated by the 
average cameraman. This column shows per example a lens 
working at f:l to be one thousand times as fast as the same 
lens working at f:32, at f:3.16 — one hundred times as fast 
and at f:10 — ten times as fast as at f:32. 

The author hopes that this analysis and the diagrams shown 
herein may be of practical value and help to the cameramen 
at large and especially to those workers in the field of cine- 
matography starting on the arduous and often discouraging 
road to become successful cinematographers. 

In the next issue the author will try to present a practical 
manual for the use of color filters. 

13 




A ITUTAKI is not at all a well known island. Indeed so little 
/■A known is it that were it not for the chance of meeting 
/ Vhe Resident Agent of Aitutaki, on a voyage from Tahiti 
to Wellington, I doubt that I should have heard of it at all. 
During conversation several things soon manifested themselves. 
Perhaps the first was that there were native dances there that 
had never been filmed, and the second was that there were fish 
there that had never been collected. Both of these were just 
what I was looking for, and so it was decided that Aitutaki 
would be the goal of the second expedition. 

Thru the genial arrangements of the Government of New 
Zealand, our arrangements were made to stay there. We paid 
over an amount of money for the construction of our various 
houses, and for the leasing of land, for our camp. Also an 
interest was stirred up when they heard that one of the prime 
objects was to film the dances. 

When we got there, everything was in readiness for our ar- 
rival, and we were greeted by about all the people of the island, 
as well as our old friend, the Resident Agent. Tho the feeling 
of hospitality is somewhat the same thruout Polynasia each 
island differs somewhat from the other in this respect. Aitutaki, 



The Expedition to Aitutaki 

by PHILIP M. CHANCELLOR, A. S. C, F. R. C. S. 



The accompanying article by Mr. Chancellor is one of a series of re- 
ports he will give to this magazine during the coming year of expedi- 
tions to out of the way places in search of material for the Field 
Museum of Natural History. We might explain here that Mr. Chancel- 
lor had hoped to secure some unusual photographs of fish that are 
found only in the waters of that locality. But due to the fact that 
something went wrong with his specially constructed under-water cam- 
era, those had to be left for some future expedition. Last month Mr. 
Chancellor told us of the photographing of the Komodo Lizard. — Ed- 
itor's Note. 



however, excels most of them, and fortunately remains un- 
spoiled, and lacks the prevalent commercial attitude. 

We had hardly time to settle down, when a round of feasts 
and dancing began. For almost a year they had been practicing 
their dances, and they wanted to show them off. I may remark 
that these dances have not been given for about twenty years, 
and some of them have never been held since the "heathen 
days," before the missionaries. The missionaries, with their 
bigoted and insane ideas, have done their best to temper and 
spoil the dances, but they went on in spite of them. Each of 
the seven settlements had their own dances, and one by one 
they gave us a feast, and followed it by dancing. 

The dinner was usually held at noon, and after the usual 
gifts of hats, pearls, mats, etc., dancing commenced. This went 
on without a break until about five, when it was stopped for 
tea. After that they were resumed, until it was too dark to see 
anymore. In the heat of their enthusiasm, they would not toler- 
ate the stopping of a camera for a moment, even to change the 
film. It was futile to explain that I did not have a million feet 
for them, and they insisted that every incident should be taken. 
The solution was arrived at by loading some magazines with 
about four feet of film, and after taking such shots that were 
wanted, allow the motor to keep the crank turning. I do not 
mean to imply that they were in any way unpleasant, but they 
were too enthusiastic. Even when they realized that the camera 
was finished, they kept right on dancing, often until they fell 
to the ground. 

One house was devoted to the cameras, and adjoining that 
was a darkroom for loading, and developing still shots. The 







14 



Natives ready for the dances. 



February, 193) 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Fifteen 




Here they are in full swing for the camera. 



water there was too impure to even consider developing mo- 
tion picture film, and there was no possible way of cooling it. 
However I managed to make some good negative with a Lieca, 
which was the only still camera I had with me. 

The humid climate and weeks of rain had a very devasta- 
ting effect on cameras and lenses. Gelatine filters were fogged 
beyond use within about four or five weeks; even stained glass 
filters would become very fogged in their inside. The lenses 



went the same way. tho they took a longer time to cloud. The 
film, however, kept perfectly, both the new stock which was 
sealed in cans, and the exposed negative, which I was careful 
to dessicate well, with dried paper, and Calcium Chloride. One 
of the cameras whose clearances were adjusted for work under 
normal conditions literally froze up, to such an extent that sev- 
eral of the steel parts, and all of the ball bearings had to be 
renewed upon return. 




Mr. Chancellor does not say whether or not the turtle went into the ceremonial soup. 



Manufacture and Use of the Thin-Film 
Caesium Cell for Sound Reproduction 

by L. J. DAVIES, B.A., and H. R. RUFF, B.Sc. 



Engineering Laboratory, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd. 
Courtesy of the Physical and Optical Societies, London. 



OWING to the increasing use of the sound film, the 
photo-electric cell now possesses industrial importance 
as well as scientific interest, and methods of manu- 
facture have had to be established that will enable cells with 
uniform characteristics to be made in large numbers. The 
problems encountered in such work are somewhat different 
from those of a laboratory, since the efforts of the factory are 
concentrated on establishing schedules which will enable the 
production of the cell to flow smoothly and rapidly with a 
minimum of shrinkage due to failure in emission, or in falling 
outside limits previously defined. This production has to be 
performed, as far as possible, by non-technical labour but with 
skilled supervision. 

The main users of the cell are Sound Reproduction Engineers, 
who have two main requirements that must be met. These are: 

( I ) The cells shall have a specified minimum sensitivity 
sufficient to operate the amplifier up to full output, and in- 
dividual cells must not vary outside agreed limits. 

(2) The sensitivity must be maintained substantially over 
long periods under operating conditions. 




o 

O yyLCathode 
Fig. I. Diagram of Cell, with plan of base. 

Manufacture of Cell 

The demand for cells for our own sound reproducers be- 
came sufficiently large to justify starting manufacture in the 
Lamp Works at Rugby. The type of cell being made is the 
red-sensitive, thin film caesium type. An outline drawing of the 
cell is shown in Fig. 1 . In order to facilitate production the light- 
sensitive surface is formed on a separate silver-plated metallic 
cathode rather than on the glass of the cell. While the cell is 
being exhausted the cathode surface is oxidised and caesium 
formed by reduction of caesium dichromate and silicon con- 
tained in the small nickel capsule supported on the nickel rod 
forming the anode. The general construction of the cell is of a 

16 



simple nature, consisting of the semi-cylindrical cathode at the 
axis of which is placed the single wire anode. These two elec- 
trodes are assembled on a single stem and sealed into a small 
tubular bulb. Provided sufficient care is taken in manufacture, 
excessive leakage current across the stem is avoided, while the 



4000 



5000 6000 

Wave-length in Angstrom units 



8000 



Fig. 2. 



Curve showing the relative energy of light of different wave- 
lengths emitted by a gas-filled lamp. 



use of a single stem assembly makes for rapid production. The 
cells are exhausted on manifolds taking six cells at a time. 
Operators trained in lamp and valve work are being taught to 
perform the somewhat more delicate operations involved in 
the production of a photo-electric cell, and at present under 
skilled supervision are assembling, exhausting, activating, and 
testing cells. After tests in which the primary sensitivity and 
the gas amplification are recorded the cells are packed and 
placed in stores. They are then available for general sale, but 
the majority are sent without further testing to the cinema 
or theatre where the sound reproducing equipment is located. 
A small percentage of the stock is regularly withdrawn for 
complete testing, including life testing by the Engineering 
Laboratory. In addition the laboratory is responsible for the 
drawing up of the specifications of the cells and the design of 
the amplifying systems used with them. The manufacture of 
the cells is, therefore, now on a similar basis to that which has 
been used for some time with radio valves, and we feel that 
should the demand arise there would be little difficulty in 
manufacturing larger numbers. The harsh atmosphere of the 
factory has enabled the somewhat delicate and wayward photo- 
electric cell of the laboratory to grow up into the robust and 
amenable article of commerce, able to stand on the same terms 
as the other members of the vacuum tube family, the radio 
valves, rectifiers, X-ray tubes and lamps, already developed. 

Importance of Red Sensitivity for Sound Film Production 

The importance of a cell sensitive to red light for sound 
reproduction work can be realized from the following con- 
siderations: 

Ml In order to ensure correct focussing on the film, and 
to fit in the space available in the sound head a small tung- 
sten filament lamp is used as the light source. To secure 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Seventeen 



maximum radiation falling on the cell this filament is run at a 
temperature as high as possible consistent with a reasonable 
life. The relative energy radiated at different wave-lengths by 
such a source is shown approximately in Fig. 2. From this it 
can be seen that the greater proportion of the energy radiated 
is in the longer wave-lengths. 

(2) The output of the cell is produced by the variation in 
light flux caused by the difference in transmission of clear and 
exposed film. An examination of Fig. 3 will show that with 



length sensitivity curve by the corresponding ordinates of the 
light source curve. The response of the cell is then propor- 
tional to the area enclosed by this curve. 

The improvement in output due to increase of red sensitivity 
is shown in Fig. 6 which has been obtained from a cell having 
a wave-length sensitivity curve similar to that shown in Fig. 4 
and an earlier cell corresponding to the curve in Fig. 5. 

It is a simple matter to demonstrate this improvement ex- 
perimentally by throwing on the cell light of equal luminous 



/ 



/ 



-i 



w 

\ I 

\ / 



\y 



/ / 



/ 



6000 7000 

•-length in Angstrom units 



Fig. 3. Curves showing the transmission of films for light of different 

wave-lengths. 1, exposed film; 2, clear film; 3, bluish film to represent 

intense daylight; 4, film of red hue for fireside screens; 5, light amber 

film to give a golden effect. 



normal film the difference in transmission between clear and 
fully exposed film is uniform over the band of wave-lengths 
4000-9000 A., and therefore the long wave-lengths are fully 
effective. If the film stock is dyed, as is sometimes necessary, 
it will be seen that maximum difference in transmission occurs 
for all dyes only in the long wave-length region. Since the 
larger proportion of the radiation from the light source lies 
towards the long wave-lengths and since it is at these wave- 
lengths that the maximum difference in transmission is obtained 
for all types of films, it is clear that the cell should respond 
to these wave-lengths. 

The wave-length sensitivity curve of the cell at present 
being made is shown in Fig. 4. This curve is taken by throwing 



2r 



*> 



Fig. 4. 



4000 



5000 6000 

Wave-length in Angstrom units 



7000 



8000 



Wave-length sensitivity curve for later production cells. Energy 
of light constant at all wave-lengths. 



on the cell light of varying wave-length but constant energy 
and measuring the amount of photo-electric current produced. 
It will be seen that in the region 4000-8000 A. no sharp peak 
occurs, whilst maximum response occurs between 7000 and 
8000 A. 

Fig. 5 is interesting in two ways. It shows a plot of wave- 
length against photo-electric response of five cells selected at 
random from a batch of about 200 cells, representative 
of early manufacture. While a certain amount of variation 
exists, in general the cells can be said to possess the same wave- 
length sensitivity curves. It will be noted, however, by com- 
paring the average of these curves with that given in Fig. 4, 
that later cells have been noticeably improved as regards red 
sensitivity. 

If the energy wave-length curve of the light source is 
known, the photo-electric response for any cell to this source 
can be calculated by multiplying the ordinates of its wave- 




5000 6000 

Wave-length in Angstrom units 



7000 



8000 



Fig. 5. Wave-length sensitivity curves for batch 1 of Mazda cells. 
Energy of light constant at all wave-lengths. 



energy from a vacuum lamp and from a gas-filled lamp 
respectively. Since the eye is mainly responsive to the yellow- 
green radiation, the light from the lower temperature lamp 
will contain a higher proportion of long wave-length radiation 
than the light from the higher temperature gas-filled lamp 
since their luminous flux has been equated. The cell having the 
higher red sensitivity will show a greater relative response to 
the vacuum lamp. 




F!g. 6. Curves ca.'cu'ated f om f'g:. 2. 4. and 5. showing relative 

response of two cells to gas-filled lamp. Response is proportional 

to area enclosed by curve. 



Actually, of the cells shown in Fig. 5, Nos. P. 209 and 
P. 210 were rejected for sound film use when tested with a 
gas-filled lamp, although their response to day-light would be 
higher than cells having curves similar to Nos. P. 213 and 
P. 214. 

We acknowledge with thanks the co-operation we have 
received from the Engineering Staff of the Lamp Works in 
the preparation of this paper, and we have to thank the 
Directors of the British Thomson- Houston Co., Rugby, for 
permission to publish it. 



Acoustical Plastic Portland Invention 

JW. DUNCAN of Portland has developed a new plastic 
•acoustical preparation, designed to eliminate echo. Plastic, 
it is said, can be applied to any kind of material with very 
little technical skill. It is extremely porous and has ability 
to absorb the sound waves to prevent reverberation, its sponsors 
say. 



The Handwriting 

AN ASSOCIATED PRESS news item appeared throughout 
the country the other day which should be food for 
thought for intelligent makers of motion pictures. We reprint 
it in full: 

"BOISE (Idaho) Jan. 25. (AP) — Ray McKaig, chairman of 
the legislative committee of the State Grange, tonight issued 
an open letter to the State Legislature pleading with it to do 
something to stop the 'increasing flood of Hollywood filth' 
pouring into Idaho. 

"Asserting there are many high-grade films produced, he 
urged steps be taken to eliminate the 'so-called sex pictures, 
the indecent exposure and sensual embracing and lewd remarks, 
which have about reached the limit.' 

" 'The State Grange, with other organizations in Idaho, 
appeals to the Legislature to do something to serve notice on 
the moving-picture industry that this sewage that is por- 
trayed by word and vision on the screen in some of the films 
must be stopped,' the letter stated. 'I am not prude nor a 
Puritan, yet the indecencies portrayed and the filthy remarks 
made in some of the talkies are an affront to any kind of stan- 
dards of American families'." 

There, in a nutshell, is more than a mere straw which is 
blowing in the wind of revolt against pictures that try to get 
by on the sex angle. True, sex cannot be neglected. But neither 
can it be made the medium for gathering in riches for a 
chosen few from a vast amount of morons. Sooner or later 
it will bring an untold harm to the films. You may call people 
like Mr. McKaig narrow-minded. We will not argue that point. 
But we do feel that while blase New York and Hollywood may 
take the sexy pictures as something necessary to stimulate 
their blood, still New York and Hollywood are but a small part 
of the world in which our pictures are shown and from which 
the picture industry receives its money. 

Congratulations 

HANG up another cinematographic achievement for Clyde 
De Vinna, one of Hollywood's most capable camera 
artists! 

This time it is "Trader Horn," the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 
epic which has been in the making for the past two years, 
and which is well worth waiting for. This man, De Vinna, has 
the happy faculty of giving us such cinematographic achieve- 
ments. There was "White Shadows in the South Seas," for 
which he received the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences award; then "The Pagan," and now "Trader Horn." 
A really noteworthy accomplishment for this modest and 
retiring man. 

And, to Mr. De Vinna's two associate cameramen, Bob 
Roberts, and George Nogle, we also doff our hat; for they had 
a big part in the photographing of this picture which was a 
photographic charm that calls for praise. Mr. DeVinna, chief 
cinematographer, and his two associates, have given us an 
atmosphere in this remarkable picture that they should be 
justly proud of. 

Working under conditions that at times were almost un- 
bearable in the African wilds, these three have stamped them- 



selves as real artists, men who deliver no matter what the 
conditions. It is more or less a custom in motion picture 
circles to forget the cameraman when the publicity is being 
released. Just why, we have often wondered. So, this writer 
takes real delight in giving the mention due the cinema- 
tographers; and again — we repeat their names, Clyde De Vinna, 
Chief Cinematographer, and his two associates, Bob Roberts 
and George Nogle. 

The Endless Chain 

WITH the report that Chaplin's "City Lights" already has 
advance bookings totalling more than four millions of 
dollars, the motion picture air is filled with buzzings to the 
effect that the silent picture is again coming back into its own. 
Maybe! But — there is one thing producers must not forget — 
that there is only one Mr. Chaplin. We confidently say that 
Chaplin would score just as heavily in talkies. In other words, 
it is Chaplin — the great comedian, that the people want to see 
— whether he is silent or noisy. 

And that leads us to the matter of the fads of the motion 
picture world. When talkies were first mentioned, and before 
Warner Brothers scored with Al Jolson, everyone declared tha! 
silent pictures were the only things — that talkies would never 
be any good, could never reach the heights of the silent drama. 
Then they switched about and everyone declared that talkies 
were all that mattered. Then came the color splurge. All turned 
to it whether they needed it or not. Then came the wide film 
fad. For a while it seemed as though pictures must fail unless 
a wide screen and film were adopted. But now the wide film 
is in the discard, and with the coming of a great successful 
silent drama we shall probably see many following in Chaplin's 
footsteps with silents — but they must not forget that there is 
only one Chaplin. 

Musicals 

T BEGINS to look as though musicals are coming back. Let 
us hope so — that is, if they are good musicals. As we all 
know, the patient theatre patrons were simply drowned in 
musicals a while back. And some of them were terrible — and 
we are putting it mildly at that. Now, with Samuel Goldwyn's 
"Whoopee" paving the way, it looks as though there will be 
more musicals. There is no more reason for a musical flopping 
on the screen than on the stage. All that is necessary is a 
good musical. On Broadway a poor musical show closes in a 
hurry. Why not the same on the screen? So, if the producers 
will only give us good musicals a lot of us will be happy, and 
the box office will pick up, too. 

The Answer 

THE CRY from the theatre owners and managers for a long 
time has been to the effect that the motion picture thea- 
tre patrons have been conspicuous mainly by their absence. 
The matter at times has attained serious proportions. 

The other evening this writer dropped down to Los Angeles 
to the Paramount theatre to see "The Blue Angel" for the 
second time. The theatre was jammed, and a long line of 
men and women extended nearly a block down the street — 
all waiting to get inside. 



forward/ 

The following is a message to American business from Herbert ¥ 



N. Casson, editor of Efficiency Magazine, London, England. 
We print it because of its inspiring thought; its call to 
Americans to rise out of the coma of depression 
and forge ahead. (The Editor' 



Vz 



OU are depressed. You think you are crippled. You are afraid of the future. You are 
II of fears. 

"You have half the gold of the world and half of the machinery and most of the auto- 
mobiles and all the skyscrapers. 

"You have the greatest home market in the world and the largest corporations that 
the world has ever seen. 

"You are ruled more by ideas and less by tradition than any other people in the world. 
You have usually done what you thought you could do. 

"Now, can it be possible that a progressive nation of 120,000,000 people can be 
wrecked by the speculations of a little handful of fools in Wall Street? 

"The prices that were forced too high had to come down. Today all prices are too low. 

"There is now a golden opportunity for every man who has eyes to see it. 

"Dollars are now being sold for thirty cents. Practically every security in the United 
States is now being sold at less than its value. 

"The way to create a fortune is to buy from pessimists. Pay your money and take the risk. 

"Frick started his career by buying coke ovens in the slump of 1873. Carnegie made 
$300,000,000 by buying steel plants in slumps. 

"Hundreds of fortunes have been made by buying from pessimists. Ye Cods, what a 
chance there is at this moment! 

"In five years from now most American business men will belong to the ' I Wish I Had' Club. 

"Then, it will be too late to buy a dollar for thirty cents. The opportunity will be gone. 

"When a horse balks, the balk is in his head, not in his legs. He moves on when he 
thinks he will. 

"And when an American business man is depressed, the slump is in his head. There 
is nothing serious to prevent him from making money if he thinks he will. 

"When fear rules the will, nothing can be done: but when a man casts fear out of his 
mind, the world becomes his oyster. 

"To lose a bit of money is nothing, but to lose hope or lose nerve and ambition — that 
is what makes men cripples. 

"This silly depression has gone on long enough. Get rid of it. It is inside of you. Rise 
and walk." 



19 



An Interview with Frank Capra 



by HAL HALL 



THE TIME is some twelve or thirteen years ago. The place is 
a power house over in Pasadena. The hour is four o'clock 
in the morning. It is raining in torrents. Nice and warm is 
that power house, and the engineer in charge smokes his pipe 
contentedly, while a young Cal Tech student dozes peacefully 
on a nearby stool. 

"Frank," suddenly barks the engineer, "Better go out and 
see if that chimney is smoking again." 

And the young man thus addressed rises, turns his coat 
collar up about his neck and trots out into the rain. He has 
to go a couple of blocks down the street before he can get a 
good view of the top of the chimney. By the time he has re- 
turned to report that smoke was coming in clouds from said 
chimney he is soaking wet, and cold. That was the third wetting 
the young man had received in as many nights, for it was the 
rainy season, and the City Fathers of Pasadena were poison as 
far as smoke from the power house chimney was concerned. So, 
the young man, a student of chemical engineering at Cal Tech, 
who was working his way through college, and who receives 
twenty-five cents an hour for working in the power house 
from three o'clock to seven each morning, starts thinking. 

A couple of weeks later he aroused the curiosity, and the ire, 
of the engineer in charge of the power house when he started 
installing a peculiar looking gadget in the base of the huge 
chimney. It consisted of a selenium cell on one side of the 
chimney, and an electric bulb on the other. And when the next 
rain fell the young Cal Tech man did not have to go out and 
get wet, for the smoke would cut off the light and thus oper- 
ate the galvanometer hooked to the cell, ringing a bell when 
the smoke would appear. The apparatus was so good that it is 
still in use in the chimney after all these years. 

The young college student was Frank Capra, director of 
"Flight," "Submarine," "The Strong Man," "Rain or Shine," 
"Ladies of Leisure," and more recently, the big Columbia 
lighter-than-air picture, "Dirigible." And that practical turn of 
mind which made him devise the smoke detector in order to 
keep him inside in the wet weather, is reflected in his motion 
picture work and is more or less responsible for the unusual 
success that has been his in the brief time he has been in the 
business of making motion pictures. 

He has been in the picture game only some six years, and in 
that time has reached a point that many men never attain, even 
with political and family "pull" and years of effort. The chief 
reason for his success, as this writer sees it, is the fact that 
Capra applies that cold, hard, logical reasoning of the man of 
science to his work. He abhors affectation, personal aggrandize- 
ment, slave bracelets, freak attire and the usual "show" that 
so many people in this business use to cloak inability — often 
stupidity. 

"People want to see things as they really are," says Capra. 
"They are not interested in watching candles slowly soften 
and flop over into a wedding anniversary cake when the erring 
wife or husband fails to remember the date. This may be 
subtle symbolism. But candles don't do that in real life. What 
our audiences want to see are the characters. They want to see 
what the characters are doing. They do not want the characters 
blotted out by backgrounds that take up all of the attention. 

"After all. The main thing in a picture is the story. If you 
have no story you have no picture. The degree of the success 
of the picture depends entirely upon the story. The story is 
given the audience by the characters on the screen who enact 
the roles of the characters in the story. Why, then, do a single 
thing that will take the attention of vour audience from these 
characters and the story they are acting out? 

20 



"The suffering woman is the center of attraction, say, in 
one scene. The audience is interested in her and what she is 
doing, and what she is going to do. If you suddenly take their 
attention away from that woman by a kaleidoscopic whirling 
of unusual background the audience naturally shifts attention 
to the background and the story suffers. So, I have always 
submerged the backgrounds and centered everything on the 
players. Reality is what is wanted in pictures, not symbolic 
touches and beautiful settings for mere beauty's sake. 

"This naturally brings me to the subject of photography. 
Photography is one of the most important elements in a 
picture, naturally. But to my way of thinking, the finest 
photography is not that which makes the audience forget the 
players and gasp at the sheer beauty of the setting, instead 
it is the photography that merges itself, so to speak, in the 
general atmosphere of the story. Photography that is not call- 
ing attention to itself is the finest photography. A cinematog- 
rapher should know the story long before starting, and should 
get the mood of the story in his mind, and then keep his 
photography in the mood of the story from start to finish. A 
cinematographer can do more than any other individual in 
portraying the mood of the story, or he can do just the op- 
posite. The good cinematographer portrays that mood, lights 
his picture so that the audience doesn't realize he has lighted 
it, gets over the proper effect so that the audience doesn't 
realize he has done it. In other words, the audience should 
never realize that a director has directed the picture or that 
the cameraman has photographed it. That is why "directorial 
touches" and photographic splurges should be kept out of 
pictures. Excellence in direction is reached when the audience 
never thinks of the director's work. Excellence in photography 
is achieved when the audience forgets photography. Excellence 
in the actor's work is attained when the audience forgets the 
player is John Smith, the star, and thinks of him as a living 
character on the screen. I feel that the time is past when a 
director can make a series of photographic settings of rare 
beauty and foist them on the public. The public wants reality 
and life and story. That is why a player who is not handsome 
or beautiful, but who is a real actor or actress, is such a success 
when given the chance." 

Capra has his own ideas regarding dialogue. He doesn't like 
too much of it, and what there is must be good. Rather a 
wise thought. 

"I believe," says Capra, "that there is too much small talk 
in a lot of pictures. Players chatter away at a terrific pace and 
most of the time say practically nothing. No wonder you see 
audiences squirming in their chairs. Sound is the greatest ad- 
vance the industry has seen. But sound, like color, has its 
place. On the stage the characters are not always chattering 
like magpies. Usually the most tense moments of the drama 
are moments of absolute silence. The same is true in pictures. 
Dialogue where needed — and of the best — that is what is 
needed. But where the story can be carried without it — do 
not have conversation. 

"The stage has been an institution that has come down 
through the ages. It will go on through the ages. The reason 
is because the writers of plays must give a play that holds in- 
terest. The same holds for the screen, although a lot of people 
do not seem to realize it yet. It takes time to write a story 
and a screen play. If you rush it you will have a poor picture. 
You cannot make pictures as you make soup, by recipe. 

"And, as to players. Too much attention is being paid to 
the matter of voices. Less elocution, more real acting, and our 
'Continued on Page 38) 



1931 



PANCHROMATIC 



EaCLU 



Veuillez faire mention de I'Amencan Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



21 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



February, 1931 



The Fate of the Iodide 

(Continued from Page 10) 
oped and re-precipitated according to the mechanism sug- 
gested above. Therefore, in an attempt to answer this ques- 
tion, the following experiments were performed: 

A medium speed film containing four per cent iodide (Type 
A) was fully exposed, and a total of eight square feet was de- 
veloped in two litres of caustic hydroquinone developer with- 
out bromide, using the following formula: 

Hydroquinone 12.5 gms. 

Sodium bisulphite 12.5 gms. 

Sodium hydroxide 25.0 gms. 

Formaline 8.0 c.c.s. 

Water 1 ,000 c.c.s. 

The first sheets (5 inches by 8 inches, developed four at 
one time) were developed for ten minutes at 70° F. The time 
of development was gradually increased to twenty minutes as 
the developer was exhausted. Examination of the developed 
film by bleaching and clearing showed that a trace of unde- 
veloped emulsion still remained on the film. The developer 
was found by analysis to contain in one litre halides equivalent 
to 0. 1 1 8 gm. of silver iodide and 6.16 gms. per litre of silver 
bromide. As the original film contained four per cent iodide, 
and the developer contained iodide equivalent to 1 .9 per cent 
of the silver halide, it was evident that under these develop- 
ment conditions about half of the iodide had developed and 
migrated into the developer. It seems, therefore, that even 
under less extreme conditions of development all the iodide 
must be developed from some of the grains. 

In order to get an idea of the speed with which the iodide 
could replace bromide in undeveloped emulsion a piece of 
unexposed Type B film was immersed in a sample of the used 
developer from the above test. Fifty square inches of film 
were agitated in 500 c.c.s. of developer for five minutes, 
washed, and dried. On analysis it was found that the iodide 
content of this film had increased from 1.25 to 4.3 per cent. 
It is evident, therefore, that even with the small concentration 
of iodide present in this used developer the iodising action was 
quite rapid. 

Another lot of caustic hydroquinone developer was used to 
develop eight square feet per litre of Type A film on which 
ordinary picture exposures had been made. The halide in this 
developer was found to be equivalent to only 0.016 gm. of sil- 
ver iodide per litre and 5.27 gms. of silver bromide, an 
iodide percentage of 0.3 per cent, while the emulsion used had 
an iodide content of 4 per cent, thus confirming the fact that 
it was nearly all retained by the film. 

Iodide in Developers 

The above data shows that a very small quantity of iodide 
accumulated in the used developer tested, along with consider- 
able bromide. This must be the result of an equilibrium 
between that part of the iodide which diffuses out into the 
developer, and that continually absorbed from the developer 
by undeveloped silver bromide. Of course, only a small part 
of the released iodide would ever diffuse out into the developer, 
as most of it, except on fully exposed and developed areas, 
would be retained in the film, as described above. This 
equilibrium value must be greater the higher the iodide con- 
tent of the film used and the more complete the exposure and 
development. 

The fact that developers conditioned by use give less fog than 
fresh ones is generally known, and has been confirmed in this 
laboratory. 7 Southworth'"' stated that the addition of 0.02 gm. 
of iodide per litre added to a fresh high contrast developer is 
very effective in diminishing fog. This is in accord with our 
experience that of all the methods by which we have tried to 
artificially condition a developer to diminish tank fog,' the addi- 
tion of 0.005 to 0.02 gm. of potassium iodide per litre along 
with the usual bromide appears to be the most effective. The 



optimum quantity depends on the developer strength, as too 
much will retard both development and fog. With an 
ordinary carbonate developer, 0.005 gm. per litre is sufficient. 
The influence of oxidised developing agents in preventing aerial 
fog is not considered in this relation. 

Conclusions 

While the simple experiments described above may not be 
sufficient to prove the accuracy in detail of the phase of the 
development mechanism described, yet they do support it very 
strongly. There can be no doubt that in the later stages of 
development the composition of the residual emulsion in respect 
to the iodide bromide ratio is changing rapidly, and that the 
rate of change is affected greatly by the percentage of iodide 
in the original emulsion. Moreover, if the silver iodide is 
developed, and the iodide re-deposited according to the 
mechanism suggested above, a proper consideration of the 
mechanism is of great importance in the interpretation of many 
development phenomena. 

Summary 

A description is given of the probable course of the de- 
veloper of bromo-iodide emulsions, whereby the soluble iod.de 
liberated by development is re-deposited on undeveloped silver 
bromide grains. It was found that with partial exposure most 
of the iodide remains in the undeveloped portion of the 
emulsion, but with full exposure it can be leached out into 
the developer. The small quantity of iodide which accumulates 
in a used developer is a very important factor in its decreased 
fogging action. 

References 

1 Liesegang, R. E., Intermediate Compounds in Emulsion Making, 
Fhot. Ind. Ill ( 1925). 

- Wilsey, R. B., X-Ray Analysis of Some Mixed Crystals of the Silver 
Halides. ). Frank. Inst., 200: 739 I 1 925 >. 

■ Trivelli, A. P. H., The Influence of Silver Iodide on the Sensitivity 
of SJver Bromide to Light. Rec. Trav. Chim. 42: 714 (19231. 

1 Baldsiefen, W. B., Sease, V. B., and Renwick. F. F., Silver Iodide in 
Photographic Emulsions, Phot. J., 50: 163 (1926). 

" Renwick, F. F., and Sease, V. B., Sedimentary Analysis of Photo- 
graphic Emulsions, Phot. J., 48: 360 11924'. 

,; Southworth, )., Negative Developers for Contrast B. J. Phot. 75: 
689, 706 il928). 

' Dundon, M. L., and Crabtree. J. I.. The Fogging Properties of 
Developers. Am. Phot. 18: 742 (19241; ibid. 19: 96 (19251 B. I. Phot. 
71: 701, 719 ( 19241. 



Electrorone Recorder Has Unique Features 

ELECTROTONE portable sound-on-film recording unit, said 
to embody some new and unique features, is a product of 
the Electrotone Corp. of Detroit, manufacturers of sound re- 
cording systems and electrical synchronization. 

In this unit, mechanical light valves and glow lamps have 
been eliminated, while recording is possible with either variable 
density or area, as desired, through a simple mask change. In 
con unction with this unit a patented electrical synchronizer 
is used. Through the use of this electrical synchronizer it 
is possible to have two independent shafts revolve at identically 
the same speed and maintain that speed for as long as desired. 
This means that a motor in Detro't can be regulated to the 
speed of a motor running in New York, or at any given distance, 
without any variation whatever, through radio control. 

As recording of sound is done independent of the camera, 
through the medium of this electrical synchronizer, perfect 
synchronization is assured at all times, as for this particular 
application the synchronizer has been adjusted to exercise a 
complete and abso'utely dependable check 12 times on every 
foot of film running through, the company states. 



Jewish Talker Released 

1ULAMITH," Jewish talker by Abraham Coldfaden, has 
seen released by Judea Films Inc. The silent film was 
produced in Palestine and music and singing added here. 



//QHl 



the Dinners 



m the 



in 



BOOTHE COMPANY 
ALUMI NUM 
CONTEST 



will be 
announced 
in the 



March 
American 
Cinemato gr apher 



• Don't Miss This Issue 



1st Prize $100.00 2nd Prize $60.00 

3rd Prize $40.00 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 

23 



Twenty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TO C R A P H E R 



February, 1931 




1. An impressive altar in the great cathedral at Mexico City. 2. The beautiful and well-preserved altar in the ruins of an old con- 
vent. 3. A view of the entrance to the great cathedral. 4. Weird patterns are found on the canal waters of Xochomilco. 5. At the 
top of the world's highest auto road at Toluca. 6. A typical scene in Xochomilco. 7. A little bit of hidden Mexican charm. 8. A 

striking contrast in light and shadow in Puebla. 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOC R A P H E R 



Twenty-five 



Mexico 

(Continued from Page 9) 
attention, and the results are rapidly resulting in advancement. 

Speaking of hospitality, I must say something about the 
officials who for six weeks did everything in their power to 
make the stay of myself and Mrs. Mohr a visit which we shall 
ever remember with much delight. What we would have done 
without the hospitable guidance of Colonel Casimiro Tala- 
mantes, Chief of the Department of Investigation at Mexico 
City, I do not know. It seemed as though this magnificent 
host did nothing but try to make our stay a pleasant one. 
He guided us to delightful spots that we would probably never 
have thought of. He accompanied us on tours that will long 
remain stamped indelibly on our memories. In short, he was 
a magnificent gentleman. 

Then, there was Benjamin A. Martinez, Chief of Identi- 
fication and his excellent secretary, T. A. Gonzales, who took 
us on a tour of the police stations of Mexico City one night 
that was a revelation to me. And, that tour brought to light 
a condition that should be interesting to us of the crime wave 
belt. Not a murder, not a holdup was revealed in a period of 
twenty-four hours in that great city of hot-blooded Latins. 
Rather a fine condition of affairs. No wonder Senor Martinez 
and Senor Gonzales are proud of their country. 

Jose Garcia Payon, Director de la Biblioteca y Museo del 
Estudo, was another who played no small part in showing us 
old Mexico. And Roberto Garcia, Oficial mayor de la Sria 
Particular del Gobernador del Edo de Mexico. The two accom- 
panied us on some of the most marvelous trips of our entire 
visit. They took us on an auto trip up the highest automobile 
road in the world. That was in Toluca where a volcanic 
mountain rears its magnificent head 18,000 feet into the air. 
The auto road goes up 16,000 feet. What a trip that was. 
What scenic beauty! What photographic possibilities were re- 
vealed on every side! Indescribable! 

Last, but not least, there were President Rubio and his 
capable Secretary, Colonel )ose Martinez. A charming man is 
Senor Martinez; and after meeting us, he reported to the Presi- 
dent that we were in the city. Immediately President Rubio 
sent word that he would like to meet us. Imagine, a President 
so Democratic! And we found him an unusually alert, keen, 
kindly, progressive human being; a man who does not let the 
fact that he is President of a great country cause him to forget 
that he is after all a man. For an hour he discussed motion 
pictures with us. Wanted to know all the latest developments 
from every angle; showed a real insight into the business. 

President Rubio is interested in the motion picture from 
not only the entertainment point of view, but from the edu- 
cational angle. And he declared that any reputable person who 
was really respectable and honest, would find the greatest 
support in any effort he might make along motion picture 
lines in Mexico. They have practically nothing in the way of 
producing lines down there, but hope to see that develop in 
the future. 

From my own feeble observations and my conversations with 
Mexican officials I would say that Mexico offers untold possi- 
bilities to those interested in production — provided they are 
honest and do not go down there with the idea of bunking 
the country by floating promotional schemes that will not 
hold water. The country is motion picture mad. Every picture 
house is crowded. Even the Indians in the back countries flock 
to the picture houses. 

Sound has been installed in most of the theatres, and the 
general public has taken to sound in a thorough fashion. But 
they like Spanish versions. There is considerable objection to 
pictures in which every character speaks nothing but English. 
They cannot be blamed for that, for I am sure that pictures 
with characters speaking Spanish would not attract many of 
us to the theatres here. 

Laurel and Hardy are the great picture favorites of Mexico, 
with Ken Maynard running a close second. The sign of Laurel 




Colonel Casimiro Talamantes 



and Hardy will pack any house in Mexico. In the silent days 
they liked them, but now that this comedy pair are speaking 
Spanish in the pictures that go to Mexico, they are doubly 
adored. The Mexicans howl with delight at this pair. They 
adore Ken Maynard, too. In fact, many with whom I came in 
contact, asked if it would not be possible to have him come 
down there and appear with his horse some Sunday in the 
great Bull Ring of Mexico City. I know that more than 
40,000 people — the capacity of the Arena — would pack that 
place to cheer him. And probably as many more would jam 
the streets leading to the arena. 

From a scenic and photographic viewpoint, Mexico is a 
veritable Heaven of delight. No matter where you turn you 
see subjects that make you want to set up a camera and just 
photograph endlessly. Magnificent old Aztec ruins that have 
come down through the centuries; cathedrals that are beyond 
the power of verbal description as to their gorgeous beauty; 
the famous floating gardens of Xochomilco; towering volcanic 
mountains, silent now, but ever carrying that threat of some 
day bursting forth with a shower of molten lava; the Thieves' 
Market; the ruins of the great convent at Acolman; Chocula, 
the town of 1000 inhabitants, but which boasts of 365 churches 
— one for every day of the year; Cuenevaca and Puebla, 
towns of exquisite charm and photographic beauty. One could 
go on indefiniately. 

One of the real garden spots of Mexico is at Xochomilco. 
This suburb of Mexico City originally was built on marshes and 
swamp. It was a Mexican Venice, with waterways as streets. 
And then, they constructed rafts and upon them placed dirt 
taken from the beds of the waterways. On these were planted 
gardens. As time passed these rafts became covered more 
deeply with dirt; trees were set out and their roots extended 
(Continued on Page 38) 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



February, 1931 



Eight Years In China 

(Continued from Page 1 1 I 
bookings in Great Britain and Ireland alone, and in March, 
1930, was still being shown at the Piccadilly Theatre in Lon- 
don, four years after its original release in that city. 

From these personal efforts came the general knowledge of 
cinematography to China, and was the incentive for the forma- 
tion of 48 actual Chinese motion picture companies during 
1925, exactly three years after my commencement of activities. 
These general activities in the motion picture field resulted in 
the increase of Eastman Kodak Film sales from less than 5000 
feet to over 1 ,000,000 feet per month. The peak for film 
sales has reached over 2,000,000 feet per month, the stand- 
ing order regularly shipped from the Eastman Kodak Company 
plant at Rochester for use in my studio alone being 60,000 
feet of negative and 200,000 feet of positive film per month. 

The purpose of this great motion picture activity was for 
the promotion of cigarette sales, and the method used for 
advertising of the various brands of cigarettes manufactured 
by the British-American Tobacco Company was by having the 
name of the particular cigarette in a small frame at the foot 
of the subtitle. 

We were the first producers in China, not only to make 
films, but the first to use the native language in the sub- 
titling of our pictures. Owing to the increase of Chinese 
patronage we find today more than 200 very fine theatres 
with more in construction. The largest and foremost of these 
having the most modern cooling and heating systems, and some 
with a seating capacity for 3000 people. 

In fact, the Chinese have now become such "movie fans" 
that the major American and European film producers have 
set up their offices in Shanghai, with branch offices in almost 
every city of importance in China. 

As a further example of the business being done today "All 
Quiet on the Western Front" broke all previous box office 
records by grossing nearly $200,000 (Shanghai currency), 
seats being booked a week ahead, and the first time Sunday 
morning showings had ever been resorted to to handle the 
crowds, and it might be said that 80 percent of this gross 
total was from Chinese. 

By the middle of this year there will be more than 40 
major theatres wired for the talkies. 

It requires very little imagination to see what influence 
motion pictures have had toward the Westernizing of China, 
and as the Chinese are now at the inception of a moderniza- 
tion of their society and are receptive to influence from with- 
out, I know of no agency that can be more helpful in hasten- 
ing the transition as an educational factor in all its varied 
aspects as the sound and color films, for which purpose I am 
now in America to re-equip my studio with most modern 
sound equipment, and the establishment of the Multicolor 
laboratory. With these two new factors to work with, it will be 
possible to open up many new avenues for education, which 
I predict within the next five years will open up a vast market 
for many of America's surplus products. 

Besides making this trip for the purpose of purchasing new 
equipment, I am also inviting American manufacturers to sub- 
scribe industrial and educational films, as a part of my educa- 
tional program, as the contribution of films of this nature will 
be the means through which America can give its message of 
good-will to the people of China. 

The following excerpt from a letter sent me by Mr. H. C. 
Mei, of the Chinese law firm of Mei and Liu, Shanghai, gives 
an idea of what the progressive Chinese think of the influence 
of the motion picture. In part he says: 

"I believe that properly diversified, carefully selected and 
really informative films of Western scientifically organized 
industries wMI provide a mental stimulus and make a social 
effect of farther reaching value than all the political and other 



propaganda that has in recent years been directed towards the 
hinterland of China." 

Since this story will appear in THE AMERICAN CINEMA- 
TOCRAPHER especially published to meet the motion picture 
industry, I would like to give a little advice to them for their 
future good in their business relations so far as China is con- 
cerned : 

In the first place we would draw to the attention of the 
directors, story writers, dialogue and title writers, that when 
they design a picture, to forget that America represents the 
whole world. In making up their picture they must forget that 
the queue, commonly known in this country as the "pig tail," 
now belongs only to a picture which deals with some historical 
period of the life of China, previous to the abolition of the 
Chinese monarchy. Today one rarely ever finds, except in the 
most remote parts of China, any one wearing a queue, and 
our writers and directors should remember that it is natural 
to suppose that the bulk of the Chinese audiences patronizing 
American pictures (more especially today since they have to 
listen to dialogue in the English language) are educated 
Chinese. Therefore, any reference made to them by the use of 
the word "Chink" would naturally offend them. In pointing 
out the educational value of motion pictures, it behooves the 
industry to pay a little more attention to these matters, and 
I would also point out that for the few dollars represented in 
that market we cannot afford to have our prestige destroyed 
through a number of pictures dealing with the sex question, 
which paints us before the eyes of the now many million 
Orientals as being an immoral race. Creating this feeling cer- 
tainly does not assist those pioneers representing our industries 
in establishing that harmony and good feeling so necessary in 
dealing commercially with those people. 



© 




W. H. Jansen 



Mr. W. H. Jansen. writer of the above article about motion picture 
development and conditions in China, is head of the Industrial and 
Educational Films, Inc., Shanghai, China. He formerly was well known 
in American motion picture circles as a cameraman. For eight years 
he has been in China and has photographed about every conceivable 
kind of picture over there At present he is in the United States 
purchasing sound, laboratory and camera equipment and making various 
contacts with releasing and producing organizations. Anyone wishing 
to learn anything concerning the picture business in China may write 
Mr. Jansen in care of this magazine, and he will be pleased to give 
any information possible. — Editor's Note. 



ELMER G. DYER 

A. S. C. 

did the 
AERIAL CINEMATOGRAPHY 

on 

COLUMBIA'S 

. . BIG AIR SPECIAL.. 



' Dirigible 




JOSEPH WALKER, Chief Cinematographer 
FRANK CAPRA, Director 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 

27 



National Lamp Works Holds Premiere of First All- 
Color, All -Talking Motion Picture for Industry Use 



Photography by Alvin Wyckoff, A. S. C. 



'r^TEPI 
V. pic 
•^ on 



//STEPPING AHEAD," the first all-color, all-talking motion 
sicture produced for use in industry, had its premiere 
January 12, at the General Electric Lighting Institute 
at Nela Park, Cleveland. 



An audience composed of nearly a hundred National Electric 
Light Association Merchandising Committee members joined 
with Cleveland Electric League officials, publication repre- 
sentatives and Nela Park officials in voicing enthusiastic ap- 
proval of the production which, it is expected by officers of 
the National Lamp Works, the film's producers, will now 
make possible the presentation of the company's merchandising 
story in sections of the country which hitherto have been 
difficult to reach. 

"Stepping Ahead" is a fast-moving vehicle for the offering 
of the National Lamp Works' 1931 merchandising program. 
Through its combination of motion, music, voice and color, it 
presents the potentialities of the lighting market, and shows 
how the National Lamp Works is equipped to assist its Agents 
to capitalize the market. In addition, it shows, in a form that 
every lamp seller can readily understand and apply, the best 
sales methods for increasing lamp sales and how they result, 
in contrast with those methods which in the light of merchan- 
dising research, are no longer considered good practice. 

The opening scene of the film, accompanied by a spirited 
busy thoroughfare. The speaking voice of the film relates how 
in man's forward march of progress, he is stepping ahead to 
the better things of life, and is doing more in less time than 
ever before in the history of civilization. The scene quickly 
fades into sequences in which first a railroad train speeds 
toward the audience, then an airplane taking off from a landing 
field. As with higher speed it approaches closer and closer to 
the audience, the sound of its whirring propellor growing in 
volume, one realizes, as the film announcer points out, that 
man's new conquests have eliminated the fetters that impeded 
his ease and celerity of movement in former years. "This is 
an age of speed," the film voice says, "and man has attained 
a new-day freedom of motion of which our ancestors never 
dreamed." 

The remainder of the first reel is devoted to picturesque 
colored close-ups identifying various lighting markets. A charm- 
ing home setting, with beautifully gowned women, luxuriating 
in the warm, restful glow of flame-tint light, is shown. In 
rapid succession are depicted the vast Sunlamp market, with 
intimate close-ups of busy executives; tiny babies gurgling 
in the warm rays of artificial sunshine; and the Sunlamp- 
lighted Chicago studios of the National Broadcasting Company, 
with a radio recital in progress. The newly developed Photo- 
flash Lamp, General Electric's new contribution to the photo- 
graphic art, which makes possible the finest flashlight pictures 
without smoke, noise or odor, is next demonstrated in actual 
application. Times Square, with its surge of humanity and 
colorful electrical advertising, is next revealed. 

Part two of the film, which is a two-reel production with 
appropriate music throughout, shows a flashback to the days 
when the incandescent lamp was a novelty. A demonstration 
of an attempted lamp sale of those days shows an over-anxious 
store keeper losing a sale to a disgusted prospective lady cus- 
tomer, through his clumsy sales tactics. Then follows the story 
of the National Lamp Works' organization twenty years ago, 
with its inception of nation-wide advertising which, like the 
snow which is shown falling on a miniature city, has blanketed 

28 



the country and caused the present widespread consumer 
acceptance of General Electric MAZDA Lamps. 

The National Lamp Works' Four-Star Merchandising Program 
for retail Agents is then dramatically presented. The Agent 
audience is urged to follow the Four-Star Plan for increasing 
their lamp sales through consistent use of: 1. Attractive Win- 
dow Display; 2. Harmonious Interior Arrangement; 3. Effective 
personal salesmanship, which involves selling lamps by the 
carton of six instead of two or three at a time; 4. Going out 
after consumer contract business. Actual demonstration of 
the right and wrong way to sell lamps puts over this angle of 
the story with a punch that only a colored motion picture 
talking film employing trained actors makes possible for general 
presentation. 

The picture ends with a dramatic review of the possibilities 
of the lamp and lighting market and the powerful urge to 
"Step Ahead with General Electric Mazda Lamps." 

H. H. Green, former Advertising Manager of the National 
Lamp Works, and now Assistant General Sales Manager, who 
conceived the film and wrote its continuity, feels that "Step- 
ping Ahead" will enable the National Lamp Works' field 
organization to tell a better story to a wider audience than 
has been possible heretofore. He points out that whereas a 
sales specialist might make a tour of the country, covering the 
larger cities and speaking to a number of groups of Agents, 
such a method has always taken weeks and months of time, 
the schedules have been difficult to arrange, and individual 
speakers have found it practically impossible to maintain a 
consistent excellence of presentation. In addition, it has been 
expensive and cumbersome to transport a group of trained 
actors and the large amount of "props" and display material. 
The film, he feels, solves these difficulties, since it tells a 
consistent story of uniform excellence, and may be shown 
before one person or a thousand, at any time, and at any place. 

It is planned to release additional films for sales, educational 
and promotional work throughout the country as field con- 
ditions warrant their issuance. The various sectional sales 
divisions of the National Lamp Works throughout the country 
are being equipped immediately with projectors and sound 
equipment. 

"Stepping Ahead" was produced by the Industrial Division 
of Multi-Color, Ltd., Chicago. The scenes were photographed 
in California, New York City, and in the film laboratories of 
the General Electric Company at Schenectady by Alvin Wyckoff, 
who has done a splendid piece of color photography. 



DeForest Radio Develops 2 Photo- 
Electric Cells 

DEVELOPMENT of two photo-electric cells, numbers 602 
and 668, has been announced by the DeForest Radio Co. 
of Passaic, N. J. 

The DeForest photo-electric cell No. 602 is said to be of 
the potassium hydride type. The active surface is deposited 
upon the inside wall of the bulb as a cathode, while a wire 
ring in the center serves as an anode. 

Cell No. 668 is of the caesium argon type. The active 
surface is deposited upon a half cylindrical silver-plated 
cathode, while a straight wire at the axis of the cathode serves 
as an anode, it is claimed. 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TO C R A P H E R 



Twenty-nine 



VERNON L. WALKER, A. S. C 

First Cinematographer Specializing in Process Work 

ADDRESS 

601 West Fairmont, Clendale, California 
Telephone: Doug. 5032R or HE-1128 



Sraub Honored 

RALPH B. STAUB, who made the first interior scenes of 
Alaska in the Mt. McKinley section about 10 years ago, 
when he was about the youngest cameraman in the business, 
has received word from friends in Alaska that a river up there 
has been named in his honor. It is called Ralph River. 

Frenchman Invents Metal Film 

METAL FILM, claimed to be more durable and resistant 
than the present celluloid preparation, and to be of equal 
lightness and efficiency, is reported to have been invented by 
Louis Lumiere, French scientist. 



Remote Control for Theatres 

REMOTE control for sound, enabling a theatre manager to dis- 
pense with cue sheets, buzzer signals, telephone calls, etc., 
and to regulate quality as well as quantity of sound from a 
down-stairs position without interfering with the work of the 
projectionist, will soon be available to all theatres. The device, 
called the Strong Remote Volume Control, and patented by L. 
D. Strong of the Essennay Electric Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 
has been approved by RCA Photophone and will first be in- 
stalled in RCA equipped houses. Later it will be ready for 
adaptation to other makes of sound equipment amplifiers. The 
Essennay company is now turning out the devices for RCA 
Photophone. 



DCN*T 
FAIL 




to send for our 
illustrated catalog 



AUDIC-CAA4EX 

Portable Scund-cn-Film 
Recording Sy/tem 



llol WAMEPA' Exchange 

I J ^^J CABLEHOCAMEX-15H CAHUENGA BLVD -PHONE HO ?431 



Amateur Movie Making 



:♦ by HAL HALL ♦: 



JUST as we were settling back in our well known lethargic 
manner, happy over the fact that a new year had started 
with a rather rosy outlook, despite prevailing conditions, 
our worthy and estimable associate, Mr. William Stull, decided 
to surrender to some wandering microbe that came in with 
the above-mentioned new year. 

In other words, Mr. Stull, who conducts this Amateur de- 
partment in such an interesting manner, became very ill and, 
while he is on the high road to recovery now, still is unable to 
resume his work. So, we have taken it upon our self this 
month to attempt in our feeble way to take his place. We are 
sorry for our readers, for taking the place of William Stull is 
an order that we fear is much too large for such an individual 
as Ye Editor of this magazine. 

We are particularly fortunate in having the services of Mr. 
Stull in the Amateur department, for he is an unusual editor, 
in that he writes entirely from experience. Most of us are too 
busy editing to actually do anything in a practical way. But 
Mr. Stull, a capable man with the professional camera, spends 
hours with the 16 millimeter camera wandering far afield at 
times in his search for subjects that are unusual. Some day 
we hope to persuade him to allow us to have some prints made 
of some of his 16 millimeter subjects and pass them along 
for our readers to view in their own homes. His pictures are 
revelations to a lot of amateurs — and when he reads this he 
will probably tell this writer that he is passing out misin- 
formation. But, be that as it may, we are certain that his shoes 
are a bit too large for this writer to fill. In fact we feel our- 
selves slipping around already. His physician says that he will 
probably be back on the job in time for the March issue. We 
fervently hope so. And now to get to the work of filling his 
space in this department. 

Panning 

The other evening we dropped in on a friend who has been 
asking us for months to come and see some of his 16 milli- 
meter stuff. We use the term "stuff" purposely, for that was 
just what it was. A beautiful scene would appear on the screen. 
But — not for more than two or three seconds. Then SWISH! 
Our eyes would almost flop out as we tried to follow the 
camera. He was what this writer likes to call a "panning 
hound." And such panning. The results gave the impression that 
he simply swung the camera around in an arc much as though 
he were swinging a bucket of water which he knew would spill 
if there was not sufficient speed in the swing to hold it in the 
bucket. 

Practically every subject he showed was spoiled by this very 
bus ness of panning. Apparently he was trying to take in the 
entire world in each shot. This seems to be a major fault with 
users of 16 millimeter equipment. In the past year this writer 
has looked at more shots of this nature than he ever hopes to 
see again in all his life. Why, oh why, do amateurs do this! 
Why not select your shot and make it artistically and let it go 
at that! Why get the idea that every shot must take in all the 
surrounding territory! 

Perhaps the reason for this is the fact that in the pictures 
we see in the the theatres we so frequently see follow and pan 
shots. But you never see them done so hurriedly as to make 
them monstrosities. The cinematographer who makes them has 
his camera on a tripod with a special head constructed so he 



can pan steadily. If he attempted to pan without the tripod 
and the necessary equipment he would ruin a shot that other- 
wise is very effective. Holding a camera in the hand is unsteady 
and difficult enough anyway, without trying to swing in an 
arc that takes in half of a city. So, take this writer's advice, 
Mr. or Mrs. Amateur, and pan less and more slowly and more 
steadily. 

Picking Your Subject 

Another outstanding failing among amateurs, and we seem 
to be in a super-critical mood today, is in the selection of 
subjects to photograph. What a joy it is to sit in some ama- 
teur's home and look at their pictures! And — what a bore to 
sit in the homes of some others! The chief difficulty seems to 
lie in the fact that most amateurs use their motion picture 
camera the same as most people use their still kodaks for the 
first time — just snap at any and everything in sight. In the 
first place, this is a decided waste of film, for there is so much 
we photograph that is not worth a snap of the finger. After the 
first excitement and novelty of making pictures that move is 
passed, it is well to take stock of what we have done with the 
idea of improving in the future. Refrain from shooting pictures 
just for the sake of shooting. Look about for the interesting, 
the unusual — for something that will be of interest next year, 
or perhaps five years from now. 

For example. Suppose you live in Boston, or its suburbs. 
You have a full year's work cut out for you if you sit down 
and plan out a scenic picture that will take in the historic places 
of Boston and surrounding territory. But, do not just start out 
shooting. Plan what you are going to do. Figure what you are 
going to photograph first, study the subject from every point 
of view so that you will secure the best and most interesting 
picture of it. Concord, Lexington, Bunker Hill, the Old North 
Church — why, there is a wealth of marvelous material there. 
But photograph it with an eye to making a picture that, when 
blended together, will be a picture that will give a stranger an 
intelligent view of this historic city. Then, title it intelligently. 
You will have something really worth while. Incidentally, such 
a picture, well done, might be the means of turning many good 
American dollars into your purse, for such a picture has edu- 
cational value, and if properly done and properly marketed can 
be sold. 

The same possibility is found in Philadelphia, Gettysburg and 
countless other places. Think it over, and you will be making 
some scenic pictures that will surprise you. 

One feature that will improve your pictures is the matter of 
titling. So many people go on a trip, shoot a lot of scenes and 
then piece them together and run them in a haphazard man- 
ner, with titles that tell practically nothing. It is a simple 
matter to take the same scenes, arrange them in more or less 
orderly sequence, and then title them so that they tell a story 
from start to finish. For example, you start with a shot of a 
foreign city as you first enter. Expain this in your title and 
then go on with the idea of continuity in mind. You tell the 
story in your titles and portray it in your pictures. Much 
pleasanter to the eye of the folks at home than a jumble of 
shots that you have to explain yourself as the picture is being 
shown. In other words, take a leaf from the note-book of 
Burton Holmes. You know how interesting his pictures are. 
(Continued on Page 41 I 



NEW. ..The B&H PHOTOMETER 

♦ ♦♦ for still camera requirements ♦♦♦ 




■l 


WOr*"' 


1 




RA.P.-1 


5 °- 




MED.-J 
ORD.J 


Vtft 

1/1 




The B&H Photometer, first introduced 
for gauging exposure for Filmo movie 
cameras, is now presented for use with 
"still" cameras. "Matched illumination" 
remains the basic feature of the new 
B&H Photometer. 

This new Photometer gives scientif- 
ically correct exposure readings in terms 
of lens stops from F 1 to F 32, shutter 
speeds from 32 seconds to 1/I000th of 
a second, emulsion factors from "ordi- 
nary" to "ultra-rapid," and filter factors 
from lx to 5x. 

You press a button, sight through ihe 




eyepiece directly upon your object, and 
turn the dial. Then take your lens stop 
reading direct for any shutter speed you 
wish to use — or vice versa. Modification 
for different filters and emulsions is ob- 
tained by moving the respective scales 
to the desired point. 

The new "Still" Photometer is easily 
the most radical advance in exposure 
meter design and operation in years. 
Write for special literature. B&H Pho- 
tometer for still cameras (Model B), $20 
with case, $17.50 without case. Model 
A, for Filmo Cameras, same prices. 



i z ^ 

O a 

| J, o 

£* 
j REG 

| P»ED - 

c 

a I 

\ o _■ 

j < l- 

\ 5 J I- 
" 5 5 : ' 


s 

Z 

1 IL 

it 
ib 

8 

- * 3 
5.5 

! 4.5 
* 

! 5 5 
Z-b 
ZJ 
Z 

1.6 
1.5 
1.2 




- 12 

- 14 

- 8 1 

< 

- * i 

. z i 
5 

f| 

■h 

•T5 
-A 



(Left to right) Ring 
C, for fitter and 
emulsion factors, 
Ring B {stationary) 
for lens stops, Ring 
A for shutter speeds. 



No Filmo has ever 
•♦• worn out ♦♦♦ 

Gen. Milton J. Foreman, soldier and ivorld-traveler, has put his Filmo, 
now more than 5 years old, to the severest test, carrying it on his exten- 
sive travels throughout the world. It has served him loyally, like the 
veteran it is, giving him reel after reel of theater-clear movies, ivith 
never a balk, never a failure. 

Bell & Howell Co., 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

}\rw Tori • Hollywood - London (B & H Co., Ltd.) • established 1907 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



31 




TRADITION has it that, many years ago, an aspiring young 
photographer asked Edward Steichen, then, as now, the 
dean of American camerists, what was the secret of mak- 
ing artistic pictures. And to this question, tradition tells us 
that Mr. Steichen responded, "Simply make them easy to 
look at." 

There is a great deal of truth in that definition. Photog- 
raphy, whether professional or amateur, is primarily a means 
of making accurate and pleasing representations of whatever 
may lie before the lens of the camera. In its ability to do this 
lies both its commercial value, and its claim to artistic stand- 
ing. Being a basically mechanical process, its accuracy is un- 
questionable, while the fact that it can, in a great measure, 
be controlled by the individual photographer indicates that it 
can be made to make pleasing pictures of almost any subject 
— which gives it a place among the arts. 

Unfortunately, however, this matter of individual control 
can be gravely exaggerated. Furthermore, it is being exag- 




Portrait Pitfd 



By Lawrence Grant 




gerated, in too many instances, to the point where individual 
artistry is giving place to affectation. Now, this development 
is quite permissible in the purely amateur field, but in the 
professional field — particularly in the case of portraiture — it 
becomes definitely bad. In my own personal opinion, as one 
who has striven and suffered on both sides of the camera, it 
seems very clear that the sole object of a professional portrait 
should be to give the best and simplest representation of the 
sitter; in other words, Mr. Steichen's picture which is "easy 
to look at." It should be a tribute to the appearance and 
character of the sitter, and not — as is so frequently the case 
today — a tribute to the "cleverness" of the photographer. 

During the course of my many years in the motion picture 
industry, I have had the opportunity of discussing photography 
with most of the outstanding directors, cinematographers, and 
critics of the day; and the consensus of their opinions has been 
that the most perfect and artistic photography is that which 
is invariably simple and unobtrusive. If this is so in the matter 
of cinematography, why should it not be equally applicable 
to portrait photography? In the language of the industry, why 
should a personal portrait serve to publicize the photographer, 
rather than the sitter? In painting and sculpture we find great 
artistry invariably characterized by simplicity and concentra- 
tion upon the subject, letting the attention be focused upon 
the subject, rather than the artistry of the maker. In cine- 
matography we find the same thing. But in photographic 
portraiture, we all too often find ourselves lost in a maze of 
trick lightings, bizarre compositions, and bewildering camera- 
angles, all of which may increase our esteem for the ingenuity 
of the photographer, but which certainly do not bring the 
picture any nearer to Mr. Steichen's ideal of one that is easy 
to look at. 

Probably the greatest offenses are committed in the name 
of composition. Now, obviously some attention must be given 
the arrangement of the component parts of a picture, but it 
has always seemed to me that to go about it with the idea 
of making a perfect S-composition, or a perfect triangle- 
composition, or anything of the sort, was rather putting the 
cart before the horse. If you can arrange your subject so that 
it makes a pleasing picture, why not let it go at that, instead 
of worrying whether or not it is according to the accepted 
forms, or delving into higher mathematics to check the balance 
of the areas of light and shade? In my own photographic 
experience, and that of my friends who operate cameras in 
the various studios and portrait galleries, composition is pre- 
dominantly a matter of an instinctive appreciation of beauty, 
rather than of a conscious striving for effect. If there is any- 
thing to be striven for, it should be that natural simplicity 
which, in the completed print, gives one the impression that 
the picture was quite un-posed. In my own work, I make it a 
definite rule never to lay a finger on my subject during a sitting. 
I find that it puts the average person vastly more at ease if 
you merely tell him the general position you wish him to take, 
and then, after the inevitable firing of lights, focusing, and 
so forth, chat with him until he unconsciously assumes the 
proper expression and pose. This, naturally enough, will enable 
you to capture those fleeting, natural mannerisms and ex- 
pressions which really characterize a person, and which are so 
rare in most portraits. 



32 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Thirty-three 



Upper left on opposite page is Mr. 
Grant at work in his studio. Another 
view of him is also shown at upper 
right on this page. Lower left on op- 
posite page is portrait of Paul Nichol- 
son. Lower left on this page is Serge 
Eisenstein; right is Agostino Borgato, 
character actor. These three portraits 
are examples of Mr. Grant's work. 



^o 




But to be thoroughly satisfactory, this simple, direct natural- 
ness must be observed in every detail of the photographic 
technique. If you use this method of posing your subject, 
your lighting should be equally simple. Obviously studied back- 
lightings and catch-lights would be as thoroughly out of place 
as a full-dress suit on the golf links. But lighting should not 
only be simple, it shou!d be used sparingly. The paramount 
thought in the photographer's mind should be not "how much 
light do I need?" but "how little can I manage with"? Of 



course, the temptation, when we are working by artificial 
light, is to be sure that we have plenty of illumination, and 
to use as many units as we have available, as if to show our 
mastery of lighting technique. This fallacy is as deeply rooted 
in the minds of many professional cinematographers and por- 
traitists as it is in the minds of the amateurs; yet if you visit 
the sets presided over by the really great cinematographic 
artists, you will at once notice that they invariably use an 
(Continued on Page 41 I 







A true son of a Cinematographer. 



Gilbert Warrenton, Jr., and his mother. 



A Professional Amateur Plans Unique Film 



USUALLY, you hear the members of a cameraman's family 
complaining because the cameraman is so busy photo- 
graphing other people that he neglects his own. Some- 
what like the well-known cobbler whose children's shoes al- 
ways need repairing. 

However, no one will be able to say that about Gilbert War- 
renton, A. S. C, one of Hollywood's best-known Cinematog- 
raphers. As a matter of fact, Mr. Warrenton's young son, Gil- 
bert, Jr., some day may well grow tired of being photographed 
so much. Either that, or he will want a camera set up in every 
room of his home, ready at all times. 

Mr. Warrenton is like the fireman who spends his day-off 
in the fire station, for when his day's work is through at the 
studio he dashes home and relaxes by using his Filmo making 
personal movies. For variety, he picks up his Leica and makes 
unusual "stills." He declares that he really becomes quite 
rested by shooting several hundred feet of 16 millimeter pic- 
tures and a flock of stills after a long day at the studio. 

But, getting to Gilbert, jr. This young man was born De- 
cember 27, 1930, and at this writing has been photographed 
more times than the ordinary individual in a lifetime. There is 
a reason. 

Mr. Warrenton plans to make what should be one of the 
most unusual motion pictures ever placed upon a screen: a 
motion picture record of the growth and development of his 
young son. In other words, instead of having a book of snap- 
shots taken from time to time, young Mr. Warrenton, when 
he reaches the age of fifteen years, will be able to go into the 



family projection room and there upon the screen see himself 
grow, as it were. 

The first photographs were made when Junior was thirteen 
hours old. Daily since then his father has photographed a cer- 
tain amount of footage of the baby. For the first two months 
of the baby's life his father plans to make daily shots. Then 
he will photograph him weekly for the next year. The next 
year will see him photographed twice a month. Then it will 
be limited to once a month. 

"This film," says Mr. Warrenton, "will be cut and titled, 
and I feel that we will have one of the most priceless posses- 
sions that a mother and father could possibly have. Can't you 
imagine the joy ten years from now of seeing that baby prac- 
tically growing on the screen? 

"This cinematographic record of my son is not planned for 
any scientific reason. Merely to have as near a living picture 
of his growth as possible. I note that scientists are advancing 
the theory that a child's future may be foreshadowed by the 
motion picture camera. That idea, as advanced by experi- 
menters, is to the effect that individual differences in capac- 
ity, emotional characteristics, personality traits and the like 
assert themselves early. There may be a lot to that, but what 
we are striving for and hope to have is just the most human 
and interesting motion picture one can have — the picture 
which shows the advancing steps in our child. Personally, I 
think it will be priceless not only to his mother and myself, 
but to the boy in later years when he gathers his own children 
about him and shows them this picture." 





Mr. Warrenton photographs his son. 



?4 



Making another shot. 



February, 193) 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-five 



o^nnouncement . . . 



In the March issue of the Cinematographer will be 
found a new department devoted to technical 

LABORATORY PROBLEMS 

This department will be conducted by 

MR. EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 

Technical Editor of The American Cinematographer, and one 
of the recognized authorities on laboratory work. It is hoped 
that this department may become one of the most valuable 
features of this publication. If you have problems, send 
them in. 



Filmo Topics 

BELOW is the table of contents of the February issue of 
Filmo Topics, the very interesting monthly publication of 

the Bell & Howell Company. Copies may be obtained free by 

writing the Bell & Howell Company, at 1848 Larchmont Ave- 
nue, Chicago, III. : 

Cover — Florida sunset boating scene, with Filmo operator. 

FILMOS WHICH WORK FOR A LIVING — News photo page 
dealing with vocational uses of Filmo Cameras and Pro- 
jectors. 

"BRING OUT THE OLD ONES — Spend an evening with your 
films of years ago." 

FILMING ALASKAN EXPLORATIONS — By Bernard R. Hub- 
bard. The "Glacier Priest," head of the Department of 
Geology, Santa Clara University, California, tells of his Eye- 
mo movie-making experiences on the Alaska Peninsula. 

WINTER MOVIE MAKING — How to make the most of cur- 
rent cinematic offerings in the north and south. 

THE LOG OF AN ANCIENT EYEMO — By M. E. Diemer, Ph.D. 

TITLING YOUR FILMS — No. 5 — Using Block Letters. 

LIGHT — ITS PART IN FILMO PROJECTION — Article No. 14 
of the "Facts About Filmo" Series, telling how four hair- 
like filmaments are used to produce the most brilliant of 
home movies. 

Home Talkie Combination Invented by 
Chas. Capehart 

A COMBINATION home set that can be used for recording 
of voice and sound in making of home talkies, reproduce 
the synchronized pictures, play phonograph records and tune 
in on broadcasting stations has been invented by Charles Cape- 
hart, of the Glee-Heart Record Co. It will soon be placed 
on the market to sell for about $300. 



Local S. M. P. E. Elects 

DR. DONALD MacKENZIE of the Electrical Research Prod- 
ucts, Inc., was elected Chairman of the Hollywood Sec- 
tion of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, at the 
January meeting of this branch. Emery Huse, of the Eastman 
Kodak Company, was elected secretary, and L. E. Clark was 
chosen as treasurer. 

In addition to the above named members, the following 
compose the board of governors of the local branch: Peter 
Mole, of Mole-Richardson, who was last year's chairman; H. 
C. Silent of Erpi, and George Mitchell of the Mitchell Camera 
Corporation. 

With the Spring meeting of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers slated to be held in Hollywood, the local section 
has much work laid out ahead and the members are already 
laying plans for the most active year since the Hollywood 
branch was organized. Dr. MacKenzie has many excellent plans 
for the work of the local section and the section looks for a 
banner year ahead. 



British S. M. P. E. Holds First Meeting 

THE British Society of M. P. Engineers, formed to supersede 
the London branch of the American body, has held its first 
meeting and discussed general plans. A constitution has been 
drawn up and the organization plans extensions both in its 
activities and in scope. Relations with the American S. M. 
P. E. will continue to be friendly. 

The provision committee, which prepared the constitution, 
includes S. Rowson, A. S. Newman, Paul Kimberley, Leslie 
Eveleigh and others. 



Thirty-six 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOC R A P H E R 



February, 1931 



Victor Builds Projector For 250 Watt - 
20 Volt Lamp 




WITH the almost universal adoption of the 16 mm. film 
and motion picture projectors for practically all non- 
theatrical uses, intense screen illumination has become a fea- 
ture of vital importance in the more highly developed equip- 
ments. 

The Lamp manufacturers have expended every effort toward 
devising a Projection Lamp of the greatest possible efficiency. 
The latest accomplishment in this direction is the 250 watt - 20 
Volt, T- 1 size lamp which was just recently placed on the 
market. 

This low voltage lamp can, however, be satisfactorily used 
only in connection with a special transformer for 100-120 
Vo't, 50-60 Cycle, A. C. operation. 

The new Model 3-C Victor Cine-Projector has a special 
transformer built into the base, which permits the 250 Watt 
- 20 Volt lamp to be used with the utmost efficiency, and 
with maximum lamp life. 

To provide for use of the 3-C Victor Cine-Projector in 
communities where 50-60 Cycle Alternating Current is not 
available, a "change-over" system of wiring has been utilized 
which permits the transformer to be cut out by removing one 
attachment plug and changing the location of another. The 
projector may then be operated on any 100-130 Volt Direct 
or Alternating Current. The No. 10 Victor Lamp Rheostat 
may also be attached to permit the use of the 165 Watt - 30 
Volt, high intensity lamp. 

Another feature of the Model 3-C is a highly perfected 
opticai system which utilizes as much as possible of the light 
emitted by the source. 

Mechanically, the 3-C Victor Cine-Projector is identical to 
the widely known Model 3, which embodies the following 
features: Perpetual safeguarding against "jumpy" Pictures — 
Positive Film Protection — Protective ever-dependable Double 
Claw Film Movement — "Framer" for accurately centering 
image on screen — Rack-and-Pinion Focusing — Highly de- 
veloped Super Optical System — Direct Gear Drive I no belts I 
with Clutch Control — Extreme Quietness — Great Durability — 
Many Operating Conveniences such as Built-in Rewind for 
Automatic Rewinding of one film while another is being shown. 
Reverse Action for running film backward, and Stop-Action 
for "Still" projection. 

In appearance, the 3-C differs from the Victor Model 3 only 
in that it has, in place of a pedestal base, a receptacle bas3 in 



which the transformer is housed. This new base adds beauty 
and character to the proiector, making it a very attractive as 
well as highly efficient instrument. 

Government Studies Motion Pictures As 
Business Aid 

TO WHAT extent the American movie has "gone into busi- 
ness" as an aid in promoting operating efficiency, and the 
degree of success attending the use of such methods by 
industry, form the sub|ect of a special study now being made 
by the Motion Picture Division of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce. 

At least 2,000 concerns in the United States, it is known, 
have used the motion picture for some business purpose. In 
other cases the ends sought are creation of good will through 
illustration of the firm's products or services. Safety and 
efficiency of plant operation are being promoted and better 
personnel relations secured by many firms through exhibition 
of educational films within the organization itself. 

The Commerce Department through a questionnaire ad- 
dressed to these 2,000 concerns is seeking to determine how 
extensively the films are being employed for these various 
purposes and how efficient in point of results they are found 
to be. With regard to the public use of business movies in 
particular, the Commerce Department wants to know from 
each firm the number of people viewing its films in the course 
of a year in schools, theatres, trade meetings, etc., how difficult 
it is to arrange for showings, and the places in which the 
showings are found to be most profitable. 

The planning and control of motion picture campaigns for 
business purposes, technical problems of production and dis- 
tribution, and methods of measuring the efficiency of the use 
of films in the different branches of business are also dealt 
with in the Commerce Department's questionnaire. 

What the department finds out is expected to shed much 
light on the use and value of motion pictures in business, 
and help formulate plans for the most effective use of films. 
The experience record of past users of films in business will 
be of assistance, it is believed, not only in suggesting successful 
methods of procedure in securing best results with new pro- 
ductions, but also in helping to obtain a more extensive and 
productive use of films which may be already in use. A 
combined experience record in this field will also offer a 
standard by which the success of motion picture activities in 
general may be gauged. 

Replies to the Commerce Department's questionnaire are 
already being received, and the Motion Picture Division expects 
to have the results of the study in form for publication within 
the next few months. 

Advisory Committee Named 

THE EXECUTIVE board of International Photographers, 
Local 659, has named a special committee of fifteen, of 
which Hal Mohr is chairman, to work out plans to secure for 
members of the organization every possible assistance in the 
alleviation of unusual conditions prevailing in the industry 
today and also to discuss and advise upon any other matters 
which may be presented to it by the board. 

Asked by the board to make the selection the special com- 
mittee has named John W. Boyle to accompany Vice-President 
Roy H. Klaffki and Business Representative Howard E. Hurd 
to the east coast for conferences with the presidents of the 
five international organizations represented in the studios. 

Later the delegation of three will confer on pending matters 
with the International-Producers committee in New York. 

The special committee of members is composed of the 
following: 

John W. Boyle, Dan Clark, Arthur Edeson, Alfred Cilks, Rov 
Hunt, Ray June, Oliver Marsh, Arthur Miller, Victor Milner, 
Hal Mohr, Hal Rosson, John Seitz, Karl Struss, James Van 
Trees, and Gilbert Warrenton. 



Ton cannot 

AFFORD 

to be without a 

CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 



CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 

1930 



A book valuable to everybody directly or indirectly interested in the 
Motion Picture Industry . . . Production, Photography, Exhibition, 
Sound Laboratory, Color Effects ... A wealth of facts and statistics 
such as can be found nowhere else . . . forcefully written by 
Master Technicians and recognized authorities . . . has a definite 
place in the Library of all Production and Distribution Executives, 
Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting Engineers, 
Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and Home Movie Makers. 



5 oo 



_ per copy 



Beautifully bound in Blue and Cold. 675 pages 
Postage prepaid anywhere in the World 



euei-isMEO er 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY 

or 

CINE>iAlOeRAPii£.^ 



Compiled and Published by 

The American Society of 
Cinemarographers 

Hollywood, California 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOCRAPHERS, 

1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five 

Dollars ($5.00) for which please send me prepaid, one copy of your 

Cinematographic Annual. 



Name 



Address_ 
City 



Stale 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



37 



Thirty-eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T OC R A P H E R 



February, 1931 



Fig. 3 

Lens Speed Chart 

Values of light transmission (aperture area, speed) for given f values 



% light transmission 



correct 



Multiple Speed values 

standard scale 
approximately correct . . 

KK approximately correct 

II III 



1.0 


1 00 % 


1 00 % 


(1000) 


1.5 


44.44 


441/2 




1.8 


30.86 


303/4 




2.3 


18.89 


19 




2.7 


13.71 


13% 


128 


3.0 


1 1.1 1 


1 1 




(3.16) 


(10.00) 


(10) 


(100) 


3.5 


8.16 


8 




4.0 


6.25 


6'/4 


64 


4.5 


4.93 


5 




5.6 


3.18 


3 1/5 


32 


6.3 


2.51 


21/2 




8.0 


1.56 


1 V2 


16 


9.0 


1.23 


P/4 




(10.0) 


(1.00) 


(1 ) 


(10) 


1 1.0 


0.82 


4/5 


8 


16.0 


0.39 


2/5 


4 


22.0 


0.20 


1/5 


2 


32.0 


0.09 


1/10 


1 



The above chart accompanies the article on Screen Definition on 
pages 12 and 13. 

If any reader wishes reprints of these charts, write to the editor 
and we shall be pleased to mail them free. 



An Interview with Frank Capra 

(Continued from Page 20) 
pictures will be better. Picture people seem to have the idea 
that a butler must have a voice of a certain quality. So they 
pick the butler by voice. I've heard a lot of butlers in my time, 
and I have yet to hear two of them with twin voices, if you 
get my meaning But on the screen they all sound as though 
they were trained in the same school of elocution. 

"The same with other characters. The voice, as long as the 
player can speak clearly enough to get across, should be for- 
gotten, just because a man plays the part of a gutter rat does 
not mean that his voice should be of a certain type. No two 
gutter rats sound alike. So why have them sound alike on the 
screen? Do you get my thought?" 

We did, thoroughly. And, may we say here, that Mr. Capra 
touched a spot that has been a sore one with us. No wonder 
he has made successful pictures. He thinks intelligently. 

And — just another angle to this business of picture making 
from this young man. It has to do with costs, and supervision. 

"You ask me why Columbia has so many good pictures," 
said Capra in reply to said question. "Well, I think the chief 
reason is because they give a director such a free hand in his 
work. They demand quality and results. But they give you a 
chance to produce them. And this makes for lower cost, also. 
For, a director realizes he is more or less on his own as far as 
the picture goes. If he can give a good picture at a low cost he 
has scored doubly. Naturally, if he is using his head, he will 
see that there is no waste." 

Rather a good thought there for the industry. 



Order Your Annual NOW! 



Mexico 

(Continued from Page 25) 

down through the water and became imbedded in the earth 
beneath, anchoring the rafts. This process went on until 
now, as you can see from accompanying photographs, this has 
become one of the wonders of the world. Truly magnificent 
is it all. As twilight falls and you are floating along in one 
of the little boats you suddenly hear the soft tinkle of a guitar. 
Then the sound of a melodious voice floating through the 
evening air, and around a bend you see a little restaurant 
boat approaching. The boat pulls up alongside you and you 
may dine and wine to your heart's content while the enter- 
tainers softly sing and play the Spanish airs that are so delight- 
fully appropriate in that spot. Romance is in the very air. 

Step for a moment into the ruins of the convent at Acol- 
man. From the outside apparently just ruins. You walk with 
a feeling of reverence to the interior and suddenly you find 
yourself in a chapel that for sheer, exquisite beauty takes your 
breath away. Paintings that were done by masters ages past 
and which still retain the magnificent colorings of the day 
they were done. An altar covered with solid gold a quarter of 
an inch thick, beaten there by artists of a kind and skill un- 
known today. Crucifixes of solid gold. And over all an atmos- 
phere that makes one realize that there is such a thing as 
religion, such a thing as a Cod. Through the ages these price- 
less treasures have been there, unmolested by marauders, no 
matter what government was in control. A testimony to the 
greatest element in life — religion. 

As we arrived in Mexico the great annual pilgrimage to 
Shrine of Guadalupe was in progress. As we drove along the 
country roads we saw thousands upon thousands of worshipers 
trudging along on foot. Some of them had walked hundreds 
of miles. Some were crippled, were dragging paralyzed legs 
behind them as they slowly and painfully made their way 
to the greatest of all Shrines. There was a certain something 
about this implicit faith that stirred you within, that made 
you wonder why so many people scoff at religion. And on 
December twelfth when the hundreds of thousands of pil- 
grims climbed the hill to the foot of the Shrine — well, to say 
it was inspiring is putting it very mildly. That is Mexico, how- 
ever. Deeply religious. 

Some of the customs are unusual. Take, for example, at 
the town of Pueblo on a Sunday afternoon. The military band 
took station in the bandstand in the main plaza of the town. 
Dreamy, Latin music mixed with stirring military marches and 
blood-quickening Spanish dance numbers. Everybody in the 
town, dressed in his or her Sunday best, was out for the 
afternoon entertainment. Beautiful, dark-eyed Senoritas, with 
the ever-present Duenna, strolled slowly up one side of the 
plaza. Cay, and dashing young Dons strolled down the other 
side of the plaza. Always the girls and boys apart. Here and 
there a guarded smile from a Senorita as she noticed a young 
man who struck her fancy, just a smile, however, of the 
guarded sort. No flirtation such as we know it. Perhaps, only 
a suggestion of a glance, which would start the heart a beat 
faster in some young Mexican. Charm, romance, sweetness — 
you find them all in this marvelous country called Mexico. 

Czechs Restrict Foreign Films 

THE Association of Czechoslovak Exhibitors recently created 
a committee to work in connection with the distribution 
of imported sound films. It will be the committee's task to 
examine these sound films to determine whether or not they 
are objectionable from a political standpoint and to regulate 
the exhibition of foreign dialogue films in Prague. The com- 
mittee has decided that the maximum number of Cerman films 
to be first-run simultaneously in Prague should not exceed 
three or four. 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Thirty-nine 



'Integral Inkics' 




MOLE-RICHARDSON, Inc., original designers and manu- 
facturers of incandescent equipment for set illumina- 
tion, announce a new product, the Integral Inkie. This new 
lamp is generally conceded by those experienced in set light- 
ing to being the most satisfactory unit of its type ever offered 
for set lighting purposes. 

With the recent introduction of noiseless recording, a de- 
mand has arisen for lighting equipment which is 100 per cent 
noiseless. The Integral Inkie meets this demand, since it has 
been so designed that there are no parts used in its construc- 
tion which produce expansion noises when the equipment is 
switched on and expanding with the heat from the mazda 
globe. 

The Mole-Richardson engineers have designed the head of 
the Integral Inkie of one single aluminum alloy casting. The 
housing, mirror dome, ventilator, light baffles, lamp trough, 
switch box, and trunion plates are one integral piece. This 
lamp head is cast from a special silicon aluminum alloy devel- 
oped by the Aluminum Company of America and known in the 
trade as No. 43. Castings from this alloy differ from ordinary 
aluminum castings, in that, if they are bent or deformed they 
can be easily straightened, and so in case lamps of the new 
type are damaged by falling from the parallels or by being 
knocked over, they can be repaired by ordinary workmen with- 
out excessive cost. 

Another feature of this alloy is that it is one of the light- 
est of the aluminum alloys, it being 7 per cent lighter than 
those customarily used. 

The few additional parts to this lamp, such as the slide 
rods, mirror ring, etc., have been designed to have unrestricted 
movement which allows them to expand freely without pro- 
ducing any sound. 

The Integral Inkie has these advantages; it is 100 per cent 
noiseless from the time it is switched on. It is sturdy and 
strong, the total weight of the complete unit being 66 Vz 
pounds. It is a convenient lamp to handle when rigging the 
set. Mole-Richardson already have the 18-inch and 24-inch 
Sun Spots of the new type of production. 



Natl Supply Installing New Type Lighting 

NATIONAL Theatre Supply Co. is installing a switchboard, 
said to be the only one of its kind west of Chicago, in 
the new Los Angeles theatre. 

This switchboard, which controls the lighting of the entire 
house, is a new type tube-control Westinghouse electric, and 
is being installed at a cost of $34,000. 



All Paramount Shorts Will Be Made in East 

DESPITE reports that Paramount will make some of its 1931- 
32 short product at the Coast it is understood that all 
short production work will be done in the East. One report, 
which has been denied, had it that James Ryan would produce 
shorts for Paramount at the Coast. 



Columbia Set On Television 

WHILE he says that no one knows "how soon television is 
coming or just how it is to be used," when the time 
comes, Columbia Broadcasting System will be ready for it, 
President William S. Paley told directors in his annual report. 
The company, he said, has been licensed by the Federal Radio 
Commission, and "apparatus is being loaned to us by RCA." 



Stereoscopic Effect Devised By Inventor 

ELWIN L. PETERSON, a Hollywood inventor, has devised a 
new method of making motion pictures look realistic by 
using the principal of the old-fashioned stereoscope, which 
had a picture for each eye of the observer with the two pictures 
merging into one and resulting in a three dimensional depth. 

To obtain this effect, Peterson uses two reflectors with a 
single lens, and talkies, as well as stills, may be shown this 
way, it is claimed. 



AMATEURS 

Keep Step with the Professionals by Reading The 
Technical Cinematic Magazine of the Motion Pic- 
ture Industry. 

THE AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 

Published in Hollywood by the American Society 
of Cinematographers, the leading professional cam- 
eramen of the world. 
You cannot afford to be without it. 
For Amateurs— Service department, special tech- 
nical articles by the world's greatest authorities on 
cinematographic science. 
[Fill in and Mail Today] 

American Cinematographer, 
1222 Guaranty Building. 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars 
($4.00 for foreign rate) for one year's subscription 

to the American Cinematographer, to begin 

with the issue of 1931. 

Name 

Address 

Town State 



Forty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



February, 1931 



WILLIAMS' 
SHOTS 



Will give you the results you need. We have 
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 

Cinematography in Hollywood. 
Any background, either real scenes or miniature, 
may be used. Scenes may be corrected 

without retakes. 
Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 

dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 

Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 

for a sequence or one scene. 

Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 

Composite Laboratories 

8111 Santa Monica Blvd. 
Tel. OXford 1611 



WILLIAMS' SHOTS 



Bell & Howell Announce Photometer For 
Still Cameras 



# A New Color Film System 4 

Extraordinary simplicity in take and projec- 
tion, 
Natural color pictures in a new purely mechan- 
ical way. Patent rights to sell. 
Apply to: 

W. B. BREDSCHNEIDER, 

Poland, Warsaw, Leszno 113-3 




I "Movie Effect' 
, 1*F)lVtei\S^ 

produce Moontojbr and Niqbr €f facts in Laylimt- 

F09 Scenes- Diffused Fetus and many clW vrfacls, 

just Kk« Irwy makt '%m in Hollywood. ~~"» 

cAsfe youp dealer or caiite to 

GEORGE H.SCHEIBE 

PHOTO-FILTER SPECIALIST 

I927-W-781= ST. LOS ANGCLES.CM.. 



ROY DAVIDGE 
FILM LABORATORIES 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 
exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
GRanite 3108 




THE BELL & HOWELL Still Camera Photometer, just an- 
nounced, is an exposure meter which should be warmly 
received. It is basically the same as the B. & H. Photometer 
for Filmo Movie Cameras which has proved so popular, but is 
especially calibrated to meet the requirements of the still 
photographer, whether he is a beginner or a highly advanced 
amateur or professional. 

The essential features of the original Photometer, including 
its convenient size, its light weight of about five ounces, and 
its three dials are all retained. There is the same simple pro- 
cedure of looking directly through the instrument at the object 
to be photographed, matching an electric filament with the 
brilliancy of the subject, and then making an exposure reading 
direct from the dial system without guess work or calculation 

As in the movie Photometer, the exact exposure of any 
portion of a subject can be readily determined, so that the 
range of contrasts of any view can be arrived at with exactness. 

The Bell & Howell Still Camera Photometer is calibrated to 
a range of shutter speeds and exposure times from 32 seconds 
to 1 '1000 of a second, and to lens stops of from F I to F 32. 

A tremendously important factor in still photography is that 
the effective photographic speeds of the different types of 
plates and films vary much more than the films used for mo- 
tion picture work. Therefore, a dial has been calibrated in 
this new Photometer so that the instrument can be quickly set 
to compensate for whatever speed of plate or film may happen 
to be used. This same dial also carries another set of calibra- 
tions to facilitate quick compensation for filters of various 
strengths. The Photometer obviously covers all lenses, all plates 
or films, and all conditions of illumination that are ordinarily 
met with in still work. 



Laco Lights at Electric Club of Southern 
California Meeting 

AS THIS issue of the Cinematographer goes to press we 
, receive word of an unusually interesting meeting of the 
Electric Club of Southern California, to be held at the Biltmore 
Hotel, Los Angeles, on February 2. Two subjects of interest 
were on the program. One was "Light and Vision" by Dr. 
Arthur E. Hoare, President of the Los Angeles County Asso- 
ciation of Optomotrists. The other was on "Flood Lighting" 
by C. M. Rankin, Lighting Supervisor of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Company. 

Through the cooperation of Scott Betts, Westinghouse 
representative, William Johnson, chief electrician at the RKO 
Studios, and the courtesy of Frank Arrousez and Pete Herrod 
of the Lakin Corporation, 69 eighteen-inch spots and one 36 
inch spot with 5 KW, were to be furnished by the Lakin 
Corporation. These Laco lights were to be arranged to show 
the most modern methods of flood lighting and were to throw 
three colors, straw, magenta and blue light at intervals of 
one minute. Another feature was to be a demonstration of 
magnetic tube control of lights. Members of the Electric Club 
compose the biggest representatives of General Electric, West- 
ern Electric, Westinghouse, Crabar and lllinoise Electric on the 
West Coast, as well as Illuminating Engineers and electric 
engineers of the various western plants. 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



Forty-one 



Portrait Pitfalls 

(Continued from Page 33) 
absolute minimum of light and of lighting units. Perhaps the 
most outstanding exponent of this technique is that great 
artist, Hal Mohr, A.S.C. It has been my good fortune to play 
in several pictures which Mr. Mohr has photographed, and 
each time I have been amazed anew at his ability to coax 
the maximum effectiveness out of the minimum number of 
lighting units — I almost said, his uncanny ability of not using 
unnecessary lighting equipment! 

This same technique can be used with even better results 
in portrait photography. Without using either extremely fast 
lenses or super-sensitized emulsions, I have found that two 
ordinary incandescent units are all that one needs for any 
purpose. And both of them are ordinary broadside units; I 
have never owned a spotlight, for I have yet to encounter a 
situation in which one is really necessary. In fact, there are 
many times when a single unit is sufficient. Normally, I simply 
place one light fairly close in on what a cinematographer 
would call the "hot" side, and move the other quite far out 
on the other side, adjusting these distances until the correct 
balance is reached. This is vastly simpler, naturally, than 
having to bother with a larger number of units, playing around 
with tricky catch-lights, and so on; and, which is more im- 
portant, it gives a more natural effect — a picture that is 
"easier to look at." 

Another pitfall into which the portraitist is all too apt to 
tumble is the matter of diffusion. Now, a mild degree of 
diffusion is infinitely desirable in a portrait. It gives a far 
more natural presentation of a person than a wiry-sharp picture 
would, for we do not see thing with the same exaggerated 
sharpness that a Cooke or Tessar lens does. On the other hand, 
however, we do not normally see things in the fuzzy way that 
diffusing discs and gauzes portray them. Therefore, if we are 
i striving after naturalness in our portraits, we cannot secure 
; a natural diffused effect by the use of an anastigmat with 
discs or gauzes intersposed to break up the image. The only 
satisfactory method is to use a true soft-focus lens — of which 
there are many on the market — which sees things with the 
same natural softness (a thing quite distinct from fuzziness or 
out-of-focus blur) that our eyes do. In that way we can get 
an image which is really in correct focus, and yet has the 
diffuse softness which makes our picture natural, and "easy 
to look at." 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 30) 

Composition 

The average amateur seems to forget that there is such a 
thing as composition. He usually just lifts his camera and 
shoots. Sometimes he secures a beautiful result. Most of the 
time he doesn't. A little care would eliminate most of this 
failing. Co to the theatres and watch closely the manner in 
which the professional cinematographer frames his every shot, 
especially the exteriors. Study the work of some of these master 
craftsmen. It will be well worth your time. You can learn more 
n one evening at a picture theatre than you can learn in a 
month from a book — if you really apply yourself. 

Most amateurs neglect this matter of properly framing a 
icture with the result that they sometimes become discouraged 
*vhen they see the work of another amateur who has studied 
this feature. A little time spent in looking over the subject 
oefore you shoot and you will find the most beautiful angle. 
A.t least, give this matter some thought before you go afield 
again with your Filmo, Victor, Cine-Kodak or what ever 
:amera you are using. All of us cannot be artists, true. But we 
:an at least try. And this writer believes that the real joy of 
"naking 16 millimeter pictures is the satisfaction of knowing 
:hat you have done a good job. 



TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS 



For follow-up shots are 
known for their smoothness 
of operation, equal tension 
on all movements and being 
unaffected by temperature. 




Model B 

The Model B is for Bell 
8 Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their respective 
tripods. 

The handle is telescopic 
and adjustable to any angle. 



The Model A is made 
for Amateur motion picture 
cameras and also fits the 
Standard Still tripods. 



Trucball tripod heads are 
unexcelled for simplicity, 
accuracy and speed of opera- 
tion. 



The Hoefner four-inch Iris 
and Sunshade combination is 
also a superior product. 



FRED HOEFNER 



5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD 



CLadstone 0243 



LOS ANCELES, CALIF. 



New Carbon Saving Device From Colde 
Manufacturing Co. 

A TIMELY development is an economical new carbon saver 
being offered by the Colde Manufacturing Co. of Chicago, 
projection engineers and manufacturers of projection room 
equipment. 

The new carbon saver, it is said, allows the use of the 9 mm. 
stubs heretofore discarded. The 20-inch, 9 mm. carbon used 
in high intensity reflector arcs, now burned for about seven 
reels' running time, costs approximately five cents per reel. 
The waste, about 35 per cent in the form of a stub impossible 
to burn in that type of lamp, may with this new carbon saver 
be used for two more reels, making a saving of 30 per cent. 

This saving, the company states, is accomplished with very 
little effort on the part of the projectionist. 

Using two carbon savers, one lamp may be continually 
burned for months with the subs previously wasted. There 
is no drilling or messy handling, no cutting of carbons, no 
shaving or filing. 

The burnt end of the carbon is inserted in the Colde carbon 
saver, twisted in to a special threaded taper hole and rolled 
on a flat surface to secure perfect alignment. For added safety 
a special screw is provided which draws up stub into saver. 
Thus the carbon saver and carbon become one straight integral 
length which is inserted in the same manner as regular carbons. 

There is nothing on the carbon saver to wear away, if care 
is taken to see that it does not burn away. That is merely a 
matter of setting the running time for the average length car- 
bon stub, the company claims. 



Forty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



February, 1931 




Even in South Africa 




attention 



The pictorial section of the next volume of 
the Cinematographic Annual is being com- 
piled. Anyone wishing to contribute prints 
for this section may send them in now 
for consideration. 





HERE we see a group of South African natives making their 
own photographic records. T. J. Connolly, S. A. C. Bureau, 
Palace of Justice of Pretoria, taught these aspiring young men 
the art of using the Filmo, and now they are shooting all over 
the place. 

Hold Everything! 

GEOROVESTI, RUMANIA — At the first showing of motion 
pictures here, nearly a thousand peasants, none of whom 
had ever seen a movie before, got frightened and stampeded 
when the screen suddenly flashed a locomotive roaring straight 
down the track toward the audience. Twelve persons were 
trampled in the rush for exits. 



•9* 



'ERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1222 CUARANTY BLDC. 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Gentlemen: 

Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign rates additional), 
for one year's subscription to the American Cinematographer, to 

begin with the issue of , 19 



Name 



Street No. 



Town State 



CLUBBING RATES 

U.S. 

American Cinematographer $3.00 

In Club with: 

Camera Craft 3.90 

Photo-Era 4.75 

The Camera 3.90 



Please make all remittances payable to 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Canada 


Foreign 


$3.50 


$4.00 


4.65 


5.40 


5.80 


6.40 


4.40 


5.40 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Forty-three 



New Filmo Catalog Valuable Textbook For 
Amateur Movie Makers 




THE 1931 Filmo Catalog, just issued by the Bell & Howell 
Company, might well be termed a popular textbook on 
amateur movie making. 

In this new book are to be found intensely interesting dis- 
cussions on such subjects as why color filters are used, the 
principles of exposure, and when and why to use a tripod. 
Among other topics treated in a thoroughly popular but au- 
thoritative manner are artificial lighting for indoor movies, 
titling, editing, and screening. A discussion on speed lenses is 
particularly valuable, as is also a short but meaty section on 
the Filmo optical system for Kodacolor projection. 

The catalog's comprehensive listing and description of ama- 
teur movie making products, including many new and unique 
accessories, is sure to be of definite value to anyone who owns 
or expects to own a 16 mm. camera or projector. The range 
of products listed under the Filmo banner is so extensive that 
the catalog will be kept for reference from the standpoint of 
its unparalleled completeness alone. 

Among the new products included is the Filmophono, a 
portable 16 mm. talkie reproducer just announced by Bell & 
Howell. The Filmophone, we are informed, is meeting with an 
enthusiastic reception in the industrial, educational and home 
fields. 

We must not fail to state that the book is unusually well 
illustrated. A number of full-page cuts are used to good ef- 
fect. The arrangement of material is noteworthy, and makes 
for quick reference. 

Here is a catalog which is sure to prove of unusual value to 
the amateur movie maker. It will be sent free on request. 



One of the features in the 
MARCH CINEMATOCRAPHER 

will be an article on 

The Pedagogy of Visual Education 

by Professor Herbert Sorenson 

of the University of Minnesota 

DON'T MISS IT! 




GOERZ 



CINE LENSES 

are optically accurate 
and photographically 
effective » » » » » 

Kino-Hypar f:2.7 and f:3, 35 to 100 mm. 
focal lengths. Simple in design . . . consists 
of only three lenses . . . affords microscopic 
definition in the image. Free from flare or 
coma. Fine covering power. 

Telestar f:4.5, 4 , /s to 13!/2" focal lengths — 
an ideal telephoto series for long distance 
shots and closeups . . . excels because of 
practical absence of distortion. 

Cinegor f:2 and f:2.5, a Superspeed series; 
ideal for work under unfavorable light 
conditions. 

A new catalog listing the complete line of 

Goerz Lenses and Accessories will be mailed 

on request. 



CRGOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 

317 EAST 34™ ST. NEW YORK CITY 



Forty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



February, 1931 



WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the 
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us, 
we have acquired an exclusive license to all "Trans- 
parency" patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX 
CORP. and ROY J. POMEROY. 

A few current releases containing Dunning Shots 
"WHAT A WIDOW" — Cloria Swanson 
"ON THE LEVEL" — Fox 
"SOUP TO NUTS"— Fox 
"HER MAN" — Pathe 
"ROMANCE"— M-C-M 
"HALF SHOT AT SUNRISE"— R-K-0 
"WOMEN EVERYWHERE" — Fox 
"LEATHERNECKINC" — R-K-0 
"MADAME DUBARRY" — United Artists 
"HOLIDAY" — Pathe 

"THE LOTTERY BRIDE" — United Artists 
"BORN RECKLESS" — Fox 

DUNNING 
PROCESS 

COMPANY 

"You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow" 

Telephone GLadstone 3959 
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 



When you need 
engraving you 
need the BEST! 



<yi 



You GET it at the 



UPERIOR 

ENGRAVING 

# COMPANY 

Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half -Tones 

Color Work Designing 

Electrotypes 

Mats, etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



An Eycmo in the Arctic 

TO THE MANY striking achievements of the Bell & Howell 
Eyemo semi-professional cameras must now be added the 
outstanding and almost indispensable part which one of them 
recently played in the filming of an arctic picture which was 
turned over to Paramount for release. 

This picture is based upon the lives of North Atlantic 
fishermen engaged in the hazardous sealing industry. It was 
taken by an expedition under the direction of Varick Frissell, 
youthful producer and explorer, and it is interesting to learn 
that the Eyemo which served the expedition so notably, was 
included in the company's $30,000 worth of movie equip- 
ment almost as an afterthought. 

The work of the sealers who figure in the picture is done 
on the arctic ice floes drifting south each summer off the 
coast of Labrador. These floes consist of broken fields of ice, 
heaving and twisting as the great Atlantic swells and rolls 
underneath. 

The hunters approach the seals rapidly, on the run, often 
leaping from ice cake to ice cake, and members of the Frissell 
expedition had to follow on the sealers' course as quickly as 
possible if they were to capture vivid and realistic pictures. 

It was quickly discovered that with the ice so broken up as 
to challenge even the agility of the light-footed sealers, it was 
impossible to accomplish the necessary rapid transportation 
of standard camera equipment, due to its weight and bulk, but 
the light Eyemo, with its tripod attached, could be swung 
over long open leads of water and caught without impairing 
its ability to photograph a picture of standard production 
quality. 

As the hunters were running towards the seals, members 
of the Frissell expedition would follow. When open water was 
encountered which defied leaping without the use of all 
fours, the Eyemo would be grasped by the end of the tripod, 
and, by a long pendulum swing could be sent flying over the 
water into the arms of another member of the company, and 
so relayed up the line into the center of action, where it was 
quickly put to work. 

It was inevitable that sooner or later some one would 
miscalculate in the performance of this ritual. So it came 
about that one bright day the Eyemo found its way to the 
bottom of the ocean, but not before it had succeeded in ob- 
taining some of the most valuable shots made by the mem- 
bers of the expedition. Scenes of action, we are told, in the 
midst of the vast seal herds, which could never have been 
secured with any other camera, are now a part of the Frissell 
picture, thanks to the Eyemo. 



Too Many Pictures 

//l I OLLYWOOD makes too many pictures," Jesse Lasky, 

\ producer, told members of the Academy of Motion Pic- 
ture Arts and Sciences at a recent meeting. "So many thea- 
tres have to be kept supplied with changing programs that 
the total income isn't large enough to stand the negative costs 
of the individual pictures." There aren't enough good stories 
in the world to supply the annual demand, he asserted, de- 
claring that whereas a stage producer need only present one to 
five plays a year, the motion picture producer must meet 
release dates with a production a week. "Hollywood has too 
many 'yes' men, but not enough creative artists who can do 
worth-while work and meet the producer half way by realizing 
that the cost of any given picture has to be kept within the 
sum that it will draw to the box-office in competition with all 
other pictures," he asserted. 



The directors of the Copenhagen legitimate theatres have 
decided upon a resolution to the effect that within the limits 
of their contracts artists employed on their stages will not be 
allowed to act in sound-films. 



February, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Forty-five 



Tanar Equipment- Gives Excellent 
Results for Douglas Fairbanks 

LEN H. ROOS, Vice President and General Manager of the 
Tanar Corporation, manufacturers of portable sound-on- 
film recorders, of Hollywood, reports that the first film made 
by Douglas Fairbanks on his world tour has been received, and 
Roos and all who have seen and heard it are wildly enthusiastic 
over the results obtained by Henry Sharp, A. S. C, who is 
Mr. Fairbanks' cinematographer on this long trip. 

The first film shot was at Hawaii, and some very beautiful 
results were obtained. The sound track, according to those 
who heard it, is admirable, and Mr. Sharp sent word that it is 
as simple to operate as an ordinary radio. 

Incidentally, Mr. Roos reports that the Tanar plant is run- 
ning full blast with seven orders for portable recorders being 
worked on and future business looking exceedingly excellent. 
Mr. Roos says that the so-called depression period has not been 
a depression period for his concern. His experimental depart- 
ment has been hard at work for some time, and within a very 
brief time he says his concern will have an important an- 
nouncement to make regarding a separate recorder and D. C. 
synchronous motors. That is all he says about it at the 
present, but indicates that next month he will make his 
announcement. 



Boothe Company Brochure 

ONE of the most attractive brochures that has come to 
our attention for some time is that of the Boothe Com- 
pany, Los Angeles, dealers in aluminum and aluminum alloys. 
The booklet, designed by the Boyd Company, advertising ex- 
perts, tells the uses of aluminum and its alloys in modern 
industry in an attractive and interesting manner. For those 
who wish to know more about the possibilities of aluminum 
in any industry, we suggest that you write to the Boothe 
Company, 1400 South Alameda Street, Los Angeles, for this 
brochure. It will be mailed to you at once. 



New Apparatus 

A MUNICH firm, the Regulaphon G.m.b.H., is reported 
to have brought on the market a new sound-on-disc ap- 
paratus. The advantage of this new apparatus is reported to be 
a new correcting process by which synchronization is obtained 
without changing the number of rotations either of the pro- 
jector or the disc support. The new set, it is claimed, has 
been installed in a cinema in the suburbs of Munich and is 
giving satisfactory results. The apparatus is low-priced, and 
it is expected that a public demonstration will be made in 
the near future. 



The Sascha-Film Company, of Vienna, is reported to be 
planning film production on a large scale, with the co-opera- 
tion of the Felner-Somlo Company, of Berlin. Another sound- 
film studio is being constructed in Sievering, near Vienna, 
which will be fitted with the newest equipment, and a Tobis 
recording apparatus. The annual production will comprise 
ten new films. 



"THE 
I Ac 



Frank Woods Resigns 

E RESIGNATION of Frank Woods, Secretary of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, was tendered 
to and accepted by the Board of Directors of the organization 
t its meeting of January 12. 

Mr. Woods, a pioneer writer and producer, has been Sec- 
etary of the organization since its very inception, having been 
eelected yearly. He is leaving the office of Secretary in order 
o pursue writing interests that the responsibilities of his posi- 
ion have kept in abeyance. 



ELMER G. DYER 

AKELEY SPECIALIST 

Aerial Photography Since 1918 

Phone HE. 8116 



Phone 


GL. 7507 


Hours 


9 to 5 






Also by Appointment 




Dr. G. 


Floyd Jackman 

DENTIST 






706 Hollywood First National Building 






Hollywooc 


Blvd. at Highland Ave. 





HARRY PERRY, A. S. C. 

MULTICOLOR FILMS 



OXford 1908 



HEmpstead 1128 



HARVEY Wm. PRIESTER 

Insurance Experting 

CAMERA INSURANCE A SPECIALTY 

510 Cuaranty Building 

6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California 

Tel: CLadstone 4811 



MITCHELL CAMERA 

FOR RENT OR SALE 

Speed Movement — Fully Equipped — 5 Matched Pan 
Tachar f.2.3 Lenses — 4-3-2-40 and 35 — two 1,000-ft. 
and four 400-ft. Magazines — Friction Head for Panning 
— Gear Box for Different Speeds — Baby Tripod and 
High Hat — Cases for all with Yale locks. 

Glenn R. Kershner 

c/o A. S. C. 



Mitchell and (~> A K A C H A Q 
Bell & Howell \^r\IV\ L KAj 

SALES and RENTALS 

J. R. Lockwood 



Phone 
GRanite 3177 



1108 North Lillian Way 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIF 



Cable Address 
"LOCKCAMERA" 
Hollywood 



Have you ordered your Cinematographic 
Annual? 



Forty-six 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TO C R A P H E R 



February, 1931 



INDEX to ADVERTISERS 



Classified Advertising 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar per insertion. 



Bell & Howell Co - 1, 31 

Bredschneider, W. B.. - — 40 

Boothe Company - - 23 

Cinematographic Annual.... 37 

Composite Laboratories - 40 

Davidge, Roy.... - 40 

Dunning Process Co.. 44 

DuPont Pathe Film Mfg. Co Inside Front Cover 

Dyer, Elmer 27, 45 

Eastman Kodak Co 21, Inside Back Cover 

Factor, Max 4 

Coerz American Optical Co., C. P 43 

Hoefner, Fred ~ - 41 

Hollywood Camera Exchange ._.. 29 

Jackman, Dr. C. Floyd - - 45 

Kershner, Glenn R 45 

Lakin Corp... 7 

Lockwood, J. R — 45 

Mitchell Camera Corp 43, Back Cover 

Mole-Richardson, Inc.. 2 

National Carbon Company, Inc 6 

Perry, Harry 45 

Priester, Harvey W - - 45 

Scheibe, George H ----- 40 

Smith & Aller, Inc Inside Front Cover 

Superior Engraving Co 44 

Tanar Corporation. — — 5, 47 

Walker, Vernon L 29 

Zeiss, Inc., Carl — - 42 



The TRAIL AHEAD! 


Don't miss the March issue 


of the 


American 


Cinematographer ! 


Better 


than ever! 


More Big Features! 
you 


Be sure 


Get 


Yo ur Co 


py J 



WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 

WANTED — For cash, DeBrie, Pathe, Bell & Howell Standard cameras. 
Send full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison 
Street, Chicago. 

WANTED — From Clobe-trotting cameramen, film of foreign countries. 
Address Rex Cordon, 1215 N. June St., Hollywood, Calif. Phone 
CRanite 6933. 



FOR 

FOR 

FOR 
FOR 
FOR 
FOR 



FOR SALE — CAMERAS 

SALE — Akeley Camera No. 230, Tripod with Mitchell legs, baby- 
tripod, high hat, adjustable shutter, 6 magazines; 2-2 in. F 2.7, 4 
in. F 2.3, 6 in. F 2.7, 12 in. F 5.6 lenses with finder lenses. 
Motor attachment, carrying cases, first class condition. J. P. 
Muller, 2629 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La. 

SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3500.00 each. 
Special price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of 
CINEMATOGRAPHER. 



SALE OR RENT — First Class Akeley Outfit complete. 
CR-4274, or write Dan B. Clark, A. S. C. office. 



Phone 



SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. 
Reasonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or CR. 4274. 

SALE — Akeley Camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, equipped up to 
6-inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CRanite 1185. 

SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes. Phone HE. 1841. 
FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



FOR SALE — Carl Zeiss lenses, 50 M. M. F 3.5; 50 M. M. F 2.7; 40 
M. M. F 2.7; each in B. & H. Mount. Hoefner Trueball head, only. 
Fits B. & H. camera and Mitchell legs. Alpha Films, 3437 Park 
Heights Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

FOR SALE — One Bell & Howell Cinemotor. Like new. Used for one 
picture. |. R. Lockwood, 1108 N. Lillian Way. CR-3177. 



FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell camera equipped for Sound. 
HE-1490 or A. S. C. Office CR-4274. 



Al Cilks. 



FOR RENT — CAMERAS 



FOR RENT — Three Mitchell High Speed Cameras. Equipped for sound. 
1000-Ft. Magazines. J. R. Lockwood, 1008 North Lillian Way. 
CR-3177. 

FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders, 
Mitchell tripods. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, 6 magazines, 
equipped up to 6 inch lenses. Park ). Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga 
Ave. CRanite 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don 
B. Keyes, HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40, 50 and 75 
mm. Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Home, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or CL-2791. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40, 
50 and 75 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol, 
6507 Drexel Ave. ORegon 7492. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell and Bell & Howell, Akeley Cameras. Lenses, 
accessories of all kinds, new and used — Bargains. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange, 1511 Cahuenga Blvd. 

FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR RENT — Cinemotors. One Mitchell and one Bell Cinemotors. J. R. 
Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. CR-3177. 

FOR RENT — Two Mitchell Tiltheads, one with Bell & Howell adapter. 
J. R. Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. CR-3177. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell 
and Bell & Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park 
J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga. CR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor; I 
1000 ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes. HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell friction tilthead with Bell & Howell adapter. 
). R. Lockwood, 1108 N. Lillian Way. GRanite 3177. 



FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. 
1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or GL-2791. 



Pliny Home, 



In every state in the U. S. A. and in 36 foreign countries 
professional and amateur cinematographers, as well as 
men and women in various branches of the motion picture 

art, read 

The American Cinematographer 

It has a record of 1 years' service behind it, and 
a reputation as 

A REAL AUTHORITY 

Mr. Manufacturer: 

You are missing a big opportunity if you fail to 
ADVERTISE IN 

The American Cinematographer 

A magazine published under the auspices of 

The AMERICAN SOCIETY of CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

an organization composed of the 

WORLD'S LEADING CAMERAMEN 

« « today » » 

WRITE FOR ADVERTISING RATES 

increase your sales 
The AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



1222 GUARANTY BUILDING 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 

47 



Forty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



January, 1931 




HAL MOHR 
VICTOR MILNER 
ARTHUR MILLER 
CHARLES G. CLARKE 
JOHN ARNOLD - 
WILLIAM STULL 



OFFICERS 



President 

- First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 

- Third Vice-President 

- Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 



Chas. C. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Alfred Cilks 



Fred Jackman 
Glenn R. Kershner 
Victor Milner 



Hal Mohr 
Arthur Miller 
Sol Polito 



John F. Seitz 
William Stull 
Ned Van Buren 



Philip E. Rosen 
Fred W. Jackman 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Caetano Caudio James Van Trees John W. Boyle 

Homer Scott John F. Seitz Daniel B. Clark 

Arthur Webb, General Counsel 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Mr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease 



Abel, David — Pathe. 
Allen, Paul H. — 
Arnold, John — M-G-M. 
Archer, Fred — 
August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 

St. Paul. 
Benoit, Georges — Paris. 
Binger, R. 0. — M-G-M. 
Boyle, John W— R-K-O. 
Brown, (as. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C. — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. — Fox. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 
Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 
tone. 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 

DeVol, Norman — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell, Chicago. 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners' Vita- 
phone. 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A. 
Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 



Fisher, Ross 
Flora, Rolla — 
Folsey, Geo. J 



G. — Multicolor. 

Fox. 

., Jr. — New York. 



Fetters, C. Curtis- 
Fildew, William — 



-Fox. 



Gaudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros. 
Gilks, Alfred — Technicolor. 
Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros. 
Gray, King D. — Thunder Bay 

Film, Ltd. 
Greenhalgh, Jack — F-B-O. 
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 

England. 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 
Hilburn, Percy — M-G-M. 
Home, Pliny — 
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 

Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 
Jackman, Fred — Technical 

Director, Warner Bros. 
June, Ray — United Artists. 

Kershner, Glenn — 1st National. 
Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Artists. 
Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner 

Bros. 
Kurrle, Robt. E. — Tec-Art. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 
Lindon, Curly — Paramount. 
Lockwood, J. R. — 
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 
Metropolitan. 

MacWilliams, Glen — Fox. 
Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M. 



Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 
McDonell, Claude — London, 

England. 
Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 
Milner, Victor — Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Universal. 
Morgan, Ira H.- — M-G-M. 

Nogle, George G.- — M-G-M. 
O'Connell, L. Wm. — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 
Parrish, Fred — Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Polito, Sol — First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — 
Powers, Len — 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 

Vitaphone. 
Ries, Park J. — 
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 

Lasky. 
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 

Universal. 
Rosher, Chas. — M-C-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 
Movietone. 

Schoenbaum, Chas. — Techni- 
color. 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — Fox 

Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 
Doug. Fairbanks. 



Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich, Harold- — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J. — Metro- 
politan. 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 
Studios. 

Stevens, George — Hal Roach. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 

Tappenbeck, Hatto — Fox. 
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-G-M. 

Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Hollywood. 

Van Rossem, Walter J. — 

Van Trees, James — 

Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 

Wagner, Sidney C- — Fox. 
Walker, Joseph — Columbia. 
Walker, Vernon L. — Warner 

Bros. 
Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal. 
Wenstrom, Harold — 
Westerberg, Fred 
Whitman, Phil H. — 
Wilky, L. Guy — 
Williams, Frank D. — 
Wrigley, Dewey — Metropolitan. 
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 

Zucker, Frank C. — Photo- 
phone, New York. 



<t 



Photography by 



yy 



WHEN those words at the beginning 
of a picture mean you, you are justly 
proud — provided your artistry has 
been fully recorded by your film. Con- 
trol the film factor with Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative, Type 2. Try it in 
your next picture. Get accustomed to 
it. Then you will use it exclusively, 
for it brings you the finest combina- 
tion of film qualities ever placed at the 
disposal of the cameraman. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 

J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors 

New York Chicago Hollywood 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 




Advertisement 




\ 



>v « 




rcli 193 



% 




ESTABLISHED 1802 



presents . . . 



^A l\[ew High Speed 

Panchromatic Negative 



Retaining the same 

COLOR BALANCE 
FINE GRAIN and 
LATITUDE 

of the former product. 



The Extreme Sensitivity Allows a 

MATERIAL REDUCTION IN LIGHTING. 



"o4 Comparative Test Will Convince" 



SMITH & ALLER, Ltd 

6656 Santa Monica Blvd. • Hollywood 5147 



Pacific Coast Distributors for 



DU PONT PATHE FILM MFG. CORP. 

35 West 45th Street New York City 



BELL & HOWELL CAMERAS 
FOR COLOR 



AN ADAPTATION of the famous Bell & Howell pilot pin intermittent 
m\_ mechanism, readily interchangeable with the regular, ultra speed, or 
silenced mechanisms, makes any Bell & Howell Camera a color camera 
for any of the Bi-Pack processes. Convertibility of the camera for color 
from monochrome, and vice versa, is accomplished at a moment's notice. 

The new mechanism is so constructed that the focal plane of the Bi-Pack 
films (which are run emulsion to emulsion) is in exactly the same position 
as the focal plane of the black and white film in the regular mechanisms. 
There is no necessity for any change or adjustment on the camera itself — 
the focusing ground glass is left in the standard position. 

COOKE SPEED-PANCHRO LENSES 

The new Cooke Speed-Panchro lenses are also ideal for Bi-Pack color proc- 
esses, as correction of the chromatic aberration is extended to the red 
portion of the spectrum. For the same reason, these lenses are especially 
efficient for use with incandescent lighting and panchromatic films, while 
they retain full correction for orthochromatic film and ordinary lighting. 
The Speed-Panchro series has the F2 opening. For use where speed is 
not paramount, a Panchro series with an F 2.5 opening is offered, with 
correction identical to the Speed-Panchro series. Write us for full details 
and prices covering both mounted and unmounted lenses. 

BELL & HOWELL 

BELL & HOWELL CO., 1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, Illinois - New York, 1 1 West 42nd St. 
Hollywood, 6324 Santa Monica Blvd. - London (B&H Co., Ltd.) 320Regent St. « Established 1907 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



\ 




The 100% 
Silent 

— INTEGRAL 
INKIE 

This amazing new Incandescent, 
the Integral Inkie, with lamp head 
made entirely in one piece from 
silicon aluminum, overcomes diffi- 
culties encountered in set lighting. 
It is 100 silent because of its 
unique integral construction which 
eliminates cracking. 

It projects more light due to a 
special mirror. Aluminum construc- 
tion makes it lighter in weight. It 
may be switched off between shots 
without popping hazard. 

Every element in these lamps is 
exhaustively tested before they are 
released for use. The Integral Inkie 
is a Mole-Richardson product. 

MOLE-RICHARDSON, INC. 

941 N. SYCAMORE AVENUE, HOLLYWOOD 



It Isn't An 



It Isn't An Inkie. 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



• AMERICAN ■ 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 

HAL HALL 

HAL MOHR Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C EMERY HUSE 

President, AS. C. BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren Technical Editor. A. S. C. 

Volume XI MARCH, 1931 Number 1 1 



CONTENTS 

Page 

EASTMAN SUPER SENSITIVE PANCHROMATIC TYPE TWO 

MOTION PICTURE FILM, by Emery Huse and C. A. Chambers ..... 9 

THREE COLOR SUBTRACTIVE CINEMATOGRAPHY 

by P. D. Brewster and Palmer Miller 1 1 

THE PEDAGOGY OF VISUAL EDUCATION, 

by Prof. Herbert Sorenson ._ 13 

SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich 15 

BOOTHE CONTEST WINNERS 17 

HAL HALL SAYS 1 8 

MAGNACOLOR FILM ANNOUNCED 20 

LABORATORY AND TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT 28 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING 30 

GOING TO TRY DIRECTING?, by Orlton West... 32 

THE MAN ON THE COVER, by John Parker 33 



FOREICN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS. INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanito 4774 Copyright, 1931. by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 



NOW READY 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd., 

INTRODUCES A COMPLETELY 

NEW PORTABLE DOUBLE 
SOUND -ON -FILM SYSTEM 
NO GENERATORS . . NO A. C. MOTORS 



Tanar D. C. Interlock Motors run on three radio 
"B" batteries, are light, silent and draw very little 
current. Motors are especially built for this work 
and are not stock motors rebuilt. No burnt out 
armatures. TANAR Single System units are inter- 
changeable with the NEW DOUBLE SYSTEM. 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd 

Originators of Portable Sound-on-Film Recorders 



General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Blvd. 
Laboratories: 1 100-12 No. Serrano Ave. 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 

New York Office 
729 Seventh Avenue 

Telephone: HEmpstead 3939 and HEmpstead 3362 
Cable Address: TANARLICHT 
Postal Telegraph Private Wire 




m 



TANAR CORP, Ltd., 
5357 Santa Monica Blvd., 
Hollywood, California. 



Dear Sirs: 

Please send full information on your new 
Portable Double Recording System, to 



Name- 



Address. 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 




Upon your exceptionally Pine 
test with your new 



Tanar Portable Sound System 




Philip M. Chancellor, A. S. C, F. R. C. S., and Giovanni Cardelli with Mr. Chancellor's Tanar Portable equip- 
ment they will take to the South Seas on the Chancellor-Cardelli Expedition 



Producers should note 

That Portable Sound Equipment is being 
taken to the South Seas by a crew that 
knows its South Seas — has lived and worked 
there. 




£^ 



e^ f V>°- 



C-e^d. 



*A#- 



~ 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



WINNERS 



in the 



Boothe Company 
Aluminum Contest 



1st Prize . . $100.00 

G. RUSSELL CARRIER, Inc. 

AKRON, OHIO 

2nd Prize . . . $60.00 

MOLE-RICHARDSON, Inc. 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

3rd Prize . . . $40.00 

ARTHUR REEVES 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



For complete details 
turn to pages 1 6 and 1 7 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



Efficiency 



WITH the advent of sound pictures, innovations con- 
stantly are being introduced into the film industry 
that add to the efficiency of production. Perfected 
color-film processes . . ground-noise eliminators . . supersensi- 
tive film, with other features of today's motion pictures, are 
evidence of the industry's advanced stride toward perfection. 

Silence, the dominant requirement of today, with the intro- 
duction of these innovations, has made exacting demands upon 
studio lighting mechanism . . calling for equipment able to 
cope with today's perplexing production problems . . 

Through the stages of motion picture development . . hand 
in hand with advancement . . j£%x>cJ Qt& products have met 
every requirement of motion picture production. They will 
continue to meet these requirements for they are BUILT for 
modern production. 

The consistent efficiency of JZ&cvvZ ^te* . • . which makes 
them cost less than ordinary lighting equipment . . together 
with countless individual j£&c<r merits, are reasons for their 
ever increasing popularity in the motion picture industry. 



"If it's not a <£cccc it's not silent!" 



LAKIN CORPORATION 

1707 Naud Street LOS ANGELES CApitol 14118 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



Eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TO C R A P H E R 



March, 1931 




Photo by Cilbert Warrenton. A. S. C. 



Eastman Super Sensitive Panchromati 
Type Two Motion Picture Film 

by EMERY HUSE and CORDON A. CHAMBERS 

West Coast Division — Motion Picture Film Department, Eastman Kodak Company 



c 



ON FEBRUARY 5, 1931, the Eastman Kodak Company 
announced to the motion picture trade in Hollywood, 
California, their new Super Sensitive Panchromatic Type 
Two Motion Picture Negative film. Inasmuch as this film ex- 
hibits characteristics not hitherto shown in motion picture nega- 
tive emulsions, it was considered advisable to present some data 
pertaining to those characteristics. This article is not pre- 
sented as a complete technical treatise of the characteristics 
of the Super Sensitive film, its aim being to call attention 
briefly and simply to the differences this Super Sensitive film 
exhibits over the present type of panchromatic films. 

As the name, Super Sensitive, implies, this emulsion is ex- 
tremely fast but because of its name this new film must in 
no way be confused with a hypersensitized film. In the past 
when an emulsion of extreme speed was desired, either for 
color photography, filter shots, or trick work, it was customary 
to especially treat the film with some type of sensitizing bath. 
This bath caused a general increase in the emulsion speed and 
particularly increased the red light speed. However, the 
hypersensitized film had certain disadvantages such as its 
cost, its lack of keeping qualities, and its propensity to pro- 
duce fog. With the Super Sensitive Type Two these dis- 
advantages are entirely overcome. The increased speed of the 
Super Sensitive film has been accomplished during the course 
of the emulsion manufacture. It is sufficient to say, there- 
fore, that the Super Sensitive film is not a hypersensitized 
film. Furthermore, the Super Sensitive film exhibits the 
same keeping qualities and shows identical physical character- 
istics as those shown by the present panchromatic films. 

A complete study of any type of film emulsion is best ac- 
complished by making both sensitometric and practical camera 
tests. This article will not deal in any detail with camera 
tests but will consider in some detail the sensitometric char- 
acteristics of the Super Sensitive emulsion as compared with 
the present type of panchromatic film. The point of major 
importance in the consideration of the Super Sensitive film 
pertains to its greatly increased speed. The data obtained 
sensitometrically can be and have been checked by camera 
exposures. 

Sensitometry involves a study of known values of exposure 
as related to the amount of silver (density) which these ex- 
posures produce upon the film after development. The standard 
sensitometric curve is therefore one in which is shown the 
relationship between exposure (expressed logarithmically) and 
the densities produced. It is from curves of this type that the 
sensitometric characteristics of the films under investigation 
have been studied. 

Another important consideration in studying the need of 
the Super Sensitive film necessitates a study of the quality of 
the light sources to which this film is exposed. For that pur- 
pose sensitometric tests have been made to daylight and to 
tungsten. Inasmuch as the mode of testing an emulsion to 
any light source is practically identical we shall for the sake of 
brevity and clarity consider only the curves obtained by ex- 
posure to tungsten. 

Figure 1 shows the sensitivity curve of the present and 
Super Sensitive type of film for tungsten exposures developed 
for a fixed time, nine minutes in a standard borax developer. 



It will be observed that the Super Sensitive curve lies above 
the curve for the present type of film and the separation of 
these curves gives an indication of the speed difference exist- 
ing between the two films. In making a numerical estimate 
of the speed we do not consider the actual density values 
produced for a given exposure. The customary method is 
to deduce speed from the exposure value obtained at the 
point where the straight line portions of these sensitivity 
curves, extended, intersect the exposure axis. Speed, is usually 
defined by the following formula: 

1 
— x C = Speed, 

i 

where i, the inertia, is the exposure value of the intersection 
point and C is an arbitrarily chosen constant. For the curves 
shown in Figure 1 we find that the speed of the Super 
Sensitive film, as represented by curve No. 2, is three times 



1.6 




Exposure : 


Tungsten 




I.* 


■ 


e Min. 


in Borax 




It 


• 










1.0 
06 
0.6 

o.*t 


-> 

H 

-55 

z 

Ul 








i. "Present Films 

a. Super Sensitive Film 


o.t 




< ~i 


I 


"Relative Log £ 

i i i i i i i 



0.0 0.3 0.6 0» \Z 1.5 1.8 



Fig. 1 



V* 2.7 



that for the present type films. Identical tests made to day- 
light show that the Super Sensitive film is twice the speed 
of the present type. With reference to Figure 1 attention 
should be called to the marked difference in the low exposure 
region, that is in the toe of the H and D curve. In this 
region the Super Sensitive film definitely differentiates be- 
tween exposures of very low intensities. Particular reference 
is made to the exposure region to the left of the relative log 
exposure value of 0.3. 

The cause for the difference in relative speeds between 
the two types of films to tungsten and to daylight, or to any 
other source, is entirely dependent upon the color distribu- 
tion of light from the source and its effect upon the color 
sensitivity of the emulsion. It is generally known that tungsten, 
for example, contains a greater proportion of red light than 
does daylight, and the difference in speed of the two films 
indicates that the Super Sensitive film must possess greater 
sensitivity to red light than the present type of film. It is 
mainly for this reason that the tungsten speed of the Super 
Sensitive when compared to the present type of film is greater 
than for a similar comparison to daylight. 

The difference in color sensitivity of the two types of films 
is shown in Figure 2. This figure shows prints of spectrograms 
of the two types of film when exposed to tungsten. Speed 
comparisons should not be drawn from these prints as the 



Ten 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



March, 1931 



prints are so made to show the regions of the spectrum to 
which each emulsion is sensitive. The figures given represent 
wave lengths and beginning at 40 in the blue violet region we 
have increasing wave lengths through the blue violet, blue, 
green, yellow, and orange as far as the deep red given at a 
wave length of 68 microns. The Super Sensitive film shows 
an increased concentration of sensitivity in the region around 
64 microns. The Super Sensitive film confines its sensitivity 
to the definitely visible portion of the red end of the spectrum, 
while the present type of films shows an extension into the 
deep red and encroaches upon the near infra-red region. This 
concentration of visible red sensitivity gives a marked ad- 
vantage to the Super Sensitive as it is the extension of red 
sensitivity into the region of longer wave lengths which is a 
contributory factor in the production of chalky highlights 
under tungsten illumination. This is eliminated to a marked 
degree with the Super Sensitive film. 

A complete study of an emulsion's sensitivity to color 
necessitates actual speed measurements to the three major por- 
tions of the visible spectrum, namely to blue, to green, and 
to red light. For the purpose of obtaining such information 
actual speed tests, similar to those shown in Figure 1 and 
later verified by practical exposure, were made to daylight 
through the No. 49 (blue), 58 (green), and 25 (red) filters. 
Speed values determined from such tests show that the Super 
Sensitive film has 75% greater speed to the blue, 200% 
greater for the green, and from 400 to 500% greater for the 
red exposures. Such sensitivity naturally lends to a better 
and more intelligent use of filters, either for straight photog- 
raphy or for trick work. 

Another important consideration in the comparison of pres- 
ent and Super Sensitive film pertains to contrast and the 
rendering of shadow detail and softer highlights. Figure 3 
shows for tungsten exposures the difference in time of de- 
velopment between the two types of film to produce equal 
degrees of contrast (gamma). These curves are of equal 



l.« 
LA 

1.2 

1.0 

08 
0.6 
OM 

o.z 



Exposure-. Tungsten 

Development: 

9 M in in Borax 




i.Tresent Films 

2. Supersensitive Film 



■Relative Log- E 



0.0 OS 0.6 09 1.2 i.s 

Fig. 3 



l.» 2.1 2.4 2.7 



gamma and the data contained shows that it was necessary to 
develop the Super Sensitive film three quarters of a minute 
longer to produce this effect. Furthermore, greater density 
is picked up in the low exposure region. This is mostly ac- 
counted for by the increased speed of the Super Sensitive 
emulsion, but it is this ability to pick up and differentiate 
between these low intensities which gives the high order of 
shadow detail rendering which is shown by this Super Sensi- 
tive emulsion. On the other hand, in the region of high ex- 
posure it will be observed that the Super Sensitive film shows 
a tendency to break into a shoulder, while the present film 
continues as a straight line. This is at least true for the 
series of exposures shown in the figure. This break into a 
shoulder lends to softer highlight rendering and still permits of 
very definitely separating highlight intensities and thus pro- 
duce details in this region. 

Figure 4 shows in much more detail the relationship exist- 
ing between contrast (gamma) and time of development. 
These curves, made from exposures to tungsten, represent 
what are commonly referred to as time-gamma curves and 
they show the rate at which gamma builds up with increasing 
(Continued on Page 21 ) 



Tungsten 




Present Films 




Super Sensitive Film 



Fig. 2 



Three Color Subtractive Cinematography 

by P. D. BREWSTER AND PALMER MILLER 



Brewster Color Film Corporation 



UP TO the present only two color subtractive pictures 
have been shown, and while great improvements have 
been made in two color subtractive cinematography, 
these pictures only seem to stress more greatly the need for 
a three-color process. It is apparent that color cinematog- 
raphy will never be generally demanded by the public until 
it can portray colors with a reasonable degree of accuracy. 

The problem is divided into two parts: first, the design of 
the camera, and second, the chemistry and the development 
of the mechanisms necessary to produce a three-color film 
adapted for use in any theatre without changes in the pro- 
jection apparatus. 

It is generally conceded that any practical color camera 
must make its color separations simultaneously to avoid intol- 
erable flashes or fringes of color around moving objects and 
that all three separations must be made from the same view- 
point; otherwise, it would be impossible to register or super- 
impose the several component color images in the positive. 

Accepting the limitations of a camera for making simul- 
taneous separations from the same viewpoint, the next step 
is to inquire into the requirements of lenses with regard to 
focal length and speed. Under sound studio conditions where 
tungsten light is very largely in use, and where an excessive 
amount of light cannot be used on account of the incident 
heat and strain on the actor's eyes, it is necessary to use the 
fastest possible lens having good color correction. The limit- 
ing aperture at the present time is f/2. 

The great size of some of the sets used in the studios, 
and the limited floor space of sound stages, make it essential 
that the color camera be adapted to use a wide angle lens of 
not over 50 mm. focus, though 40 mm. would be still better. 
At the same time the beam splitting system must permit the 
use of lenses of from 100 mm. to 150 mm. focal length for 
making simultaneous close-ups and semi-close-ups in con- 
nection with a 50 mm. camera shooting long shots. 

This is a very difficult requirement for both the 50 mm. 
and 150 mm. lenses for several reasons. In a 50 mm. camera 
it is very difficult to get a double beam splitter (adapted to 
reflect two images and transmit one) in the small lengths 
of 33 or 35 mm. between the rear vertex of the lens and 
the focal plane; while in the case of the 150 mm. f/2 lens 



the cone of light leaving the rear vertex is nearly 75 mm. 
in diameter, which very greatly increases the size of the 
beam splitter if no light is to be lost. 

Where two or three matched lenses are used, it is necessary 
to have a beam splitter in front of these lenses to reflect the 
light rays received from one point into the separate lenses, and 
where one lens is employed the splitter must be behind todivide 
the light rays projected from the single lens into three groups. 
We believe this can be done only in two ways; either by a 
series of glass prisms, or by means of a highly polished mirror 
revolving at an angle to the lens and in the path of light 
rays. This mirror consists of a disk having a number of slots 
in it so that one portion of the light rays is transmitted 
through these slots or openings, and after passing through a 
suitable filter, is recorded as one of the separations; the portion 
of the light rays which strikes the polished surface of the blades 
is reflected through another filter to form the second separa- 
tion; a second mirror revolving at right angles to the first 
is used for making the third separation. The mirror usually 
has three blades and makes at least two revolutions for each 
exposure so that each frame is exposed three or four times. 
These repeated exposures have proven to give exactly the same 
effect on the screen as simultaneous exposure of the different 
color separations. 

The glass prism system has the advantage of extending, 
in effect, the extremely important distance between the rear 
vertex of the lens and the focal plane in proportion to the 
index of refraction of the glass used. It also has the advantage 
of cheapness when compared with the revolving mirrors, while 
the size of the driving mechanism of the camera is reduced 
thereby preventing noise and reducing the size of the camera. 

The revolving mirror system has the advantage of not 
having to transmit the light through glass, which results in 
a loss of light, but what is more important, a possible loss 
of definition near the edges of the picture if the glass path 
is too long. Most important of all, it is possible with a re- 
volving mirror system to make three color separations on three 
separate films from a 50 mm. f/2 lens, without adding any 
lenses to the standard objective to increase the light path 
between the rear vertex and the focal plane. 



•100 



BLUE 



z 5 z3 

ui 3^3 

BLUE £ YELLOW ^ 3 ^ 
.GREE N.u, GREEN ,>g>, ORANGE 



3 2,1 



RED 




420 440 460 480 500 520 540 5>30 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 

WAVE LENGTH OF LIGHT 
Fig. 1. 



00 


>! BLUE 


|GREENn3| GREEN 


1*1 


u> 


, ORANGE | 


RED 


90 






























flo 






























70 




\ 




\ A 














7 








6n 




\ 


\ 
















/ 








SO 




\ 


\ 




\ 








/ 




/ 








40 









^v_ 


\ 


k^ 


/ 




/ 


^J 


i 








10 






c\ 


3 










/ 


7 










?n 






\ 


1 










/ 


/ 










•in 








t 












/ 



















\ 








rr-i 




L 




„ j 







WAVE LENGTH OF LIGHT 
Fig. 2 



11 



Twelve 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



The decision as to whether to use one, two, or three films 
for recording the color separations depends not only on the 
camera design, but also on the study of the relative efficiency 
of panchromatic film exposed through three filters in com- 
parison with that of two or three separate films sensitized 
for the region in the spectrum which they are to record. 

Color separations are usually made on panchromatic emul- 
sions by photographing through the Wratten filter No. 25 
for the red, No. 57A or 58 for the green, and 49A, 49, and 
49B for the blue. Transmission curves for these filters taken 
from the Eastman filter chart and illustrated in Fig. 1 show 
that No. 25 is nearly an ideal filter for the red. It transmits 
light of its own color, red, with high efficiency and then cuts 
off the other colors abruptly. None of the green filters are 
nearly as perfect — they transmit blue-green and green fairly 
well, but cut well into the orange by a long slope, with a 
possible average efficiency in the very important yellow green 
region of 30'i or 40%. This critical region which largely 
controls the true color rendering of flesh and foliage is also 
harmed by the low sensitivity of panchromatic film at this 
point. 

The blue filters 49A, 49, and 49B are even less efficient; 
their total over-all efficiency being only 0.7.%, 0.5%, and 
0.3%, respectively, and of their most favorable colors they 
transmit only 42%, 26' r, and 15%. They cut off practi- 
cally all exposure in the violet and record solely in the true 
blue region, while the sloping cut transmits some of the 
blue-green which should not be recorded by the blue separ- 
ation. 

The lack of efficiency of these filters is due to inherent 
qualities common to all dyes of these colors and cannot be 
improved. In fact, we have found Wratten filters to be of 
very high efficiency, and were it possible to have filters in 
the blue and green as good as the red No. 25, which hypo- 
thetical filters are represented by the dotted lines, they would 
be satisfactory. 

By using three separate films for the color separation, it 
is possible to use an old type of non-color sensitive negative 
for the blue separation. The sensitiveness of this type of 
emulsion stops almost exactly at the ideal point, naturally 
recording the violet as well as all of the blue. Not having to 
use a filter, its speed is many times greater than if it were 
necessary to use an inefficient type of blue filter with pan- 
chromatic film. Advantage can be taken of this fact by re- 
flecting only a small portion (possibly 10'v to 15'i I of the 
light rays received from the lens to form the blue separation. 

In case of the green separation, the use of separately sensi- 
tized films is even more important, for we then are able 
to obtain an emulsion which records the green and yellow- 
green very evenly, almost to the D line, and then abruptly cuts 

i- z: g ujo 

Ul UI H Q _1 

-1 OJ j _i _l 

o BLUE ti. YELLOW mow 

>i SLUE |GREEN|0|GREEN!>-|m> |ORANGE| RED 




off. Of course this emulsion is sensitive to blue, but this 
blue is cut off by the use of a filter of high efficiency such 
as an Eastman K 2. By this means we get a much higher 
over-all efficiency and are able to record the yellow-green 
region with much greater fidelity. 

The red separation can be made on a red sensitive emulsion, 
but the present panchromatic emulsion is excellent for this 
purpose. In either case it is necessary to use the No. 25 filter 
which cuts in exactly the correct place and which has a very 
high efficiency. 

There is a second point in favor of separate films. It is 
well known that if different portions of a negative emulsion 
are exposed to light of different colors, they will develop to 
different contrasts for the same time in the developer; or these 
different portions of the films acted upon by lights of different 
colors will have different gammas. This would result in an 
incorrect contrast scale of the color positive, and make it 
difficult, if not impossible, to get a true rendering of high- 
lights and shades; though it would be perfectly possible to 
reproduce middle tones in the picture substantially correctly. 
The film exposed to the red light will develop the highest 
contrast or gamma, and the blue the lowest, for a given time 
in the developer. For example, if the middle tones were 
correct one might have red highlights and blue deep shadows. 

By determining in advance the gamma curves of the separ- 
ate films for light of the three primary colors, it is possible 
to time the development of these films so that they will 
produce three negatives of equal gamma, or contrast range, 
from which correct positive prints can be made. 

In our opinion, the requirements in the positive for each 
of the component images of a three color film are: defini- 
tion, transparency, gradation, and hue. 

Definition, especially for the blue-green and magenta images, 
is a matter of extreme importance. In our experience, it is 
necessary to retain the outlines and size of the negative 
image grain on the screen in order to maintain proper sharp- 
ness. Anything less than this produces a soft effect which, 
although very desirable for certain effects, is objectionable 
for long shots. 

Transparency throughout the entire color range is abso- 
lutely essential. Three color cinematography requires the exact 
blending of all colors, and frequently needs a small percentage 
of one primary mixed with the other two to obtain the exact 
shade. It is essential that each of these primaries, whether 
in heavy or light shades, shall be absolutely transparent and 
not have the heavy tones blocked up by a residual silver or 
mordanted image. The ideal component image would be like 
a color filter, pure color imbedded in the gelatin. 

Finally we come to the hue and gradation of the color 
images. We again have the same difficulty in securing dyes 
(Continued on Page 201 

UJ U ^ Q^ 
J Ul _I _l I 

2 BLUE OC YELLOW uJ O"! 



420 440 460 4S0 500 520 540 560 5^0 600 620 640 &60 i 

WAVE LENGTH OF LIGHT 
Fig. 3. 



100 

90 


U_ 






i"'" 


L-..p 


,| M, 




V 1 




1 




--I, 




































z 80 


^ 












O 
8 70 










1 


/ 


/ 
















S5 60 










i 


B / 


7 
















Z 
< ,_ 

|* 50 










1 




















z 40 












1 


















UJ ^ 
U 

a 30 










1 




















Q. 

20 






























■10 








/ 


1 


1 



























/ 


1 




















A7C 


44 


a 4 


;n 41 


W s 


TO «i 


?n S 


in s 


'■r> s 


00 f, 


no A 


m ft 


in 6 


fin f, 


90 7C 



WAVE LENGTH OF LIGMT 
Fig. 4. 



The Pedagogy of Visual Education 



by HERBERT SORENSON 

Assistant Professor in Education, University of Minnesota 



I WAS asked by Mr, Hall, the editor of The American Cinema- 
tographer, to picture for his readers some of the instruc- 
tional uses made of visual apparatus in my Minneapolis en- 
virons. No complete and exhaustive survey was wanted but a 
snatch here and there to illustrate effective use of pictures, 
slides, and film for teaching and research purposes. 

To study the use of pictures and slides the writer went to 
the Calhoun School in Minneapolis of which Miss Ella Probst 
is the principal. This school, as well as many others of the 
excellent schools in Minneapolis, makes extensive use of visual 
presentation by means of lanterns and slides. Miss Probst and 
her teachers have ingeniously integrated visual presentation 
into their scheme of education. 

Although this article is being read primarily by those who 
are not educators, I shall nevertheless describe in educational 
terms the visual presentations as I saw them. I am not com- 
petent to discuss the technical phases of visual education. 

The significant thing that I wish to point out is not the 
nature of the apparatus. Whether it is or is not the latest 
issue from the manufacturer is not my concern. I wish to 
point out that visual instruction through projection can be 
fitted into school room procedures and satisfy the most ad- 
vanced educational philosophy. Psychologically visual educa- 
tion has proved itself to be effective. Freeman and Wood, two 
eminent American psychologists, showed that children whose 
study was supplemented by visual instruction obtained more in- 
formation than those who were denied such instruction. 

Miss Probst took the writer to visit her class rooms in which 
instruction was supplemented by the use of lantern slides. A 
description of some things seen will lay a basis for showing 
that visual education does not lead to a mechanization of the 
teacher, but that it leads to the decided opposite. In a 6A grade 
a mechanical drawing of a marionette stage was projected on 
the blackboard. Two views were shown. The depicted stage 
was actually being built in the school for actual use. A boy 
had drawn two views of it on ground glass plates and the 
problem of the class was to construct a curtain for the stage. 
The projected architectural view on the board was a most 
valuable propadeutic to working out their problems which 
were real to them. They calculated costs of the curtain, esti- 
mated its length, measured it, and engaged in all the arith- 
metical processes. The lantern facilitated the whole process 
by providing a big working drawing which everyone could see. 

In a 6A room by means of a slide, several sentences were 
placed on the board. The following two sentences are typical 
of the half dozen or so on the slide. 

Is not the sea filled with terrible monsters people asked him. 

No, that is only a foolish idea he replied. 

These and other sentences were projected on the board and 
the pupils' problem was to punctuate them correctly. A pupil 
went to the board when called upon and put in the correct 
punctuation marks or rather those which he thought were 
correct. There were forty or more pair of eyes watching for 
errors. Think of the economy. One projection gives every child 
a "copy." The board is erased except for the few punctuation 
marks by simply withdrawing the slide, and then all this can 
be "written" on the board again by re-inserting the slide in 
the lantern. 

The marvel of this method was displayed in the lower grades. 
In a little class of first graders with less than a month's attend- 
ance one saw reading ability in children of such quality that 



all their parents would be prompted to believe in hereditary 
transmission of school abilities. These youngsters had visited 
the school garden and then upon their return to their class 
room had reported their experiences. The pupils and teacher 
compounded these little reports into a story which the teacher 
transferred to a slide. This was one of the stories: 

We went to the garden. 

We saw some parsley. 

The parsley was green. 

The rabbit eats parsley. 

The children pointed out words which they knew. They 
read their own story which had emerged from their own ex- 
periences, and again a single lantern projection furnished a 
"COPY" for each of forty children. 

The use of lantern slides gives opportunity for children's 
art abilities to express themselves. In a 6B room we heard a 
child tell the story of Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates and 
we saw colored illustrations of the story while the boy told 
it. About a dozen colored slides were shown. These were 
painted by the children. They were not copied but represented 
scenes which the children imagined from the story. The class 
illustrated Eskimo life with slides which they had drawn and 
colored with colored pencil. 

The descriptions given, although rather fragmentary, may 
help to illustrate real educational uses of the projection lantern 
for teaching. Teaching by means of slides and films is not 
limited to only a few subjects but can include every subject of 
the curriculum. 

Educationally these procedures are not only sound but com- 
mendable. When children prepare their own diagrams of a 
marionette stage which they are building to use, when chil- 
dren are painting illustrations from their imaginations, and 
when little tots in the first grade are putting into stories their 
own experiences, we have what is termed a real purposeful 
activity or a project. To the child these experiences are real, 
they emerge from a natural setting. They may exercise initia- 
tive, and trade-mark their little creations with their own hall- 
marks of creativeness. They work together, learn cooperative- 
ness, weigh, evaluate and pass judgments. A major vehicle in 
these educational activities is projection by means of slide 
and lantern. 

A discussion of how slides are made is probably in order at 
this time. When a highly colored slide is wanted such as was 
used in illustrating Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates, plain 
glass is used. This glass is painted with highly colored paints 
but such painting is done only by those in the 5th and 6th 
grades and not the lower grades. When the lower grades wish 
a colored illustration such as used in the Eskimo study reported, 
they draw on ground glass with colored pencils. Diagrams and 
figures like those referred to in the arithmetic class are drawn 
on ground glass also. Class and group written work can also 
be recorded on these slides. Both the plain and ground glass 
slides can be washed and used over and over again. 

For projecting word, phrase or sentence material, it is first 
typewritten on celophane, a celluloid like paper, which is 
placed in a fold of red carbon paper when typed. The celo- 
phane paper is then sealed between two plates of plain glass 
by pasting a special edging over their edges. Then a permanent 
instructional slide has been made. These can be filed and really 
constitute a library of instructional materials. 
(Continued on Page 22) 

13 



Fourteen 












A M E R 


1 C A N 


CINEMATOCRAPHER 










March, 1931 














00 


i* 


"* 








IO 


"* 




























GO 






o 


CO 


CO 


00 


r-H 


iO 


t^ 


CO 


o 


OS 


CO 


00 


CD 


o 


o 








<-J 












r— t 


r-H 


t-H 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CM 


co 


-f 


~r 


IO 


CD 


OS 


"* 


d 








1— 
< 




&H 


































r— 1 


CM 


z 
u 






(M 

6 
































































00 
CM 


00 
iO 


CM 

00 


CM 

CO 


co 


^ 


CO 


0£ 
UI 






5 
O 






fc 






















r-H 


r^ 


T-H 


CO 


CO 


■s* 


CO 


I- 

Ul 

Q 












"t 


CM 


<* 


00 


-r* 


o 






























co 




"* 


t^ 


OJ 


iO 


00 


1— 1 


o 


TH 


rf 


OS 


00 


CD 


CD 


»o 


CO 


o 


2 






Q£ 










r-H 


i— 1 


CM 


(M 


CM 


CO 


TT< 


-* 


IO 


iO 


t^ 


00 


o 


iO 


CM 


CM 






I 




o 






























T-H 


T-H 


CM 


:C 


_i 














































U 






CM 














00 


CC 


CM 


00 


CO 


1- 


iO 


CO 


















6 














o 


CM 


■s* 


CO 


OS 


CO 


00 


-<* 


CM 


00 


O 








z 




























CM 


CM 


CO 


•o 


CO 


d 








< 








































T-H 
















CO 


oo 


CM 


^f 


CM 


-r* 


-r 






















Q_ 






co 




CM 


■* 


00 


(M 


'■f 


00 


CM 


CO 


00 


x* 


CO 


x* 


CM 


o 


CO 


o 


















i— i 


T— 1 


r-H 


O) 


CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 


"* 


IO 


CD 


t^ 


OS 


CO 


00 


I>~ 








LU 
> 


"So 


PQ 
































T-H 


T-H 


CM 








CM 


















00 


OS 


o 


Tf 


CM 


00 






IO 






fl 




6 
















r-H 


r-H 


x^ 


t^ 


CM 


^ 


OS 


iO 


00 


CM 








t 


'fl 

co 


















r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CM 


■«* 


IO 


00 








CO 


o 






















































CO 




CM 


CM 


o 


-V 
























z 


t-H 

cp 




CO 




CO 


»o 


r-H 


co 


CO 


o 


CM 


o 


00 


** 


00 


00 


o 


o 


o 


o 


_2 






LU 


-^ 








^H 


r-H 


<M 


CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 


x* 


■* 


IO 


iO 


t^ 


d 


"* 


d 


00 


nj 






CO 


fl 

-fl 

co 

o 


< 






























r-H 


T-H 


CM 


CM 


> 


IN 

m 




CM 














CM 


Tjr 


CM 


CM 


CM 


rw 


X* 


CO 










LU 




6 














o 


T-H 


co 


CO 


00 


CO 


CO 


r-H 


00 


OS 


o 


0) 

> 


+ 


X 

a 
ui 


Q- 


O 
t^ 




£ 














r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CO 


■* 


CO 


OS 


t>0 


OS 


3 

CO 


i— i 
OS 








































^o 


c 






rJH 


CM 


r-H 


-* 




























'c 




CO 


<* 


1— 1 
CM 


CM 


r-H 
CO 






o 


CO 
IO 


CO 
CO 


00 


00 

00 


r-H 


o 

CO 


o 

CO 


o 

CM 


o 

CM 


-fl 

CO 


^ 


o 
a 
o 




< 


O 




























r-H 


r-H 


T-H 


CM 


CO 




c 


0) 


O 


CM 










CM 


Tf 


"O 


00 


CM 






■>* 












c 


3 


< 


o 














CM 


CO 


IO 


r^ 


O 


IO 


00 


»o 


CM 


00 


o 


o 


CM 


o 


.C 


(A 

Of 


5 1 


c3 

rH 




6 










r-H 


r-H 


1— 1 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CO 


-* 


TfH 


t^ 


o 

r^ 


T-H 


£ 


CO 

o 


UJ 

t- 


1— 5 


+H 








































c 

L. 

■I— 

-C 








*# 


CM 


r-H 


"tf 




























c 


ig. 1 
D FIL 




etH 




CO 


l-H 


i— i 
CO 


CM 


r-H 
CO 


CM 




o 


CO 


CO 
CO 


00 


00 
00 


r-H 

T-H 


o 
co 

r-H 


o 

CO 

r-H 


o 

CM 

CM 


O 

CM 

CO 


-fl 

CO 


o 

o 


u. ee 


LU £ 


CO 






































00 


(U 


< 


X 




w 


CM 








CO 


CO 


CM 


IO 






iO 


o 


CM 


CM 










1j 


CC 


a 

z 
< 

i- 


o 

Z. * 
< 


6 








o 


CM 


rf 


CO 


OS 


r-H 

CM 


CO 
CM 


OS 
CM 


t^ 

CO 




CM 

iO 


t^ 


o 

r-H 


o 

iO 

r-H 


ii 


II 

X 
CO 


te. 
O 
it 




CO 




CO 
CM 


OS 
CM 


o 


00 


CM 


16 


00 

CO 


00 


CO 

OS 


o 

r-H 


o 


O 

co 


o 

00 


o 

00 


O 

CM 


-fl 
CO 




UJ 


CM 


"$ 

4) 
fl 

> 
1~^ 


























r-H 


T-H 


r-H 


T-H 


CM 


CO 








_l 

CQ 


CM 






T^ 


ca 


lO 


iO 


IO 


CM 


o 


00 


o 












o 




< 

H 
u. 


6 




6 
525 






o 

r-H 


CO 

r-H 


T-H 


T-H 


CM 
CM 


CO 
CM 


CO 
CM 


r-H 

co 


CO 

CO 


00 


CM 

IO 


CM 

CO 


CM 

OS 


OS 

os 


o 
os 

r-H 










cc 


co 
<* 


OS 


"* 


00 


CM 


CM 


-* 


00 


o 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


CO 


o 


-fl 


-fl 






I— 
< 

O 






CM 


CM 


^ 


i«j 


CO 


r^ 


O) 


OS 


1— 1 


X*- 


CO 


o 


CM 


00 


CM 


CO 


CO 










r-H 




















T-H 


T-H 




CM 


CM 


CM 


CO 








u 




CM 




■* 


CO 


00 


CM 


00 


IG 


CM 


o 


o 


c 


o 


CO 


o 


CD 


CM 


o 


re 
E 
o 








6 




CM 


-tfi 


o 


CM 


T^ 


l^ 


CM 


o 


co ■ 


' x^ 


"tf 


"sH 


o 


O 


CD 


o 












T-H 


r-H 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CO 


Tt< 


f 


to 


CO 


r^ 


OS 


CO 


CO 

r-H 


iO 
CM 


rsl 

6 

Z 


u 

c 








CO 


^h 
































a. 




Q£ 




i—l 


CO 


»* 


OS 


x* 


00 


CM 


CM 


"* 


00 


o 


o 


c 


O 


o 


O 


o 


-fl 


-fl 


0) 




I 




6 




CM 


CM 


"*' 


»o 


CO 


t^ 


OS 


OS 


T-H 


** 


CO 


o 


CM 


00 


CM 


CO 


CO 


u 


> 
























r-H 


i-H 


r-H 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CO 






ra 


.♦; 




KJ 








































E 


c 






o 


CM 




TjH 


CO 


00 


CM 


00 


>o 


CM 


O 


o 


o 








o 


o 


o 


o 


Q> 






d; 


o 




CM 


"<* 


00 


CM 


x* 


t^ 


CM 


o 


CO 


-* 


Tf 


^ 


© 


o 


X* 


c 


-C 


00 




< 




<J 


& 




l-H 


1-1 


^ 


CM 


CM 


CM 


co 


"* 


xf 


>o 


CD 


r^ 


OS 


CO 

r-H 


00 

r-H 


IO 
CM 


u 

c 


o 

a 

CO 

c 




Q. 










































C 










co 


r-H 


00 


C5 


t^ 


C 


CM 


oc 


t 


CD 


CO 


CM 


rH 


t^ 


CO 


CO 


co 










^ 


CO 


00 


CM 


CN 


U5 


1^ 


t^ 


o 


CO 


o 


00 


iO 


Tf 


CM 


r^H 


c 


o 


TO 


Q 




z 

< 


03 


co 


CO 
CO 


<* 

1— 1 


O 

r-H 


CO 


«* 


CO 


CM 


CM 


r-H 


1-^ 


o 


o 


O 


• 

O 


c 


c 


d 


E 

n 

LU 

II 


£ 

1TJ 
LU 

II 






!> 


CO 


OS 


o 


00 


CM 


OS 


00 


00 


CO 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


.A 




2 

i— 


E 




s -~, 


i— i 


CM 


(M 


Tf 


■>* 


td 


iO 


CO 


t^ 


OS 


T-H 


X* 


CO 


00 


00 


CM 


CO 




o 
-fl 


























r-H 


— 


r-H 


r-H 


CM 


co 




fM 


U~) 








o 


■* 


CO 


05 


T— 1 


T-H 


CO 


iO 


co 


00 


T-H 


CD 


CO 


CM 


OS 


o 


00 








o 


*tf 


00 


00 


t^ 


^^ 


r-H 


CM 


OS 




IO 


IO 


CM 


00 


co 


CM 


o 


o* 






CO 


CM 


^ 


o 


"* 


Q 


00 


co 


,_; 


CO 


CO 


Tt< 


CO 


CM 


r-H 


i— 1 


o 


o 


o 


d 


Z 






< 

LU 


1 


6 




o 

1— I 


Tj< 


CO 


r-H 


r-H 


r-H 
























>- 










IO 


00 


CO 


t^ 


o 


iO 


o 


»o 


CO 


CO 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 










**-, 


r-H 


r-H 


r-H 


<M 


CM 


CO 


CO 


<* 


x* 


iO 


CD 


00 


os 


r-i 


CO 


CM 


CM 


^ 










































r-H 




CM 


co 










Screen Definition 



by DR. L. M. DIETERICH 

Consulting Engineer 



\UJL 



Part 5 



IN VIEW of the commercial introduction of a new highspeed 
motion picture negative emulsion by Eastman Kodak Co., the 
author offers in Fig. 1 a chart to the cameramen for quick 
determination of lens stop values for this new film. 

This chart also includes stop values for some of the most 
frequently used color filters for the regular Dupont panchromatic 
emulsions and for the Eastman "superpan." 

The f values offered in this chart are for practical purposes 
correct with a total overall speed increase of 3:1 for daylight, 
successfully tested by the author for black and white pictures 
as shown in Figs. 2 to 5. 

The cameraman has, however, to realize that the speed in- 
crease is highest for the red end of the spectrum and especially 
when used in color photography and filter work this fact has 
to be well considered. 

The speed increase has been stated to be for daylight 75% 
for blue, 200% for green and 400% for red. 

Figs. 6 to 1 2 show comparative spectrograms, all taken 
under identical conditions with an incandescent recording 
lamp and daylight filter (about 5200°K) . 

Fig. 6 Eastman Ortho. 

Fig. 7 Eastman Panchromatic Type 2. 

Fig. 8 Eastman Supersensitive Panchromatic. 

Fig. 9 Dupont Ortho. 

Fig. 10 Dupont Red Ortho. 

Fig. 1 1 Dupont Regular Panchromatic 

Fig. 12 Dupont Superspeed Panchromatic. 

It has been stated that the Dupont superspeed panchromatic 
increases the speed 100 per cent over the regular without 
changing the color balance, but broadening the width of the 
actinic spectrum, especially towards the red end, which is, 
the author believes, of a great deal of practical interest. 

The reader can draw his own conclusions from the observa- 
tions and interpretation of these impartially produced spectro- 
grams, especially as far as range of spectrum, color values and 
their relative speed are concerned. 

The proper use of any filter is largely a question of ex- 
perience, as unfortunately the scientific engineers have so far 
not been able to develop a practical and permanently reliable 
exposure meter, especially where specific color values are con- 
cerned. 




The multiplication factors for various filters are only an 
approximate guide and subject to sometimes radical changes 
when either stop values or shutter openings are selected. The 
color values of the object, the character of the illumination or 
light source, the actinic spectrum reaction of the emulsion, the 
desired emphasis of certain colors, special effects radically 
different from correct reproduction of inherent object char- 
acteristics — all these various conditions influence the selection 
and proper use of filters and the determination of correct ex- 
posure by stops and shutter opening control. 

Figs. 2 and 3 show as an example the use of a K3 filter 
on Eastman superpan using a 50mm. Detrar lens. The purpose 
of this selection was to reduce the haze and corresponding 
overexposure for the more or less distant details of this land- 
scape. 

Deep atmosphere (blue sky) especially when moisture- or 

dust-laden (haze) acts like a more or less efficient blue filter 

with dispersive characteristics under haze conditions, thereby 
destroying the desired definition. 

The use of a filter absorbing such undesirable rays, usually J 
of yellow characteristics and of densities depending upon haze i 
and light conditions greatly improves definition. 

Fig. 2 shows a photograph of a landscape with distant haze. 

Fig. 3. The same camera angle using a K3 filter and a k 
stop increase from f 14 to f 9. 

This was determined upon as follows: Under the existin 
light conditions (bright sunlight at about 1 p. m.) a stop of 
f 8 would have been in order with a standard panchromatic 
film. Using Eastman Sim«"-nan f 14 was selected as correct. 



This st 
K3 with 

Fig. 4 
and Eastrr 

To pre 
2 (combi 
with a co 

Where 

exist (sun 
B58I or 
very effec 



'using filter 



5etrar lens 
sed. 

filter No. | 
s selected | 



reflections 
E22 and 
A3) are 





Fig. 2 



Fig. 3 



15 



Akron Firm Wins Boothe Contest 

Mole-Richardson, Inc., and Arthur Reeves Win Second and Third Awards 



F 



IRST PRIZE of $100.00 in the Boothe Company Aluminum 
Contest, conducted through this magazine by the Boothe 
Company of Los Angeles, was awarded to the firm of C. 
Russell Carrier, Inc., Akron, Ohio. 

Second prize of $60.00 was awarded to the firm of Mole- 
Richardson, Inc., lighting equipment manufacturers, of Holly- 
wood. 

Third prize of $40.00 was awarded to Arthur Reeves of 
the Hollywood Camera Exchange, Hollywood. 

Mr. I. J. Boothe, head of the Boothe organization, sent the 
following letter to the editor of this magazine: 
American Cinematographer, 
1219 Guaranty Bldg., 
Hollywood, California. 
Attention: Mr. Hal Hall, Editor. 
Gentlemen: 

It is with a great deal of pleasure that we hand you the 
checks for the winners of first, second and third places, 
$100.00, $60.00 and $40.00 respectively, in the Boothe 
Company Aluminum Contest. 

This contest was originated with the idea in mind of stimu- 
lating the interest in aluminum and aluminum alloys, in the 
motion picture field, where we felt that the lightness and 
strength, (equal to that of steel) of these metals would prove 
advantageous to the industry, especially for portable equip- 
ment. 

We take this opportunity to congratulate the winners of the 
prizes and also to thank the judges for their efforts and time 
spent in examining the entries and awarding the prizes. 

We also wish to express our appreciation to the American 
Cinematographer for the cooperation which we have had 
throughout the contest. 

Very truly yours 

BOOTHE COMPANY 

I. J. Boothe 

The first prize was given for an aluminum disc recorder for 
talking pictures and electrical transcription. Specifications 
follow. It is for making professional thirty-three and one- 
third recording, and also for amateur and home seventy-eight 
R. P. M., using aluminum disc eight to seventeen inches in 
diameter, twelve gauge. The recorder has an aluminum base 
eighteen by twenty inches and one-quarter inch thick. The 
revolving table is of cast aluminum five-eighths of an inch 
thick, and is driven by one hundred and ten volts synchronous 
motor, with cutting arrangements and traveling horizontal 
across the face of the aluminum disc. The picture on the 
opposite page gives a fair idea of the device. Arrow 1 points 
to revolving table, 2 to aluminum disc, and 3 to the aluminum 
base. 

The second award was given to Mole-Richardson, Inc., for 
their new lamp, the "Integral Inkie," the particular lamp 
entered being M-R Type 218 — 18 inch Sun Spot, pictured on 
opposite page. 

From the specifications with entry we give you the data 
as proposed by this firm: 

"This lamp has been designed to overcome a difficulty 
which has heretofore been present in all lamps of this general 
type, i. e. the production of slight cracking and popping noises. 
Such noises we know are due to the expansion of the various 
parts of the lamp when heated by the incandescent light source. 

"The inherent fault with all previous designs has been the 
multiplicity of parts having various expansion relations to one 
another. We have gone to the heart of the problem and pro- 



duced a lamp which consists essentially of one integral cast- 
ing. The drum, mirror dome, ventilator, light baffles, lamp 
trough, and switch box, all of which have heretofore been 
cast of separate parts, are in this new lamp produced in one 
single aluminum or aluminum alloy casting. The few parts 
such as mirror ring, slide rods, etc., are so designed that they 
are free to expand without restriction, and hence will be in- 
capable of producing any sounds due to expansion. 

"The only parts of this lamp head which are not made 
of aluminum or aluminum alloy are the eye bolt and nut, the 
attaching screws, the mirror supporting springs, the focusing 
screw and handle, the slide rods, and their locking nuts, the 
offside trunion bearing, studs, and electrical conducting parts. 

"The pedestal is constructed of duralumin tubing and cast- 
ings of No. 43 alloy, with the exception of the clamp collar 
which is brass. 

Total weight of complete lamp 62 lbs. 

Weight of mirror, cable, stage plug, screws, electrical 

connections, socket, and casters 15'/4lbs. 

(These are parts purchased outside by us and 

are not obtainable in aluminum alloys.) 

Less . 1 5'/ 4 lbs. 

Total weight of fabricated parts 46% lbs. 

Weight of fabricated parts not composed of aluminum 

alloys 6 lbs. 

Total weight of aluminum alloy parts 40% lbs. 

Percent of fabricated parts that are of aluminum alloys 87' 

Third prize was awarded to Mr. Reeves for the Audio- 
Camex type microphone. The description is given as pre- 
pared by Mr. Reeves in submitting his entry: 

The transmitter diaphragm which is less than one thousandth 
of an inch thick is made of duraluminum. 

The duraluminum diaphragm is so sensitive that it records the 
sound vibrations perfectly at a distance that enables the camera- 
man to photograph a scene without getting the microphone in- 
to the picture. 

The Audio-Camex bullet type microphone is constructed of 
about ninety per cent aluminum and duraluminum. The only 
parts of the microphone that are not aluminum are the parts 
where electrical characteristics demand a different metal. 

The Amertan transformers have aluminum covers. The 
aluminum shields between the amplification stages and the 
tubes add to the rigidity of the frame work. The swivel joint 
of the transmitter cup is machined of duraluminum. The cover- 
ing is made of aluminum tubing. The Cannon connectors 
which we adapt to the microphone is made one half aluminum. 

The judges of this contest, which was started last October, 
were Mr. Hal Mohr, President of the American Society of 
Cinematographers; Mr. John Arnold, Treasurer of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, and head of the Camera Depart- 
ment of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios; and Mr. William John- 
son, head of the Electrical Department of the R-K-0 Studios. 

The Boothe Aluminum Contest aroused interest in all parts 
of the United States, and has proven again that Aluminum is 
rapidly becoming more and more a real factor in the motion 
picture industry. We cannot outline here the various devices 
suggested through this contest, but they were varied and many. 
Due to the lightness and strength of the aluminum alloys, this 
metal is rapidly creeping in to replace the heavy and cumber- 
some metals that have been used in the past. 

17 




Credit 

FOR the first time in many a moon the picture critics on the 
daily papers took occasion, on the opening of "East Lynne," 
to give special mention to the man who photographed the pic- 
ture. It was really gratifying to this writer who has always 
fought to bring the cameramen into the limelight where they 
belong. Mr. )ohn F. Seitz did a mighty commendable piece of 
cinematographic work in that picture, and he deserved mention 
by the critics who reviewed it in Los Angeles. 

Why isn't this done more frequently? That is a question 
this writer has been asking for years. I do not mean to detract 
from the work of the director, author or actor — or even the 
supervisor. But I do think that the cinematographer should 
receive his share of attention, whether it be a knock for poor 
cinematography or a boost for good work. Not all pictures 
are well photographed, we grant. But — and we ask you to give 
this a lot of thought — there is a darned sight more good cine- 
matography than there is good direction, story-writing or acting 
in the general run of Hollywood pictures. If you do not believe 
me, just go and look at some picture that has proven itself a 
dub as far as direction, acting or story is concerned. You will 
see that usually the redeeming feature of the picture is good 
photography. In fact, there have been, and undoubtedly will 
be again, many pictures that have been saved by the outstand- 
ing photography of a man whose name never is seen in the 
papers. 

Many a star would never twinkle if it were not for the 
genius of a cameraman who knows how to light and photograph 
her so her blemishes and bad points do not show. Many a 
director would have long ago been banished to oblivion if it 
had not been for the man who photographed his pictures. Many 
a picture would lose a large part of its value if the cameraman 
did not portray its mood or atmosphere. So, why not give him 
a little credit if he does a good piece of work! Or, give him 
a hard rap if he falls down. We all like appreciation, and we 
all like criticism if we deserve it. 

Congratulations 

THE EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY and the firm of Jules 
E. Brulatour are to be congratulated upon the excellent 
manner in which they introduced their new super-speed film 
to Hollywood. Rarely does one see a job handled so well as 
was that. An excellent dinner at the Uplifters Ranch, an 
atmosphere of rather mysterious expectancy — and then — with 
no attempt at sales talk, the film was introduced. Mr. Edward 
O. Blackburn, of the Brulatour organization; Mr. Ted Curtis of 
the Eastman Kodak Company; Mr. Emery Huse of the Kodak 
Company; Mr. George Gibson of the Brulatour organization, 
and many others who helped in the plans deserve praise. 

Stork Arrives 

THE WELL known Stork has been quite busy about Holly- 
wood of late. During the past month he brought a daugh- 
ter to Mr. and Mrs. John F. Seitz, and a daughter to Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward O. Blackburn. Friends of both couples will be 
pleased to know the mothers and the daughters are doing well. 



Opportunity 



JUDGING from my mail, Hollywood must seem like the pot 
of gold at the end of the rainbow to a lot of people scat- 
tered throughout these United States. An average of five or 
six letters a week come to me from readers asking me to ad- 
vise them as to how they may best break into the picture 
industry in Hollywood. Some want to become sound engineers, 
some cinematographers, others assistant directors, and many 
wish to become actors. We take this opportunity of answer- 
ing all who have written, and all who may write in the future. 

If you have a good job where you are, stay there! Holly- 
wood has proven to be a pot of suffering and disappointment 
to thousands who have given up good, steady jobs at home for 
the glamour of the studios. You will find many ice wagon 
and milk wagon drivers here who arrived in Hollywood fired 
with ambition to become one of the motion picture people 
with a mansion in Beverly Hills. This town has the most beau- 
tiful laundry workers and waitresses of any town I have ever 
seen. A poll of both classes would reveal many a home town 
beauty prize winner who had come to break into pictures, 
only to go broke and to the job of slinging hash or ironing 
clothes. 

A novice cannot hope to compete with cameramen of years 
experience. It takes more than ambition to crash the studio 
gates when there is more experienced talent at hand than the 
studios can use. Just because you know how to take your 
radio apart does not guarantee your being hired as a sound 
engineer. Unless you have a bankroll that will keep you for 
several years; and unless you have ability and the intestinal 
fortitude to stick it out month after month and still keep smil- 
ing — stay on your job at home. 

If you want more information, read the statement from 
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences on page 42. 

The Passing Show 

WITH the advent of talking pictures Hollywood lost a type 
of individual that, to this writer, added much in the way 
of atmosphere to this picture town. We speak of the Poverty 
Row type of producer. True, the atmosphere he added some- 
times reminded one of the lowly polecat. However, like the 
above-named animal, he made his presence felt, and was part 
of the big show of Hollywood. You know the type. They 
made more pictures, conversationally, at the corner of Sunset 
Boulevard and Gower street, than they did in the studio. But 
they were colorful. Now and then one of them would surprise 
the picture world with a production that would really have 
excellent merit. And then he would start up the stairs. Many 
a successful man here now started on Poverty Row. It seems 
too bad that the high cost of sound should have wiped that 
type out. To be an independent now, one must have a lot 
of money, for sound costs just that. Maybe the day will come 
when sound will cost less. And then perhaps we will see the 
old, colorful type spring up again. It will be a blessing for a 
lot of embryonic directors. 



IS 





#K&«N 






*»o 



>m 



C 0y t 



"*Y, 



m 



«* 



°Ni 




19 



Magnacolor Film Announced 

Consolidated Film Industries, Inc., Ready for Quantity Production 



CONSOLIDATED Film Industries, Inc., New York and 
Hollywood, have just announced a new natural color film 
which has been perfected by them after long experiment. 
The new film is called Magnacolor, and is based on the bi-pack 
film process. 

The bi-pack process makes use of two negatives running 
emulsion to emulsion. The front negative (nearest the lens) 
consists of film carrying emulsion sensitive to blue rays. A 
coating of special red dye is placed on top of the gelatine 
emulsion of this film. The back film consists of a highly pan- 
chromatic negative, mainly sensitive to red rays. When the two 
films are at the aperture, emulsion to emulsion, the light passes 
through the back of the first negative (blue sensitive) . This 
gives the blue image. The light then strikes the coating of red 
dye, which absorbs the blue rays and allows the red rays to 
pass through to the second negative, thus giving an image of 
the red portions of the subject. 

Officials of the Consolidated Film Industries claim that with 
Magnacolor you get a sharpness equal to black and white, and 
that the colors are natural and pleasing and can be held abso- 
lutely uniform in quantity production. They also claim that 
anything in monochrome is equally possible with Magnacolor, 
with no change other than the use of Magnacolor films and a 
slight adjustment of the camera gate. 

In the announcement from Consolidated, officials say: "Not 
only can any qualified cameraman make this film, but he can 
use any technique known in black and white photography such 
as light effects, double exposure, changing of lights during 
scenes, and trick effects. Camera manufacturers have arranged 
for the adaptation of black and white cameras to color at small 
expense, making the cameras available for both color and black 
and white work. 

"The Magnacolor process," continues the announcement, 
"is founded on an extremely comprehensive set of patents for 
which Consolidated Film Industries has an exclusive license. 
These patents include methods of assuring exact registration 
in printing, the application of the colors in processing the posi- 
tive film with many modifications of methods for this, basic 
patents relating to the use of positive film for color work, and 
numerous auxiliary patents for the production of the process 
In addition to these patents which so amply protect the user 
of color film, Consolidated Film Industries, Inc. are the owners 
of many patents covering developing and printing machinery 
and other apparatus widely used in film processing. 

"The greatest difficulty in color production has always been 
the lack of photographic and mechanical knowledge as applied 
in the processing of black and white negatives and prints which 
are the very foundation of successful color processing. Because 
it has such knowledge, the Consolidated was able in a very 
short time to perfect the bi-pack method to a state where 
commercial release prints can be done with the same precision 
as black and white release printing in the most economical 
manner possible. 

"It is obvious that in using two negatives, each of which 
contains a partial record of the colors photographed, that there 
must be a correct balance establishing the latent color values 
of these negatives when they are developed, and later when 
they are printed and colored on positive stock. The final 
results are doomed to failure unless the laboratory doing the 
processing has had knowledge of all its major and minor dif- 
ficulties including the balancing of negatives and positives. 
It is this knowledge of the balance of values in black and white 
film, backed by years of experience and organized training for 

20 



such work which has made it possible for Consolidated to 
produce the splendid new color film and makes the company 
feel secure that the leader in the field will be Magnacolor. 

"Not only is this technical knowledge of film processing 
essential to successful color production, but it is just as neces- 
sary that the producers of color film have a complete mastery 
of laboratory machinery. Consolidated has the advantage of 
fifteen years' experience in this field. These fifteen years 
represent an accumulation of technical knowledge gathered by 
the welding together of the most representative laboratories in 
the country into one large, single organization. Such a com- 
bination of units into one organization has resulted in a vast 
body of technical knowledge executed and administered by 
experts. All of these factors combined to give Magnacolor its 
outstanding superiority. 

"Consolidated is prepared to offer cooperative service to any 
cameraman or producing organization which desires to learn 
more about the technique of color photography and to apply it 
in their pictures. Consolidated believes that there is a great 
future for color films not only in theatrical motion pictures but 
also in industrial and educational pictures — two fields, the pos- 
sibilities of which have not yet been developed. 

"In addition to the regular laboratory service on Magnacolor, 
Consolidated will have a staff of trained cameramen with full 
equipment ready to do photographic work for such clients who 
have no equipment of their own. In the case of industrial pic- 
ture producers, Consolidated is prepared to offer its service and 
advice in the writing of scenarios to give the work dramatic 
flavor, as well as on technical subjects. Consolidated Film 
Industries have equipped an up-to-the-minute plant at 959 
Seward Street in Hollywood for the exclusive production of 
Magnacolor. This new plant is ready to give complete service 
and prompt delivery. The company will also use its New York 
laboratories in connection with the Color Department, par- 
ticularly for industrial color pictures." 



Three Color Subrractive Cinematography 

(Continued from Page 12) 
that approximate the ideal as noted in the case of the filters 

The ideal requirements of the three color dyes are that 
each should transmit as nearly as possible 100 r ( of the ligh 
of two of the three primary colors and in its heavier densities 
absorb entirely light of the other primary color. 

In Fig. 2 Curve C shows the transmission of a heavy step 
in the magenta "H & D" strip and curves A and B the lightei 
steps. This dye passes nearly all the blue and red but nd 
green. Figs. 3 and 4 show the blue-green and yellow curvei|j 
for the same densities. 

In order to obtain a good black it is necessary that eacr 
of the three colors absorb practically all light of one of tht 
other primaries, and it is equally important that each in thei 
lighter gradations pass practically equal quantities of the cor 
responding primary in order to obtain good greys, as is seer 
by the opening of the filter in the lighter steps. With th< 
three dyes shown equal densities of the three super-imposec 
yield a grey. 



The above papci was presented at the Fall meeting of the S. M. P. E 
and is printed through the courtesy of the S. M. P. E. Journal. 

— The Editor. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOC R A P H E R 



Twenty-one 



Eastman Super Sensitive Panchromatic 

(Continued from Page 10) 
time of development. The rate of increase of contrast with in- 
creased development time is appreciably less for the Super 
Sensitive film, as will be shown by a study of the curves in 
Figure 4. This means that in the handling of the film during 
development there is relatively little chance of either under 
or over developing. Errors of the order of 25% in develop- 
ment time will have a much less marked effect on the Super 
Sensitive film. In other words the Super Sensitive film gives 
to the laboratory man that one thing which is so important to 
him and which is colloquially referred to as "development 
latitude." 




i.Tresent Films 
s.Super Sensitive Film 



3 \Z IS 18 

Minutes in Botjax 



21 



Fig- 4 

There is just one caution which should be mentioned at 
h his time. Due to the increased sensitivity of this emulsion, 
rhe handling of this film cannot be successfully accomplished 
jnless the illumination from the present safelights is reduced 
appreciably. The ideal condition under which to handle this 
: ilm would be total darkness and no doubt this condition will 
prevail inasmuch as many camera loading rooms and laborator- 
es which process negative on machines now operate in almost, 
f not total, darkness. I.t is felt, therefore, that this will not 
vork any great hardship on the laboratory. However, this 
jvord cf caution is considered necessary because of the greater 
ncreased speed both to white and to colored light of the Super 
Sensitive emulsion. 

It is felt that a summary of the outstanding features of the 
>uper Sensitive film will bear repeating. 

1 — Super Sensitive film is twice as fast to daylight and 
hree times as fast to tungsten light as the present type 
ianchromatic films. 

2 — Super Sensitive film shows 75 f ' r more speed to blue 
ight, 200% more to green light, and from 400 to 500% 
rnore to red light. 

3 — Super Sensitive film exhibits an appreciably softer 
haracteristic than present films. For the same time of de- 
elopment the Super Sensitive film gives lower gammas. This 
lakes it advisable to develop the Super Sensitive film longer 
i the same degree of contrast as now accepted is still de- 
ired. 

4 — Super Sensitive film must be handled at a much reduced 
ght intensity in the dark rooms. 



Talking Movie Proves Effective Aid To 
Sucessful Selling 

HOW THE talking motion picture is being used as a 
unique and striking aid to successful selling is told in 
the current issue of the Financial Advertisers Bulletin by 
Frederick Doyle, advertising director of Smith, Burris & Com- 
pany, Chicago, central syndicate managers of Corporate Trust 
Shares. 

It has been this company's idea that motion pictures, 
especially talking films, could be of effective help in selling 
investment trust securities, and the actual results of the first 
exhibitions of a three-reel talkie called "An Investment in 
America's Prosperity" have amply proved this, according to 
Mr. Doyle. 

The theme of this talking picture, as shown on the screen 
and explained by an accompanying voice, is the closeness to 
the daily life of America of the companies included in the 
Smith-Burris trust portfolio. "The different companies are seen 
at work," says Mr. Doyle, "providing luxuries as well as 
necessities — harvesting food and bringing it to the table; 
supplying light, power and heat; providing rapid communi- 
cation to any point on the globe; and performing a hundred 
other tasks essential to the very existence of our national life." 

The picture is shown by salesmen in various cities. The 
film is supplied in standard size for regular theatre produc- 
tion and in smaller size for portable talkie machines. Of the 
portable talkie reproducers over fifty Bell & Howell outfits 
are now being used to exhibit the picture. This outfit weighs 
only 88 pounds and is so simple in construction that an office 
boy can operate it. "In whatever manner it is shown the 
production is a thrilling talking movie," says Mr. Doyle. 

"One of the great difficulties that the bond and stock sales- 
man must cope with," says Mr. Cedric H. Smith, vice-president 
of Smith, Burris & Company, who directed the production of 
the film, "is that of making his prospective investor realize 
the extent and nature of the income producing power behind 
the particular investment offered. Engraved certificates look 
much alike, and comparative figures mean little except to 
statistically minded people. But an investor seeing and hear- 
ing a great industrial plant in operation gets a vivid and 
comprehensive idea of the tangible factors back of his pros- 
pective investment." 

"An Investment in America's Prosperity" is a Burton 
Holmes production. The companies whose activities are shown 
on the screen cooperated by supplying action scenes of their 
plants, operations and products. A total of 81,500 feet from 
these films was reviewed and scenes adopted, in addition to 
many thousand feet of new "shots" taken especially for this 
new picture. From all this material the picture was condensed 
to three reels rendering it interesting every second of every 
scene. The voice and musical parts were synchronized with 
the picture. 

"It was not expected that the film would produce im- 
mediate sales," says Mr. Doyle, "yet dealers make such re- 
ports as this: 'Every time we run the picture a few more sales 
are closed. This week we have had a crowded showing every 
night. Next week we are making, in addition, a showing 
every day at 12:10 and another at 3:00'." 



ohnson Business Head Cameramen's N. Y. 
Local 

^V. JOHNSON, formerly engaged in location work for the 
. Paramount New York studio, has been named business 
jpresentative of the cameramen's local in New York. He 
Jcceeds Francis E. Ziesse, who will soon announce a new 
snnection. 



College Board Will Study Sound Films in 
Education 

R-C-A PHOTOPHONE engineers are installing sound apparatus 
in the auditorium of the State Teachers' College at Cedar 
Falls, Iowa. This is the first institution in the state to adopt 
the "talkies" and it is said the college board will make an 
intensive study of the value of sound pictures in education. 



L 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



March, 1931 



The Pedagogy of Visual Education 

(Continued from Page 13) 

The key to the successful use of slides and projection equip- 
ment is an administrative scheme which facilitates the con- 
venience of their use. In conference with university professors 
it became apparent that the utilization of visual apparatus 
depended on its availability and the dispatch with which it 
could be made available. No one will maneuver administratively 
or act as an expressman to secure apparatus which he will use 
for no longer a time than it took him to secure it. Miss Probst 
attributes the extensive use of visual apparatus in her school 
to her making the materials available In the Calhoun school 
there is an extension cord in every room. In the primary grades 
there is projection equipment for every two rooms and in the 
upper grades for every four rooms. There is a headquarters 
room for every unit of two or four rooms and the actual equip- 
ment and proposed use is scheduled on a chart and controlled 
from this headquarters room. Slides, pictures, views, film, etc., 
are filed in the principal's office by trained clerks and can be 
withdrawn for room use as easily as cards can be removed 
from an alphabetical index. 

It is the opinion of instructors that there must be ample 
projection equipment for regular use. When equipment has 
to be booked for, transferred, set up, room arranged for its 
use, etc., the instructor does not use it. Equipment should be 
in rooms ready for use and if transfer is made, it should be 
limited to buildings in which the rooms are close together and 
possibly limited to a single floor. When buildings are planned, 
foresight should include special instruction for visual education. 
In physics department projection apparatus is generally an 
integral part of the lecture rooms' instructional equipment, 
and consequently is extensively used. Apparatus for visual in- 
struction should be regarded as microscopes and books are 
regarded. No one thinks of limiting student groups to one 
copy of a book or one microscope. There are several copies of 
a book and many microscopes. One should regard visual ap- 
paratus similarly. There should be enough to be easily avail- 
able for those who wish to use such equipment. 

Wherever motion or activity is an important factor, films 
constitute a very essential phase of instruction. In the inland 
sections, remote from the ocean, films bring to zoology classes 
realism in instruction that otherwise would not be obtained. 
The teaching of sea life is quite barren without showing the 
motion and behavior of different forms of sea life. Films 
bring to the zoology student in realistic manner the behavior 
of the studied sea forms. 

Psychology being a study of behavior can make extensive 
use of films to study reactions to specific situations where 
stimuli are controlled. Films are made of infants and pre- 
school children, of rats in mazes, monkeys in cages, adults 
working puzzles and of many other situations. 

In 1929 some of the eminent foreign psychologists brought 
to America films which depicted their experiments. Pavlov, 
the great Russian psychologist, had a film illustrating the con- 
ditioned reflex whose importance is attested to by its being the 
cornerstone, if not the foundation, of a large school of psy- 
chology. 

When Koehler, the eminent German psychologist, was at 
Minnesota he showed his studies of monkeys by means of 
films. The films were without doubt the most efficient vehicle 
for pointing out in the actions of his monkeys, his theories of 
behavior. To illustrate the research of Pavlov and Koehler, 
visual presentation through the medium of the film seemed to 
arouse much more interest and impart better understanding 
than numerous lectures or pages of published material could 
have done. One can hardly attend a scientific meeting and not 
see the research of some eminent scholar on the screen. 

In phases of instruction such as typewriting and penman- 
ship where efficient coordination of movements that make up 
stalls are being taught films can be made which illustrate 



effective methods. Typewriting has been taught with unusual 
effectiveness by preparing films showing the techniques of ex- 
perts. The film company that has engaged a national tennis and 
golf star to illustrate how to play the game of tennis and golf 
is entering into a field of pedagogy with limits for actual 
class room instruction that are very remote. 

Education by means of films is not new by any means and 
yet only beginnings are made. Talking accompaniment is cer- 
tain to be an essential instructional phase of teaching by means 
of films. When experts make a film it goes without saying 
that they can provide better oral explanations than can the 
average class room teacher on either grade, high school or 
university level. 

The next important step will have to include the prepara- 
tion of educational films by scholars and scientists. The 
technical phases of directing, photographing, recording, etc., 
are well in the hand of film companies with their auxiliary re- 
search laboratories, and this part of the problem is not the 
one referred to in the previous statement. What is meant is 
that educators, be they historians, physicists, psychologists, geol- 
ogists, zoologists or what not, will have to devote themselves 
to the preparation of films in their different subjects just as 
they now prepare texts, monographs, and published articles. 

It is conceivable that in many courses or subjects in grades, 
high school or college, the seeing and hearing of a prescribed 
number of films correlated with the courses will be considered 
as important an integral part of a course as the reading of 
assignments and the hearing of a fixed number of lectures. 
Just as book companies now announce new books in a subject 
or a field of study, some companies will announce new films 
in the various phases of study and learning which are available 
for instructional purposes. This is being done to some extent 
now. 

At the University of Minnesota a committee on visual edu- 
cation is working to further and expedite instruction by means 
of projection apparatus. The interest is not merely an ad- I 
ministrative one which concerns itself with effective use of 
available means, but one that looks forward to research and 
creative work in the production of instructional films. A de- 
pository for all available films is being provided which will j 
really be a library of films, and, will function in regard to 
films as a library functions with its books and reading matter, j 
It is the endeavor of the University of Minnesota to collect 
and save for the use of posterity films which normally are 
destroyed but which foresight speculates will have historical 
and research value in the future. 




attention 




The pictorial section of 
the next volume of the 
Cinematographic Annual 
is being compiled. Any- 
one wishing to contribute 
prints for this section 
may send them in now for 
consideration. 




JOAN CRAWFORD and LESTER VAIL 



in 



••DANCE, FOOLS, DANCE" 

A METRO-GOLDWYN- MAYER PRODUCTION 

Cinematographer, CHARLES ROSHER. A. S. C. Make-up Artist, CECIL HOLLAND 



Max Factor's 

USED EXCLUSIVELY 



•up 



Tel. HO-6191 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS 

Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Grand Ave. Cable Address "Facto" 



Other Foreign 


B 


ranches 




London, England 




Johannesburg, So. Africa 




10 D'ArblaySt. 




Cor. Joubert & Kerk Sts. 






Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 




Manila, Philippine Islands 


Max Factor's 


Mexico City, Mexico 




No. 39 Escolta St. 


Theatrical 


Paseo de la Reforma 36'/2 




Buenos Aires, Argentina 


Make-up 


Havana, Cuba 




500 Sarmiento 


for the 


H-130, Vedado 








Lima, Peru 




Honolulu, T. H. 


Stage 


Edificia Mineria 




720 South St. 





Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 

23 



Eastman Announces 

THE GREATEST ADVAP 
THE INTRODUCTION OF 

AGAIN Eastman takes a great forward stride in 
il emulsion making, with a motion picture nega- 
tive film, the importance of which can be compared 
only with the epoch-making introduction of the 
first Eastman Panchromatic Negative. 

Eastman Super-Sensitive Panchromatic Negative, 
Type 2, is now ready for you. 

Here are some of its outstanding characteristics: 

(1) It has at least double the speed of previous pan- 

chromatic emulsions. This remarkable increase 
in speed promises substantial reductions in 
lighting expense on the set, and added hours 
of shooting time on location. 

(2) // has an even finer grain than Eastman Pan- 

chromatic Negative, Type 2. 

(3) It exhibits a very decided, and very important 

developing latitude. Because of this quality, the 
industry can be more confident than ever of 
getting the finest possible results in processing. 

Eastman Su 



Please mention the American <1 
24 



:e in emulsions since 
anchromatic negative 



(4) There is no increase in price over that of Pan- 
chromatic Negative, Type 2. 

• • • 

All of the improvements embodied in this new 
emulsion represent clear gain to the industry. For 
they have been made without sacrificing or impair- 
ing any of the desirable features of Eastman Pan- 
chromatic Negative, with which camera men are 
familiar. True color balance . . . unsurpassed ex- 
posure latitude . . . ability to render fine shadow 
detail . . . tough, wear-resisting base . . . splendid 
uniformity ... all these qualities are as prominently 
present as before. 

Eastman Super -Sensitive Panchromatic Negative, 
Type 2, represents a real achievement. You will 
want to become thoroughly familiar with it. The 
best way to do that is to use it in your next picture. 
. . . Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New 
York. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc.,Distributors, New York, 
Chicago, Hollywood.) 

w-Sensitive Panchromatic Negative 

. . .Type 2 



te.'grapher when writing advertisers. 






MAZDA . . .NOT THE NAME OF A THING BUT THE MARK OF A RESEARCH SERVICE 



out 







1930S BEST 
PICTURES 

ALL QUIET 

ON THE WESTERN FRONT 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 
HOLIDAY 
JOURNEY'S END 
ANNIE CHRISTIE 
THE BIG HOUSE 
WITH BYRD 

AT THE SOUTH POLE 

THE DIVORCEE 
HELL'S ANGELS 
OLD ENGLISH 



\^- \ 141 /^Cj :■.. , <? 

\ 121/ ^*«w---^ ^ 

N -L_ «/ 

Again . the best 

USED MAZDA LAMPS . . . 

/vGAIN in I930, MAZDA lamps played an important part in the 
production of the best pictures of the yeaT. 

This predominance of MAZDA lamps foT lighting as well as for record- 
ing and reproduction of sound is significant. Of the ten best pictures, 
seven used MAZDA lamps exclusively, while two of the others used 
MAZDA lamps in part. 

EveTy type of General Electric MAZDA lamp used in motion picture 
photography is the result of millions of dollars and many years spent in 
research and test applications. That MAZDA lamps should contribute to 
the outstanding success of the year's best pictures is not only logical — it is 
inevitable because the past achievement, present acceptance and future 
promise of MAZDA lamps have made them indispensable to the cin- 
ematogTapheT. 

The continued identification of G. E. MAZDA lamps with the best 
productions is assured by theiT quality, and by the devotion of the engi- 
neers who constantly improve them to the cause of ever better cine- 
matography. National Lamp Works of General Electric Company, Nela 
Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Join us in the General Electric program, broadcast every 
Saturday evening over a nation-wide N. B. C. network. 



GENERAL 



ELECTRIC 



26 



MAZDA^LAMPS 

Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T OC R A P H E R 



Twenty-seven 



VERNON L. WALKER, A. S. C 

First Cinematographer Specializing in Process Work 

ADDRESS 

601 West Fairmont, Clendale, California 
Telephone: Doug. 5032R or HE- 1128 



Erpi Consolidates Forces 

CONSOLIDATION of all field forces of Electrical Research 
Products is under way, according to a statement issued 
by H. M. Wilcox, Vice President in charge of operation. The 
first step in the merging of departments was effected Febru- 
ary 1 when the Installation and Service Departments were 
consolidated. 

"The increasing variety of activities which the Installation 
and Service Departments are being called upon to handle has 
made it desirable in the interest of greater flexibility to con- 
solidate the field forces and to rearrange territories so that the 



sales, credit and operating divisions will synchronize, thereby 
effecting an even closer coordination," stated Wilcox. 

In the consolidation of Service and Installation, the two 
departments become the Operating Department with J. S. 
Ward, formerly Service Manager, appointed Director of Oper- 
ations, reporting to Wilcox; and L. W. Conrow, formerly In- 
stallation Manager, becomes Operating Manager, reporting to 
Ward. 

The four Installation Divisions and thirteen Service Di- 
visions will be consolidated into five Operating Divisions each 
under the administration of a manager, who will be completely 
responsible for both installation and service activities. 



AWDIC-CAMEX 



Scund-cn-Film 
Recording Syjtem 

Ahead of the Times 

with Our New 

Amplifier liandling 
Twc Aiicrcphcnex 

Originators of Direct Current Interlocking 
Motors operating on "B" Batteries. Some- 
times miscalled D. C. Synchronous Motors (an 
obvious misnomer.) 

As Kipling has said — 

"They copied all they could follow, 
"But they couldn't copy my mind. 
"And left them sweating and stealing, 
"A year and a half behind." 




H4 ^AMEPA Exchange 

| J ^^/ CABLE=HOCAMEX-15Il CAHUENGA BLVD -PHONE HO ?431 




l_ABCEATCEy and 

Technical 
Mattecc 



Screen Brightness 



THE QUESTION of screen brightness has arisen on many 
occasions but there seems to be very little definite data 
available as to what brightness should be maintained on 
motion picture screens. A review of the literature failed to 
show any definite recommendation of specific brightness values 
for motion picture films but it may be inferred from the 
experimental data in various articles published that an opti- 
mum value of screen brightness about eight years ago was 
10 foot-candles. During the past year the Academy of Mo- 
tion Picture Arts and Sciences has had a committee in opera- 
tion called the Screen Illumination Committee, whose purpose 
it was to study screen brightness. The Society of Motion 
Picture Engineers for years had had a Theatre Lighting Com- 
mittee, part of whose work was a study of the screen bright- 
ness subject. 



by EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 



For a long time we have felt that a special department devoted to 
laboratory and other technical problems would be a feature that 
would be welcomed by the readers of this magaxine. Starting with 
this issue we are pleased to announce that such a department is now 
at your disposal, and is conducted by Mr. Emery Huse, A. S. C, tech- 
nical editor of the American Cinematographer. Mr. Huse, whose pic- 
ture appears at the left, needs no introduction, for his work with the 
Eastman Kodak Company has stamped him as a recognized authority. 
If you have any problems, send them into this department and they 
w'll be answered. — The Editor. 

There are occasions arising where a picture shown in two 
different projection rooms, or theatres, will look quite differ- 
ent on the screen. Reference is made particularly to the same 
print. Oftentimes as a result of the difference, blame is 
placed on the projectionist or on the laboratory for their print 
quality. In most instances the cause of this difficulty can be 
centered in the inequality of the brightness of the screens on 
which the picture is viewed. 

This general problem of screen brightness is of great mag- 
nitude and extends from the processing laboratory through 
the studio projection rooms to the screens of the multitude 
of theatres throughout the country. It is naturally quite 
impossible at this time to make a standard condition which 
would please all parties concerned but it does seem that at 
least within a given studio the various projection rooms could 
be maintained at some definite screen brightness. Further- 
more, in making a study of various theatres and studios 
relative to their screen brightness the values are not greatly 
in disagreement but they are sufficiently so to make stan- 
dardization impossible. Theatres agree among themselves 
fairly well, but the studios are not as good in this respect. 

The purpose of this article is simply to bring to the atten- 
tion of those interested a tabulation of some of the data 
available at the present moment, which data was accumulated 
during the past year. The accompanying table gives rather 
completely such data. 

Color Coefficient 

THE SENSITOMETRIC term "color coefficient" has been 
brought into the motion picture vocabulary since the in- 
troduction of sound photography. An attempt will be made 
here to briefly explain its significance. 



Screen Illumination Data For Several Los Angeles Theatres 



THEATRE 



TYPE 



LENGTH 
OF THROW 



TYPE OF SCREEN 



SIZE OF SCREEN 



SCREEN ILLUMINA- 
TION FOOT-CANDLES 



A 


Neighborhood 


100 ft. 


Transvox 


13' 2" x 17' 8" 


8.5 f. c 


B 


" 


99 ft. 


" 


13' 2" x 17' 8" 


10 


f. c. 


C 


L. A. Class A 


100 ft. 


Datone X 


14' 3" x 19' 


10.5 f. c. 




House 












D 


Hollywood 
Class A 


95 ft. 


Transvox 


1 8' 6" x 24' 7" 


1 1 


f. c. 


E 


Hollywood 
Class A 


75 ft. 




1 4' 6" x 1 9' 4" 


12 


f. c. 


F 


Neighborhood 


125 ft. 


" 


13' x 17' 5" 


9 


f. c. 


C 


Laboratory 


65 ft. 


Datone X 


Exact dimension unknown 


12 


f. c. 


H 


" 


35 ft. 


Not sound screen 


" " 


24 


f. c. 


1 


" 


45 ft. 


Datone X 


10x12 


17 


f. c. 


J 




35 ft. 


Not sound screen 
matte surface 


7 x 9'/ 2 


38 


f. c. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T OC R A P H E R 



Twenty-nine 






The color of the silver deposit in a photographic negative 
exerts a marked influence on the quality of the resulting print, 
thus negatives made with certain developers exhibit decidedly 
yellowish deposits, while other developers produce images that 
are almost entirely colorless. Of two such negatives having 
the same visual quality, except for the differences in color, the 
yellowish one will produce a "print of higher contrast. The 
reason for this can be determined only upon a consideration of 
the difference between the visibility function of the eye and 
the spectral sensitivity of the photographic printing material. 
A deposit which is yellowish, therefore, will have a lower total 
transmission when measured by using some photographic ma- 
terial, such as positive film, as the receiving surface for the 
transmitted radiation, than when measured by a visual method 
in which the retina of the eye is employed, as the lighter sensi- 
tive receptor. It is quite evident, then, that in the study of 
the negative a careful distinction must be made between the 
total visual transmission and the total photographic transmis- 
sion of the silver deposits which compose that negative. Color 
coefficient may be defined as the factor by which the visual 
contrast in a negative is increased in the print due to the 
color of the~ne gative "silver deposits. If the negative deposits 
ar e neutraj j n color then the color coefficient is unity. 

In studying various developers it has been found that a 
pure elon developer, one containing no hydroquinone, gives the 
clearest image. The color coefficient of a pure elon developer 
approximates 1 .03 to 1 .05, showing an increase in gamma of 
from three to five percent over a negative with colorless de- 
posits of silver. 

Developers of the type used in the processing of sound film 
show color coefficients in the neighborhood of 1.10 to 1.20, 
the actual value depending upon the construction of the de- 
veloper and the manner in which the film is processed in it. 

For developers of the pyro type in which a definitely stain- 
ed image is obtained, color coefficients of the order of 1 .30 to 
1 .40 are quite usual. 

In the discussion of color coefficient the word "color" may 
be a little misleading. Unless the negative has a decided 
color very little color will be observed when that negative is 
inspected visually. 

• 

Series and Parallel 

DRY CELLS used in battery sets illustrate series and parallel 
connections nicely. Dry cells are used to light the fila- 
ments of dry cell type radio sets. With tubes like the 199, 
three dry cells in series are required. The voltage is then 
tripled (each cell is 1 Vi volts) . The current capacity of the 
cell remains the same as that of one cell, however. For other 
tubes, such as the WD1 1 , only 1 V2 volts are required, but one 
cell does not have enough current capacity to light all the 
tubes of the set. Therefore a number of dry cells, any number 
desired, is connected in parallel, that is, with their positive 
terminals joined together, and their negative terminals joined 
together. This acts as a single dry cell, still of 1 Vi volts, but 
of greater current capacity. 

• 

Models of Sets Prove Most Efficient 
Method 

PARAMOUNT'S New York studio has inaugurated a policy 
of making models of sets, drawn to V2 inch scale, which 
are used in preference to sketches. By means of these models, 
the director can visualize the entire action before the picture 
goes into production and may plan his picture accordingly. 
Cameramen, electricians and carpenters also benefit by study- 
ing the models in figuring out camera angles, lighting effects 
and anticipating difficulties in construction. The plan, now 
in effect under the supervision of William Saulter, Paramount's 
head art director here, has proven a great saving in both time 
and money. 



High Speed Camera Analysis of Energy 
Expenditure 

THE AVERAGE college sprinter in the 100-yard dash utilizes 
oxygen at a rate which is equivalent to the production of 
13 H.P., according to the results of physiologists who have 
been studying the problem. With the aid of the high speed 
motion picture camera, an analysis has recently been made of 
the actual mechanical work done by these runners, who were 
picked at random from the gymnasium classes of the uni- 
versity. 

From this investigation it was found that only about 3 H.P. 
are returned as mechanical work which could be accounted 
for by the movements of the various parts of the body. This 
makes the human machine only 23 per cent efficient. 

By measuring the displacements of the body structures as 
they appeared when projected on a screen from over 2,000 
separate film pictures, it has been possible to compute the 
velocities of the arms and legs during their wings. The re- 
sults showed that more than half of the mechanical work 
was required to swing them and that 0.7 H.P. was expended 
to stop them at the end of the swing, making a total of 2.4 
H. P. utilized in the arms and legs. The overcoming of the 
resistance of the feet making contact with the ground required 
0.4 H.P., while wind pressure and gravity accounted for 0.2 
H.P. 



Bausch & Lomb Design Lens for 
Wide Screen 

BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL CO., Rochester, N. Y., is now 
marketing its new super cinephor lens and condenser system, 
said to have been especially designed to meet the requirements 
of the wide screen, as well as to improve standard films. This 
is the first projection lens to be fully corrected for astigma- 
tism, the company claims, hence the improved flat field and 
critical definition. 

The condenser on its operation confines the light to an evenly 
illuminated oval of the same proportion as the wide film 
aperture dimensions, giving 50 per cent more illumination, the 
company states. 



More Color 

IT IS reported that a limited liability company with a capital 
of 3,500,000 francs has just been formed in Paris for the 
production of colored film. The name of the concern in ques- 
tion is Societe Continentale Europeenne Cinecolor. The board 
of directors is composed of Louis Aubert, Marcel Monteux, 
Leopold-Maurice Cratioulet and Gustave Dyckhoff. The new 
company is to exploit the so-called Thornton color process, the 
patent of which is held by John Edward Thornton, of Jersey, 
England. 



Portable Sound -on -Film 
Projection Equipment 

Easily transported — quickly set up — Three carry- 
ing cases, weight less than 75 lbs. each — Repro- 
duction excellent — No batteries or head amplifiers 
— Entirely A. C. operated — Low priced — Write for 
complete information. 

PUBLIC ADDRESS SERVICE COMPANY 

2024 V2 Commerce St., Dallas, Texas 



by HAL HALL 



WE HAD hoped that Mr. Stull, who conducts this de- 
partment, would be well and back at his desk in time 
to write for the March issue. However, such is not the 
case. Just as he began to feel somewhat like his old self he 
was stricken with appendicitis. At this writing he is on the 
road to recovery and asks us to send his best wishes to those 
who read his department each month. So, you will have to 
bear with me for another issue. 

At this particular season of the year, between winter and 
spring, many amateurs feel that there is little chance to use 
their 16 millimeter camera. They look through watery win- 
dows at the driving rains, at the cloudy skies or the bleak 
landscape. Then they long for the sunny days that are to 
come. Few realize that they are passing up the opportunity 
of making subjects that are unique and really worthwhile. 

There is nothing more interesting than a subject photo- 
graphed in the rain. With the fast lenses of today, dark days 
are not what they once were to the photographer. In fact, 
untold possibilities are revealed, and from an artistic point of 
view the amateur may make a screen picture of much greater 
pictorial interest than in the summer days when the sun is 
blazing down and not a cloud is in the sky. The great banks 
of drifting clouds alone furnish pictorial attractiveness that 
one should not fail to take advantage of. Dark clouds, drip- 
ping rain, unusual reflections on wet pavements, distant land- 
scapes veiled with a moody mistiness, light coming from a 
flatter angle, making it possible to secure artistic effects closer 
to the middle of the day than you can a month later — all aid 
the amateur in making pictures that will be little jewels in 
his collection. 

An interesting series of pictures for a serious amateur may 
be made during the four seasons of the year. Select a spot 
that lends itself to pictorial beauty. Photograph it in the 
middle of winter when the ice and snow covers all. As spring 
arrives with budding leaves and drenching rain, photograph it 
again. And then when summer is here and the entire scene 
has changed, photograph it in kodacolor. As the climax, again 
in kodacolor, photograph it in the autumn when it is bathed 
in the gorgeous colors of that season. If well thought out 
and intelligently photographed, you will have a picture you 
will be proud of, and which will challenge your cinematographic 
ability. 

While on the subject of rainy day photography, this writer 
has often wondered why the general run of amateurs puts the 
camera away on a rainy day. He may be making a trip around 
the world, and recording it on his film. But — if it rains when 
he is in Boston he usually makes no pictures. Why not? It 
seems to this writer that what you want is a photographic 
record of the trip. Why not make it in the rain if it is rain- 
ing? Those may be the best pictures of the lot. A friend of 
mine recently showed me some pictures he had made while 
on a trip to Alaska. It rained a large part of the time he was 
there, and — the best pictures he had were those made on the 
rainy days. There was a certain air of mystery about the 
mountains with the mist and clouds that fairly made one gasp 
with delight. Why not try it? 



Filters 

The subject of filters seems to be a fly in the ointment to 
many amateurs, judging from the number of questions that 
reach this office. Many ask why they should use filters. Many 
ask how to use them. 

In the first place, color-filters are a means of correcting the 
discrepancies between the way the film sees colors, and the 
way our eyes see them. That is, the film sees colors according 
to one scale of brightness, and our eyes see the same colors 
with quite different degrees of brightness. If we arrange a 
strip of cardboard painted blue-violet at one end, and gradu- 
ating through the entire spectrum to red at the other end, 
with yellow approximately at the middle, our eyes will register 
the middle section as being the brightest, with both ends 
shading off deeper and deeper. But if we photograph this 
same colored strip, we will have proof that the film sees color 
very differently from the way we do, for our picture will be 
brightest at the blue end, and then shade down to an almost 
dead black in the red section. This is because the blue light 
(and, beyond it, the invisible ultra-violet) is the most active 
photographically, while the red is almost inert. Therefore, if 
we want to get anything like a true rendition of the color- 
values our eyes see, we must in some way hold back a por- 
tion of the powerful blue rays, and give the weaker greens, 
yellows, and reds a chance to make their impressions upon the 
film. That is what light-filters are for. The better grades are 
so made that they not only retard the blue rays, but quite 
absorb the invisible ultraviolet frequencies. But, in order to 
work under all conditions, we must have a variety of filters: 
some that hold back only a little of the blue, and some that 
hold back a great deal of it. Therefore filters are made in sev- 
eral grades, the light-colored ones holding back only a mod- 
erate part of the blue, while the darker ones retard more and 
more of it. However, no commercial filters hold back all of the 
blue rays, for that would be as serious an exaggeration in its 
way as the original condition the filter is intended to correct is. 

Now, when these filters are used, it will be seen that they 
are removing a pcrfion of the light (and the most active por- 
tion, at that), but they are not adding anything to take its 
place. Therefore, in order to keep the exposure correct, a 
longer time must be given, or a larger amount of light allowed 
to work on the plate: and this increase must be directly pro- 
portioned to the amount of blue light cut out by the filter. 
In amateur movie work, where the time of exposure is usually 
fixed, this compensation must be made by opening the dia- 
phragm on the lens. In order to make this compensation ac- 
curately and conveniently, the manufacturers have determined 
what is known as the "filter factor" for each of their various 
filters. There are so many different makes of filters on ths 
market today that it would be impossible to give here the 
factors of anything like a comprehensive number of them; 
however, among the most popular ones are the "Wratten" K 
series made by the Eastman Company, and of these the ones 
most used in amateur movie-making are the K 1, the K 1 V2, 
and the K 2. The lightest of these, the K 1, absorbs 60 r .- 
of the blue rays, and passes nearly 80 % of all the others; its 
(Continued on Page 35) 



30 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Thirty-one 




THE PICTORIALIST 



by FRANK TANNER 



Going To Try Directing? 

An Amateur Advises Amateurs 
by ORLTON WEST 



We are more than delighted to give you the accompanying article 
by Mr. Orlton West, because he is one of the best known amateurs 
in Creat Britain. He has directed many fine amateur films, with 
"Waitress" as, perhaps, the most outstanding. This was made for 
the London Film Cuild. — The Editor. 

//I 'M GOING to have a shot at directing my first film this 

I spring," a friend announces. 
"How do you do it?" 

"It's quite impossible to explain how one does these things," 
I informed him, but I passed on to him, and now, in this 
article, pass on to you, the unripe fruits of a brief experience 
in the matter. 

The more one watches other amateur film directors at work 
the more one realizes successful results to be due more to 
science than to art, more to deliberate study and application 
of psychology than to a black hat and the 'artistic' tempera- 
ment. 

Generally speaking there are two distinct types of directors 
common both to the amateur and commercial film studio; 
the one, noisy, driving, 'schoolmasterish;' the other, quiet, 
calm, and self possessed. 

The former cannot hope to obtain useful results from his 
ravings, because as soon as he gets annoyed and behaves like 
a spoilt uncontrolled child, one or other of the players follow 
suit, either privately to themselves or openly to everyone. In 
either case concentration on the real work in hand goes to the 
winds. Noisy argument breaks up order, and the resulting at- 
mosphere of strain muddles the acting side of matters. 

On the other hand the quiet director, although his presence 
may be scarcely noticed by lookers-on, dominates and guides 
his players with his personality. They trust him most when he 
says least — and is thinking. The few necessary words he does 
utter carry weight. 

Robots and Actors 

Always prepare your cast for direction with an outline ex- 
planation of the scenes to be 'shot', then go on to tell them 
anything they might want to know (especially if they do not 
ask) about the scenario in order according to the story, not 
according to your working script which is intelligible only to 
technicians. 

This is important, because the players can only generate 
correct degrees of expression for present scenes if they know 
how they match up with past and future ones. There is never 
any excuse for treating any member of the cast merely as a 
robot performing to your orders. 

Some people I find do much better without detailed direc- 
tion. Really good players (and there are some — if you look 
for them) are best left to themselves. Once they know the 
general situation, atmosphere, and points to be conveyed in 
the scenes on hand, they will direct themselves naturally. 
Many members of the cast will listen intently to every word 
you have to say. They belong to a different type, who feel 
the 'teacher-child' or 'you know everything, I know nothing' 
attitude towards you. They project their personalities upon 
you as representing the part they are about to act, and your 
detailed directions give them self confidence. To successfully 
handle these folk form the real test of your directorial abilities. 

32 



The amateur film director must train himself to be very 
versatile. When working on exciting scenes such as fights or 
love quarrels, fold up your quiet manner for a time and put it 
away. Try and work yourself into an appropriate emotional 
passion, some of which will be transmitted to those under your 
direction 

Alternatively, when engaged on a quiet domestic scene, 
switch back to the calm ludo (not Lido) mood at 9 p. m. — 
in short, have control of yourself before hoping for control of 
other people. Incidentally, it is wise to free the studio from 
all those not directly engaged in production while guiding 
difficult pieces of acting. Continuous gaze, whispered criti- 
cisms, and a general atmosphere of petty jealousy created by 
other and less fortunate members of the club may worry your 
players — and the finished results too! 

Overcoming Shyness 

Competent casting lightens the directors' job, and is es- 
sential if you are going to give the whole film and its best 
players an honest chance. If you want lovers try and find a 
couple who are real lovers, or at any rate who can get on 
quite well together. This omits the preliminary overcoming of 
little repressions, and shynesses, which you may find most 
trying. 

It is in this matter of casting where the amateur has ad- 
vantages over the commercial director, who is often tied to 
a 'star' who may be a mother in one film and a daughter in 
the next — one of these parts must be miles removed from 
that star's real personality and outlook — poor 'stars.' 

Look carefully around your club for the desired type for 
a particular character. If unlucky, it is sometimes better to 
seek outside the club circle and import a new member than 
to accept second best. Small part players may be chosen from 
almost anywhere, and while giving priority to club members, 
I have chosen ideal minor parts from passers-by in the street, 
and these people, because they were perfectly naturally them- 
selves assisted the chief players by forming living backgrounds 
to their performances. 

Some people become nervous outside the studio. They dis- 
like a street crowd of lookers-on who stare at them, just as 
they would at a fire, cat, burglar, or male dress reformer! The 
best way out of this difficulty is to rehearse the scene against 
the correct background, while the passers-by gape to their 
heart's content, then go for a brief circular walking tour, and 
return to shoot the scene before the inquisitive ones have 
time to collect and exert their fatal hypnotism. In preparing 
or assisting to prepare the scenario, you can aid both your- 
self and your players by always giving them something, some 
symbol to act to. 

It is unfair to stand the villain against a wall and say, "Now 
look as though you felt lustful — remember you are supposed 
to be thinking about bad girls." He will, unless he be a very 
good actor, find it as difficult as trying to catch the seaside 
holiday spirit at the Public Baths on a Sunday morning. Should 
the 'bad girl' not be in the same shot, he can at least be look- 
ing at a photograph, poster, or something suggestive of her, 
which incidentally, visually indicates his thoughts to the audi- 
ence. There are the actors, the audience, and the film as a 
whole to be considered — all along. 



TheM 



an on 



the C 



over 



An Intimate Glimpse of a Professional Amateur 
by JOHN PARKER 



HE PORTRAYS perfect gentlemen in pictures — but in real 
life he is a rough and ready outdoors sportsman. He 
was born in London and educated in the conservative 
halls of an English university — but he prefers ranching in the 
wild and woolly American west to the life of an actor or 
cosmopolite. 

He was noted as one of the finest young actors on the 
London and New York stages — but he likes California so much 
that he has been a permanent resident ever since his arrival 
five years ago. 

He first came to Hollywood to play one of the featured 
roles in "Beau Ceste," and recently he portrayed the title role 
in the sequel, "Beau Ideal." 

He is married to one of the most celebrated actresses in 
the world, Ruth Chatterton — but he is also a star in his own 
right. 

He is one of the finest hunters, fisherman, all-around 
sportsman and amateur photographers we know. 

He is the man on the cover. 

His name is Ralph Forbes. 

And, just to prove to you that he is a really clever amateur 
photographer, we now inform you that he made the unusually 
striking picture of himself on the cover this month himself, 
using an automatic device to work the camera. 

No more fitting picture of "the other side" of this man 
could be revealed than this cover. Fated by birth, breeding 
and education to portray the character of the perfect gentle- 
man in pictures and on the stage, Forbes presents the most 
amazing anomaly in Hollywood. To the picture world and 
the theatregoers, he is the beau ideal, the Chesterfield, the 
epitome of gentility. While he undoubtedly possesses all of 
these blue-blooded attributes, there is another side to his real 
character which is known only to his few intimates. The pic- 
ture on the cover, made in the high Sierras, gives us the real 
Forbes. 

Here is one of the least-known actors in the public eye. 
How many people, even in his own profession, know that 
Forbes enjoys every vacation between pictures hidden far off 
from civilization in the wilds of the high Sierras, hunting and 
fishing and photographing? He is one of those rare humans, 
of this effete world, who honestly gets his biggest kick our 
of life in roughing it. Packing in over the back trails to some 
choice and secret spot to both photograph and hunt wild game, 
enduring whatever hardships come with the fun — this is Forbes' 
idea of the proper life for a man. Give him a gun, rod, camera, 
pipe, horse and dog, and strange as it may seem to those who 
follow his screen roles, he is far more at home than he is in 
the drawing room. In his private opinion, the only place for 
the drawing room is the screen or stage. 

In his study and workshop, amid his collection of guns, 
rods, tackle, trail maps, trophies, cameras, complete sports 
equipment and an amazing array of surgical and medical "first- 
aids," I found him one of the most "different" of actors. 

"I was educated as a lawyer, and later trained as an actor," 
said Forbes, "but I would have preferred being a doctor. That 
is, providing I could have been a good one. To my way of 
thinking, physicians and surgeons do more good for the human 
race than any class of scientists." 



"See this instrument. I had to perform a minor operation 
on one of my guides while on a hunting trip, to save him 
from possible effects of a serious injury. You see, I have 
always had the natural bent." 

This chap is full of such surprises. 

"I have no desire to live in New York or London," he 
frankly admitted. "Yes, I was born in London and I love my 
native England, but I much prefer to live in California. Not 
this California, penned in close city quarters between the 
mountains and the sea, but in the real California where the 
old west is still unspoiled by civilization. Not very far from 
here, in fact less than a hundred miles, I could show you a 
large ranch where the west is still the west. There are many 
such places back in the Sierras, and I am now negotiating the 
purchase of a thousand-acre ranch where I can enjoy life to 
the utmost. Being monarch of all you survey, isn't a bad 
idea, is it? My profession is acting, but for pleasure give me 
ranching. Nothing will suit me better than to be able to run 
cattle on the place and to stock it with a few fine horses. 
Outside of the stock and new quarters, it will remain just 
as it is — the primitive." 

Forbes is that type of English sportsman who was born to 
the outdoors, horses, guns and dogs. He could never be happy 
without this life. He has found it in southern California. 

In my opinion, "Beau Ideal" fell short of "Beau Ceste" as 
a story and picture. However, Forbes said he welcomed the 
opportunity to change his evening clothes for the rough 
prison garb and colorful Foreign Legion uniform He even 
grew a beard for the prison sequence. He won praise from the 
critics for his fine characterization, even if the picture proved 
a bit disappointing. 

"Talking pictures?" he smiled at the usual query. "Although 
I shall never cease to be grateful for the opportunity the movies 
gave me five years ago, I must say that the talking picture has 
progressed more in two years than the silents did in ten. All 
one has to do to fully realize the tremendous advantages of 
the new form over the old, is to see Ronnie Colman in The 
Devil To Pay', and to hear Frederick Lonsdale's priceless lines." 

In 1923 Forbes was recognized as one of London's most 
promising young actors. He came to New York to appear in 
a war play, 'Havoc' He never returned. Here he met Ruth 
Chatterton in 1924, and they were married after a whirlwind 
courtship. Before coming to Hollywood he appeared in three 
plays, which led to Herbert Brenon selecting him for one of 
the three Ceste brothers, along with Ronald Colman and Neil 
Hamilton. Local theatregoers have had fine examples of his 
stage ability. He appeared opposite his wife, Ruth Chatterton, in 
Michael Arlen's 'Green Hat,' and with Edward Everett Horton, 
Lois Wilson and his mother, Mary Forbes, in 'The Swan'. 

Interesting people always present strange contrasts. This 
stalwart, blonde, blue-eyed young Englishman may be fated 
to continue playing drawing-room roles in pictures. But, after 
seeing the other side of the man, one can't help wishing that 
fate will soon bestow upon him a rough and ready role into 
which he can sink his dramatic teeth. 



WP 



33 



Thirty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



When You Take Your Movie Camera 
Abroad 

MORE and more, travelers are taking amateur movie cameras 
with them when they fare abroad. They are doing this 
because they find that these little instruments enable them to 
capture foreign life in action — just as it is lived. And when 
they return to their homes, they have only to throw their 
movies on the screen to relive the joys of their travels over 
and over again. 

Because of the increasing vogue of travel movie making, we 
are sure that it will be found worth while to make a few prac- 
tical suggestions as to taking camera and film to foreign 
countries. 

With regard to the camera itself, special precautions are 
necessary in taking care of the lens, because moisture is very 
apt to condense upon it, leaving a slight deposit which will 
interfere with the possibility of good results. This seems an 
unimportant point, but a dirty lens can spoil many dollars 
worth of film. One firm manufactures a special lens cleaning 
outfit, the price being nominal. Other than the matter of 
keeping the lens clean, no special precautions as to the care 
of the camera are necessary beyond the actual instructions 
issued with every instrument sold, except to avoid getting 
sand, dust or water in the mechanism. 

Film can be bought in this country and taken abroad; in 
fact, it is generally cheaper to do so because the price in the 
various foreign countries is usually the same as in the United 
States plus an import duty. 

However, films can be purchased at almost any of many 
photographic supply houses abroad, and development of their 
particular make of reversal film is undertaken without addi- 
tional cost at numerous laboratories maintained in foreign 
countries by film manufacturers. All film is adequately packed 
for normal use but, if a prolonged stay in a tropical area is 
anticipated, film should be purchased in special export packing 
for which there is a slight additional charge. 

At the present time there is a duty on amateur motion pic- 
ture film and equipment entering certain foreign countries 
which, in the case of travelers making a record of their tours, 
is not often enforced. The experience of the great majority 
is that a small supply of film for personal use, together with 
their cameras, is admitted practically everywhere without 
restriction. 

In some countries the traveler is occasionally required to 
deposit an amount on the movie camera and film approximately 
equal to the import duty. This amount is refunded if the ma- 
terial is taken out within a specified time, usually six months. 

The United States Tariff Act of 1930, now a law, provides 
that motion picture film exposed abroad, whether developed or 
not, if of American manufacture and if not to be used for com- 
mercial purposes, may be brought into the United States duty 
free. This free entry may be made into the United States 
possessions overseas as well as the mainland, with the excep- 
tions of the Philippine Islands, the Virgin Islands, American 
Samoa and the Island of Guam. 

Before leaving this country on a trip abroad, it is especially 
suggested by the Bell & Howell Company that you register 
your camera, lenses, film, etc., with the customs office at the 
port of departure, using Form No. 4455. This will save all 
argument as to American origin when you return. 

After you have replaced your exposed film in the round black 
metal case which is furnished with all 16 mm. film, place the 
case in your paper carton or metal sealing case but do not 
reseal. If you wrap the entire package in several layers of 
ordinary newspaper it will help wonderfully in preventing 
deterioration from moisture. 

It is recommended that all travelers have an occasional roll 
of film processed abroad if possible, so as to afford an oppor- 
tunity of checking their results. If you have film processed 
abroad, it is advisable to avoid mailing it across international 
borders, as delays and difficulties invariably occur. Many 



travelers prefer to bring most of their film home with them 
to have it processed at a domestic laboratory with whose work 
they are familiar. NOTE: At the date of writing, all film 
processed in Italy must be censored in Rome before leaving 
the country. This is a long procedure and should be avoided 
if possible by having film processed after leaving Italy. 

The experience of the majority of travelers is that no trouble 
or restrictions are encountered by travelers. 

The laws evidently are not intended to operate against the 
amateur; therefore, film is generally admitted free providing 
it is carried in the owner's personal baggage. 



Another Milestone 

COMPLETING a quarter century in motion pictures Carl 
Laemmle, president, Universal Pictures, reviewed not the 
kaleidoscopic development of the industry but turned his 
thoughts to 25 years hence picturing advancement rivalling the 
imagination of Jules Verne. 

Outstanding film pioneer and the only independent producer 
and distributor remaining in the industry, Laemmle believes 
the great major changes in film entertainment that have oc- 
curred in recent years are nothing compared to those to come 
before 1956. 

"In 1906 automobiles were running on rubber and gasoline 
and they will do the same in 1956 but motion pictures are 
revolutionized every few years and the changes to come will 
dwarf all of the recent marvels of our progress. 

"25 years from now motion picture theatres will present pic- 
tures direct from the studios by television; news weekly films 
will be sent by television. Hence a shipwreck in the China 
sea will be broadcast to all the world within a few hours after 
it is photographed. I think the motion picture is now one of 
our greatest educational factors and within a few years school 
houses will be equipped with television sets which will permit 
famous educators, surgeons, musicians and lecturers to make 
a motion picture and then have it broadcast to the world 
while they themselves take up other work. 

"We are living in an age of miracles and the imaginary 
developments of today will be actualities to our children. I 
took up motion picture work because it was fascinating. I 
have found the service of my pictures to the public a tonic 
which gives me pride, courage and youth. Old? I'll never 
grow old so long as my company can entertain the world and 
I know that I am bringing enjoyment, enlightenment, en- 
couragement and happiness to millions of people in all walks 
of life." 

In a recent presentation of a golden scroll in behalf of the 
entire film industry, Will H. Hays, film czar, stated "Mr. 
Laemmle's career is the history of motion pictures." 



Fast Service 

THE TWENTIETH Century combination of ERPI Service and 
Airplane Travel again saved a show, the theatre involved in 
the most recent incident being the Plaza, Great Bend, where 
trouble developed at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

The manager located R. S. Murphy, ERPI service engineer 
by telephone at the Tucker Theatre, Liberal, Kansas. A quick 
airplane trip got the engineer at Great Bend by six o'clock. 

As the result of a long distance telephone call an amplifier 
had been shipped to the theatre from Kansas City and was 
waiting when the service engineer arrived, but proved to be 
unnecessary. 

The trouble was diagnosed as a short circuit in the condenser 
and was remedied by the substitution of a temporary plate 
from the B battery by 7:25, in time for the evening show to go 
on. After the performance was over a complete bank of new 
condensers was substituted. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Thirty-five 



Screen Definition 

(Continued from Page 15) 

Moore filter No. 1 (No. 64 and 27) is recommended when 
as an example a sunset over water is photographed, reducing 
sun to a definite disc, but maintaining characteristic details and 
contrasts on water reflections. 

This is the densest combination filter of the series of six 
published in a previous issue. 



i «■ * o I 



f;#. 6 



^HMH ■!*. 




Fig. 4 




Fig. 5 

It is unfortunate that the selection of proper filters or filter 
combinations for especially desired effects is in each instance 
a delicate problem, the solution of which so greatly influences 
final screen definition. 

The great number of conditions, above cited, call for careful 
consideration of their relative values and no set rule can be 
given for correct filter use. 

The chart Fig. 1 , however, offers certain assistance for these 
problems and has been found of reliable value. 

It is, however, of prime importance to always keep in mind 
that any filter — 1, invariably reduces lens speed and 2, that 
it increases the actinic reaction for its complementary color 
value but only relative and never absolute. 

In the next article a complete list of 20 Moore filters with 
their approximate multiplication factors and their individual 
characteristics will be published as a valuable guide for filter 
work. 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 30) 

"filter factor" is 1.5. That j s, when using a K 1, the normal 
exposure must be multiplied by 1.5. With the K IV2, the 
factor is 2; and with the K 2, it is 3. Therefore, in practical 
use, with a K 1 the diaphragm opening should be increased 
half a stop; with a K 1 V2, a full stop; and with a K 2, a stop 
and a half. In other words, if a scene required f:8 as a nor- 
mal, unfiltered exposure, it would require f:6.3 if a K 1 filter 
were used, f:5.6 with a K 1 V2, and f:4.5 with a K 2; all of 
which is a powerful argument in favor of the use of large- 
aperture lenses. 



n r 7 




e 8 S 3 8 



F,>6 




Fiq,l 







Fif. II 



Ftp.lZ 



" l, ™«"^B I^M HIMWBBHlBWIiiif ' 



A 



Thirty-six 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T OC R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



Cluck, Cluck 




IF STUDIO picture makers think that stars are temperamental and difficult to handle, they should try their skill on a bunch of 
hens, says C. L. Venard, famous maker of Farm Films, of Peoria, Illinois. Mr. Venard sends the above picture along to show 
the studio workers just what the boys outside are doing. 



New Filmo Educational Booklet 

EVERYONE interested in the use of motion pictures in the 
educational field will want to read the new booklet, "Filmo 
Motion Pictures in Visual Education," just issued by the Bell 
& Howell Company. 

Among the many important subjects treated is that of the 
use of sound movies in education. Sound is bound to come; 
as a matter of fact it is here now. This booklet tells how 
the sound picture can be profitably and economically introduced 
into actual every-day use in school and college. 

"Finding Films for School Use" is the title of an especially 
valuable section of the booklet. Teaching films are as necessary 
to modern education as textbooks and wall maps, and helpful 
suggestions are given as to how to secure a worthwhile supply 
of educational films. 

How schools can make their own movies is another extremely 
vital topic that is interestingly discussed, as is also the import- 
ant subject of how to care for 16 mm. films. 

A section entitled "Pointers for Projectionists" is sure to be 
of tremendous usefulness. Included in this section is a valuable 
table showing picture sizes obtainable on the screen by Filmo 
projection lenses of different focal lengths. 

The booklet is rendered particularly timely due to the fact 
that it carries the news of the recent development of the pow- 
erful 75 volt 375 watt lamp for 16 mm. projection — a lamp 
which, by making possible the entirely adequate projection of 
16 mm. black and white film to a width of 12 feet, opens up 
a tremendous new field for the amateur size film in school 
and college. 

A list of typical installations of Filmo equipment is Universi- 
ties and Colleges, High Schools, Public Grade Schools, Private 
and Parochial Schools, and Associations of educational signifi- 
cance, is notably impressive. 

Copies of the booklet can be had free on request to the Bell 
& Howell Company, Educatonal Department, 1801 Larchmont 
Avenue, Chicago. 



Paramount Color 

ANEW three-color additive process, which it is reported 
Paramount will have ready for general use in about one 
year, costs only approximately 1 J \ cents a foot more than 
black and white, it is understood. In other words, total cost 
is 4J,? cents a foot, as compared with present color costs of 
8'i cents a foot and up. 

Laboratory work on the process is practically completed. The 
job now facing the company is that of designing machinery 
to standardize the quality of prints. Prints used are in black 
and white. Color is transferred to the screen through the 
addition of a filter in front of the projector lense. The pro- 
jector can be operated at normal speed. 



Filmo Topics 

JUDGING from advance information, the March issue of 
Filmo Topics, the excellent publication of the Bell & Howell 
Company, should prove of real interest to all users of 16 mm. 
equipment. A copy will be mailed free to anyone who sends 
his request to Bell & Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont Ave., 
Chicago, III. The contents list follows: 

Filmo joins the Army. How motion pictures helped keep 
Battery "A," 15th Coast Artillery, in the "excellent" class. By 
Capt. A. C. Cleveland, Coast Artillery Corps, U. S. Army. 

Composition in Motion Pictures. Some simple artistic prin- 
ciples which you'll do well to apply whenever you sally forth 
with your Filmo. 

A Naturalist "Goes Filmo" . . . and produces motion pic- 
tures of bird life which are employed in Audubon Society 
educational work. 

Filmo News Pictorial. News photo and captions. 

Titling Your Films. No. 6. A pot-pourri of novel title 
ideas used and contributed by Filmo owners. 

"Facts About Filmo." Article No. 15, dealing with the 
optical system of the Filmo Projector. By J. A. Dubray. 



You cannot 

AFFORD 

to be without a 

CI NEM ATOGR APHIC 

ANNUAL 



CINEMATOGRAPHIC 
ANNUAL 

1930 



A book valuable to everybody directly or indirectly interested in the 
Motion Picture Industry . . . Production, Photography, Exhibition, 
Sound Laboratory, Color Effects ... A wealth of facts and statistics 
such as can be found nowhere else . . . forcefully written by 
Master Technicians and recognized authorities . . . has a definite 
place in the Library of all Production and Distribution Executives, 
Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting Engineers, 
Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and Home Movie Makers. 



5 oo 



_ per copy 



Beautifully bound in Blue and Cold. 675 pages 
Postage prepaid anywhere in the World 



ilishec Br 
THE AMERICAN iOCltiy 

or 
CINEMAIOG RAPHIRS 



Compiled and Published by 

The American Society of 
Cinematographers 

Hollywood, California 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOCRAPHERS. 

1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five 

Dollars ($5.00) for which please send me prepaid, one copy of your 

Cinematographic Annual. 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



37 



Thirty-eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



Lacos Light "Cimarron 




AN ASSEMBLAGE of Laco incandescent lighting equip- 
ment which represented one of the largest batteries of 
lights ever to be used, recently was employed by Radio Pic- 
tures at the premiere of "Cimarron" at Orpheum theatre. 

It was a case of turning the proverbial "night into day," 
so effective was the lighting. Scores of folks from back east, 



eager to glimpse the "stars," had little difficulty from vantage 
points half a block away in distinguishing one player from 
another. Chief Electrician William Johnson of Radio Pictures, 
together with his staff of able technicians, are to be con- 
gratulated upon their ability to introduce something effective 
in modern outdoor illumination. 



Tanar Corporation Announces New Portable Double Sound-on-Film Recorder 



ANEW portable Double Sound-on-Film Recorder has just 
been announced by the Tanar Corporation of Hollywood, 
makers of the Tanar single system portable recorders. Many 
months of experiment were devoted to this system before Mr. 
Len H. Roos, vice-president and general manager of the 
company, gave it his approval. But now, he says, this unit is 
mechanically perfect. 

The new Tanar Portable Double Sound-on-Film Recorder is 
very light, compact and mounted complete, similar to the 
battery case in the regular Tanar Portable Single System. 

The Double System makes use of the same amplifier and 
battery supply as the Single System and the recorder itself 
takes standard Bell O Howell magazines of either four hun- 
dred or one thousand feet. Mechanical movement of the 
recorder is properly dampened and filtered so that perfect 
mechanical motion is received on the film. 

Recording is done on positive stock with the standard 
Tanar Light, and the slit block is interchangeable with the rails 
in the camera of the Single System. This means that owners 
of Tanar Single System may purchase the extra case with the 



recorder and control panel, slip the block out of their camera 
and push it in place in the double recorder which will give 
them the equivalent of two outfits. 

All castings are made of an aluminum alloy which is light 
and strong and which makes a beautiful machine finish. 

The D. C. Interlock Motors which run on three B batteries 
are built for Tanar by a large motor concern in the East which 
specializes in fractional horsepower motors. These motors 
were selected after an exhaustive search on several makes, 
and it was found that with a standard motor converted to an 
interlock D. C. system, the armature had a tendency to burn 
out when one motor had a heavier load than the other. In 
the new type motor, provision is made for over load with a 
proper compensator between the interlock connection and all 
danger of burning out the armature is eliminated. 

The recorder mounts the tachometer, speed control footage 
recorder and is a complete unit in itself. All moving parts run 
in an oil bath and power is transmitted by worm and wheel, 
both of these parts being capped and ground to a perfect fit. 

Tanar announces immediate delivery on these units and 
they carry the same guarantee as the Single System. 



World's Largest Studio Planned in 
Great Britain 

ERECTION of a studio, intended to be the largest in the 
world, on a 145 acre site at West Weybridge, is reported 
planned by a powerful British financial group headed by Lord 
St. John of Bletsoe. In connection with this gigantic project, 
for which a sum of $5,000,000 is said to be available, a hotel, 
theatre and a factory for the manufacture of phonograph rec- 
ords will be built. Negotiations are understood to be under 
way between the backers of the proposed studio and film 
interests in France and Germany for making the studio a center 
of multi-lingual production. 



First Australian All-Talker 

SYDNEY — After more than six months' in production, Nor- 
man Dawn's "Talkie Mad," first Australian all-dialogue pic- 
ture has been finished 



1,940 Wired in Germany 

BERLIN — Latest figures show that there are now 1 ,940 houses 
wired for sound in Germany. Of these theatres 752 are 
equipped with Tobis-Klangfilm, 309 Kinoton, 347 with home- 
made devices, and 532 for which the systems were not 
ascertained. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOG R A P H E R 



Thirty-nine 



Bed & Howell Announce New Lamp for 
16 MM. Projection 







THE FIRST 75 volt 375 watt lamp ever perfected for 16 mm. 
movie projection has just been announced by Bell & 
Howell. Said to achieve a light intensity more than 40 per cent 
greater than was previously available for this type of projection, 
it depends primarily for its unusual results on a tremendous 
light concentration interestingly exemplified by the accompany- 
ing illustration. 

In the picture one of these powerful little lamps is placed 
alongside of six 60 watt electric light bulbs such as are used 
in the home. When one considers that this new type projector 
lamp is actually only about one-third as large as one of the 60 
watt bulbs and yet furnishes more illumination than all six of 
the latter combined, he can appreciate something of what has 
been accomplished. 

(Repeated scientific tests, made under widely varying condi- 
: tions, are said to justify the statement that Filmo projectors, 
when equipped with this new lamp, can easily project black 
and white pictures 12 feet wide with entirely satisfactory dis- 
tinctness and can attain excellent Kodacolor projection on a 
larger than ordinary screen. 

The problem presented to the illumination engineers in 
developing this new lamp was to concentrate the maximum 
permissible amount of light upon the small 16 mm. film. Not 
only was it desirable to increase the amount of illumination 
so as to permit showing a large picture of sufficient brightness, 
but the light must be concentrated in as small a source as 
possible to focus properly with the optical train of lenses em- 
ployed in projection, all of which has been successfully ac- 
complished. 

It is stated that naturally the new lamp, because of the 
great concentration of light, generates a fair amount of heat, 
but a projector equipped with an efficient fan cooling system 
satisfactorily takes care of this situation. 

[This new 375 watt lamp has opened up a tremendous field 
for the 16 mm. film. The perfectly safe little 16 mm. pro- 
jector can now go into the auditorium and assembly hall and 
show pictures of entirely adequate size, clearness, and bril- 
liance. This great step forward will be especially welcomed 
in the church and educational fields. Home movie projection- 
ists will also appreciate the possibility of securing theatrical 
brilliance on a larger screen. The notable improvement made 
possible in Kodacolor projection is not the least of the triumphs 
scored by this new lamp. 



Movietone in British Federation 

ONDON — British Movietone News, Ltd., has been elected 
member of the Federation of British Industries, and is the 
first newsreel firm to be so honored by this organization. 



L° 



Novel Lightning Researches by Amateur 
Photographers 

A STUDY of French lightning is being made by amateur 
photographers organized by the Astronomical Society of 
France. Already many photographs of lightning flashes have 
been sent in and studied by the Society's experts. It has been 
found that these flashes seldom if ever are single, but that 
there are always a number of back and forth surges of elec- 
tricity between the earth and the clouds, almost like an elec- 
tric arc following the path of the first spark where this spark 
has broken down billions of atoms of the air gases and to make 
the path more highly conductive for electricity. 

This is a conclusion already considered probable by Ameri- 
can observers using high-speed motion picture cameras. An- 
other and less well-known conclusion of the French study 
is that the path of a lightning flash may continue to glow 
for an appreciable time after the electric flashes have ceased 
entirely, this glow presumably being caused by the re-com- 
binations of the atoms of air gases decomposed by electricity. 

One of the chief needs of further lightning study, it is 
stated by Dr. Emile Touchet, vice-president of the society, 
is for additional photographs of lightning flashes by cameras 
with plates moving at high speed, so that the direction of the 
flash and the nature of its motion through the air can be 
determined. Another need is for stereoscopic photographs of 
the same lightning flash from two or more different points 
at measured distances apart on the ground, so that the heights 
and distances of the two ends of the flash can be computed. 
Members of the society are now being asked to attempt these 
additional tests. 



Dyer Production Manager 

EDWIN L. DYER, A.S.C., has been made Production Man- 
ager of the Southern Division of the Motion Picture 
Advertising Service Company, Inc., with his headquarters at 
New Orleans, La. He writes that natural color photography 
will play an important part in these films within a short time. 



AMATEURS! 

Keep Step with the Professionals by Reading The 
Technical Cinematic Magazine of the Motion Pic- 
ture Industry. 

. The AMERICAN • 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

Published in Hollywood by the American Society 
of Cinematographers, the leading professional cam- 
eramen of the world. 
You cannot afford to be without it. 
For Amateurs — Service department, special tech- 
nical articles by the world's greatest authorities on 
cinematographic science. 

_-[ F "ii ri _ and Mail Toda y ) 

American Cinematographer, 
1222 Guaranty Building, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars ($4.00 
for foreign rate) for one year's subscription to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOCRAPHER, to begin with the issue of 

, 1 93 1 . 

Name 

Address 

Town State 



Forty 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T OC R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



WILLIAMS 9 

S II O T S 



Will give you the results you need. We have 
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 

Cinematography in Hollywood. 
Any background, either real scenes or minia- 
ture, may be used. Scenes may be corrected 

without retakes. 

Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 

dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 

Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 

for a sequence or one scene. 

Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 

Composite Laboratories 

8111 Santa Monica Blvd. Tel. OXford 161 1 



WILLIAMS' SHOTS 



# A New Color Film System # 

Extraordinary simplicity in take and projec- 
tion, 
Natural color pictures in a new purely mechan- 
ical way. Patent rights to sell. 
Apply to: 
W. B. BREDSCHNEIDER, 
Poland, Warsaw, Leszno 1 13-3 



produce fOoonliqbr and NiqM Effects in Daytime- 
Feo, Seems- uif fused Fetus and many ether effects, 
just like they make "em in Hollywood. ~~~» 

y 

_ jrs cAsfe ljoup dealep or ujrite to 

tea GEORGE H.SCHEIBE 

houywooo PHOTOFIL/TER SPECIALIST W> 



ROY DAVIDGE 
FILM LABORATORIES 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 
exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
GRanite 3108 



Duponr Announces New Film 

DUPONT has announced a faster panchromatic negative. 
Its sensitivity to all wave lengths of light has been greatly 
increased, according to DuPont officials, but the color balance, 
grain size and latitude are said to remain the same as in the 
former product. 

"There is nothing for the cameraman to familiarize himself 
with except the adaptation of his lighting to a lower level," 
states the announcement. "This level varies in actual practice 
with the desires and artistry of the individual cameraman. 
From numerous tests which have been completed, excellent 
results have been obtained with reductions in amperage rang- 
ing from 40 to 65 per cent. This means a considerable saving 
in electric current, but perhaps the greatest advantage will be 
for the actors, as the glare and heat under which they have 
had to work can be greatly reduced. 

"Manufacturers of panchromatic negative have generally 
recommended the handling of their product in total darkness 
or in a very feeble Wratten Series III safelight. Experienced 
operators will find that such a safelight may still be used with 
the faster negative, but of course greater precautions are 
necessary, such as substituting lower wattage lamps in the 
safelights and reducing the time the film is kept under the 
safelight. It is recommended that the operator determine 
under working conditions just how long the negative may be 
kept under the safelight at each working point without 
fogging. This can readily be done by exposing small pieces of 
the negative for different periods of time at the closest point 
to the safelight at which it is customary to work. 

"No changes have been found necessary in desensitizing 
baths. Those laboratories which practice desensitization before 
development may continue their usual practices with the faster 
film without harmful effects upon the photographic quality. 
Filter factors for the faster film remain approximately the 
same. DuPont will continue the manufacture of the former 
negative, so both the high speed product and the regular prod- 
uct are available." 



Camera Silencing Plans 

ASA FIRST step in the renewed investigation of the prob- 
/\ lem of silencing the camera, the Producers-Technicians 
Committee of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 
is conducting a survey of the experiences and opinions of all 
first cameramen in Hollywood studios with regard to camera 
covers (blimps, bags, etc.). In this survey the Committee is 
receiving the cooperation of officials of Local No. 659 (Inter- 
national Photographers of the Motion Picture Industries), of 
the I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. 0. Leaders of the American 
Society of Cinematographers have also expressed approval of 
the survey. 

The questions call particular attention to the effects of new 
developments in noiseless recording and directional microphone 
devices. 

This survey is intended to keep the Producers-Technicians 
Committee abreast of current developments and needs in 
camera silencing. In 1930 this Subcommittee conducted a 
thorough survey of the problem followed by scientific noise 
tests of all varieties of camera covers and of the cameras them- 
selves. It was found that the silencing efficiency of the device 
varied over a wide range, and that the range in noise from 
the uncovered camera was a very considerable factor in the 
problem. The published report of the subcommittee established 
standards for desired camera silence, listed fundamental re- 
quirements and recommended materials for camera covers. It 
is planned to bring this report up to date after the present 
investigation. 

The Camera Silencing Subcommittee consists of Kenneth F. 
Morgan, Frederick M. Sammis, and Lester Cowan, Manager of 
the Academy Technical Bureau. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



Forty-one 



24 Integral Inkie 




Integral Inkie Tests 

ACCORDING to Elmer Richardson, of Mole-Richardson, 
^Incorporated, interesting tests were recently made with 
their new product, the Integral Inkie. In one instance they 
selected a 24-inch integral sun spot, switched the current on 
and off twenty-five thousand times without interruption. This 
it is stated, is equivalent to five years of severe service. 

According to Mr. Richardson, every Mole-Richardson prod- 
uct is exhaustively tested to bring forth possible hidden flaws 
before being placed on the market. 

Concerning the new eighteen to twenty-four inch Integral 
Inkie sun spots, Mr. Richardson states that lamps of this type 
are particularly adapted to back and top lighting or where 
modeling is employed, for close-up photography. They are 
also used for front lighting where sets are deep or extremely 
large. Where special intense light is required, or it is neces- 
sary to effect lighting through windows and doors, the new 
Integral Inkies are adaptable. Further use is for sky illumina- 
tion or bally-hoo lighting for night advertising purposes. 

Special features of this new Integral Inkie, according to 
Mole-Richardson technicians, are its Integral construction 
which does not permit cracking or popping noises when the 
lamps are turned on and off; its lightness in weight which is 
due to the fact that the head is cast from silicon aluminum 
alloys; the simplicity of its design and its exceptionally low 
up-keep. Also it is stated that the new Integral Inkie affords 
more light or ejects more light due to a special mirror. 

Integral Inkies are now being manufactured in eighteen and 
twenty-four inch sizes. However, it is stated that the new lamp 
will be manufactured in all regular sizes. 



The ideal of professional dreams — the answer to an amateur's 
prayer — the Cinematographic Annual. 



TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS 




For follow-up shots are 
known for their smoothness 
of operation, equal tension 
on all movements and being 
unaffected by temperature. 



Model B 

The Model B is for Bell 
8 Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their respective 
tripods. 

The handle is telescopic 
and adjustable to any angle. 




The Model A is made 
for Amateur motion picture 
cameras and also fits the 
Standard Still tripods. 



Trucball tripod heads are 
unexcelled for simplicity, 
accuracy and speed of opera- 
tion. 



The Hoefner four-inch Iris 
and Sunshade combination is 
also a superior product. 



FRED HOEFNER 



5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD 



CLadstone 0243 



LOS ANCELES, CALIF. 



£& 



ERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1222 GUARANTY BLDC. 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Gentlemen: 

Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign rates additional), 
for one year's subscription to the American Cinematographer, to 

begin with the issue of , 19 



Name. 



Street No. 



Town. 



State 



CLUBBING RATES 

U. S. Canada Foreign 

American Cinematographer $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 

In Club with: 

Camera Craft 3.90 4.65 5.40 

Photo-Era 4.75 5.00 6.40 

The Camera 3.90 4.40 5.40 

Please make all remittances payable to 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Forty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



March, 1931 




Excellent Warning 




attention 



The pictorial section of the next volume of 
the Cinematographic Annual is being com- 
piled. Anyone wishing to contribute prints 
for this section may send them in now 
for consideration. 




AT A RECENT meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
/ A Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences it was de- 
cided that some effort should be made to stop the influx of 
young men and women who come to Hollywood for the purpose 
of entering motion pictures. A false impression has been 
spread over the country that golden opportunities lie within the 
grasp of any fairly talented or reasonably good looking young 
person who can manage to get to this city. 

"The fact is," say Academy officials, "that there is a cry- 
ing need for a reduction in the number of actors and actresses 
already here; players of training and ability who are literally 
in dire want and for whom there is no work. 

"Of the seventeen thousand five hundred (17,500) extras 
registered at the Central Casting Bureau during 1930, only 
eight hundred thirty-three (833) averaged one day's work 
per week and only ninety-five (95) worked as much as three 
days per week. Of the seven thousand (7,000) actors and 
actresses registered in the Call Bureau only six or seven were 
placed each day. If work could be equally distributed this 
would mean each actor of the Call Bureau could be furnished 
one part every three years. 

"When the industry is so hard put to it to care for its own 
tried and experienced players it is sheer suicide for youngsters 
to try to break in. It would help the situation if the press 
of the country would aid in spreading a picture of true condi- 
tions in the profession. Too much emphasis has been placed 
on the fortunate few who are in great demand and too little 
on the many thousands of experienced players who cannot 
make both ends meet. 

"Less than a thousand actors are doing most of the work. 
A youngster, to get a chance, must pass the other six thousand 
(6,000) professional and registered actors, and in addition 
must compete with the thousands of young men and young 
women all over America and even in foreign countries who 
have the ambition for a motion picture career. The lucky 
break happens frequently in fiction; almost never in the 
Studio. To the average casting director it looks as if the 
audience all wanted to be actors and the actors were forced to 
be audience. Something must be done to impress the young 
people of the country with the fact that we do not need them 
in Hollywood. The oversupply of applicants for positions in 
the motion picture profession exists in all departments of pro- 
duction and the situation is relatively acute." 



Victor Issues Supplement 

DUE to the unprecedented rapidity of development of the 
non-theatrical "Talkie" market during recent weeks, the 
Victor Animatograph Company has found it necessary to print 
a supplement to their very excellent Directory of Film Sources 
which they issued a short time ago. This supplement contains 
all the names of sources of 16 mm. films with sound-on-disc 
that the company has been able to compile to date. It also 
lists the titles of a great many of the available films, and should 
prove of worth to anyone interested in non-theatrical talkies. 
The supplement will be sent on request, free, to anyone writ- 
ing the Victor Animatograph Corporation, Davenport, Iowa. 



Radio Studios Buy Lamps 

OME of the largest orders for lamps reported in Hollywood 
for some time has just been filled by the Lakin Corpora- 
tion for Radio Pictures Studios. A total of 107 24-inch Laco 
Lites was the order. Delivery was made last month. This is 
in line with the general signs of increased activity seen at the 
Radio Studios. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Forty- three 



Useful Device 




MW. PALMER of the Paramount Studio, Long Island, 
N. Y., has developed a unique device for projecting foot- 
age numbers. It is shown in the two pictures accompanying 
this brief description. The device, according to Mr. Palmer, 
can be used in various ways in connection with sound pictures, 
as for instance: the introduction of sound effects in scenes 
already taken, the footage numbers appearing on the screen 
give an advance warning of the approach and finish of the 
scene in question, so that the sound can be synchronized 
exactly. Another application is the translation of the film 
from one language to another, and it can also be used in con- 
nection with title music. 




Box "B" contains an electrical operated Veeder counter. The 
face of this counter is illuminated by two 10 Watt lamps con- 
tained in the lamp houses "A." The image of the counter 
numbers is thrown on a small screen below the main screen 
by the lens "C." A contactor "D" attached to the projector 
is driven by a worm gear "E." This contactor makes one con- 
tact for every 16 frames, thereby moving the counter ahead 
one unit. 

The only alteration necessary to the projector is to bore four 
holes to attach the base of the contactor. A push button is 
provided in the operating room, so that the counter can be 
reset to zero at any time. 




GOERZ 



CINE LENSES 

are optically accurate 
and photographically 
effective » » » » » 

Kino-Hypar f:2.7 and f:3, 35 to 100 mm. 
focal lengths. Simple in design . . . consists 
of only three lenses . . . affords microscopic 
definition in the image. Free from flare or 
coma. Fine covering power. 

Telestar f:4.5. AVs to \3Vi" focal lengths — 
an ideal telephoto series for long distance 
shots and closeups . . . excels because of 
practical absence of distortion. 

Cinegor f:2 and f:2.5, a Superspeed series; 
ideal for work under unfavorable light 
conditions. 

A mw catalog listing the complete line of 

Goerz Lenses and Accessories will be mailed 

on request. 



CP.GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 

317 EAST 34 th ST. NEW YORK CITY 



Forty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M A T G R A P H E R 



March, 1931 



WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the 
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us, 
we have acquired an exclusive license to all "Trans- 
parency" patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX 
CORP. and ROY J. POMEROY. 

A few current releases containing Dunning Shots 

"WHAT A WIDOW— Cloria Swanson 

"ON THE LEVEL"— Fox 

"SOUP TO NUTS"— Fox 

"HER MAN" — Pathc 

"ROMANCE" — M-C-M 

"HALF SHOT AT SUNRISE" — R-K-0 

"WOMEN EVERYWHERE"— Fox 

"LEATHERNECKINC"— R-K-O 

"MADAME DUBARRY"— United Artists 

"HOLIDAY" — Pathe 

"THE LOTTERY BRIDE"— United Artists 

"BORN RECKLESS" — Fox 

DUNNING 
PCCCESS 

CCHPANy 

"You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow" 

Telephone CLadstone 3959 
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 



When you need engraving 
you need the BEST 

O • You GET it at the 

Superior 

ENGRAVING 

# COMPANY 

Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half-Tones 

Color Work Designing 

Electrotypes 

Mats, Etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



The German Selection 

OF INTEREST to Americans is the poll of the ten best pic- 
tures of the year, just completed and announced by Der 
Deutsche, Berlin daily. The poll of this paper differs con- 
siderably from that of Film Daily's poll, in that while it was a 
German paper that handled it, American films were selected. 
The poll of Film Daily showed not a foreign picture, although 
there were some excellent ones. The two groups follow: 

Der Deutsche 

1 . Under den Dachern von Paris. 

2. All Quiet on the Western Front. 

3. The Blue Angel. 

4. Westfront l 91 8. 

5. Anna Christie. 

6. Two Hearts in Waltz Time. 

7. With Byrd at the South Pole. 

8. Brand in der Oper. 

9. The Big House. 
10. Mickey Mouse. 

Film Daily 

1. All Quiet on the Western Front. 

2. Abraham Lincoln. 

3. Holiday. 

4. Journey's End. 

5. Anna Christie. 

6. The Big House. 

7. With Byrd at the South Pole. 

8. The Divorcee. 

9. Hell's Angels. 
10. Old English. 



7 Soviet Features Set On New Season 
Schedule 

SEVEN features are reported definitely set on the Soviet 
schedule for 1931, with "Life is Beautiful," a Meschrabpom 
production already completed. Others on the program include 
the Sovkino vehicles, "The Road Through Life," "The Iron 
Transport," and "Towns and Years." "Igdenbu, the Great 
Hunter," a Siberian mountain story, "Don Diego," and "The 
Five Pioneers," said to be a second "Turksib" but showing the 
construction of a huge canal instead of a railway, round out 
the lineup to date. 

Pudovkin, director of "Life is Beautiful," is now in Berlin 
arranging for the German premiere of the film to occur this 
month. 



3 New Color Processes Introduced in 
Europe 

THREE new processes for color photography have been intro- 
duced in Europe within recent weeks, it is reported in 
dispatches to the M. P. Division of the Department of Com- 
merce. In Paris the Societe Continentale Europeenne Cinecolor 
has been formed with a capital of 3,500,000 francs to exploit 
the Thornton process, the patent of which is held by John 
Edward Thornton, of Jersey, England. Louis Aubert is on the 
company's board of directors. Another French company, So- 
ciete Cinechrome, with a capital of 55,000 francs, will exploit 
a color invention produced by Raphael Weill and Eugene 
Rivoche. In Germany the Arena Co., capitalized at 300,000 
marks, is to manufacture a color film under a new and inex- 
pensive system known as spectrocolor. 



March, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Forty-five 



PCCEIGN NOTE/ 



$5,000,000 British Firm May Operate at Elstree 

LONDON — Celloda Syndicate, Ltd., it is reported, is plan- 
, ning the investment of approximately $5,000,000 in a 
laboratory venture at Elstree, for the manufacture of a newly 
patented non-inflammable film-stock to be marketed at a 
competitive price. The laboratory, construction of which alone 
will cost $1,500,000, will have a capacity of 4,000,000 feet 
of film per week. The company is also reported contemplating 
erection of modern studios, which will absorb part of the 
plant's film output. 

Hungary 

ON THE occasion of the ten year jubilee of the Hungarian 
censorship the latter has published a collection of its 
decisions concerning film prohibitions during this period. It 
appears from this statistic that during the period in question 
15,357 films were censored in Hungary, of which 731, or 
about 5 per cent of the total submitted, were banned. It must 
be remembered, however, that about 2/3 of the films sub- 
mitted to censorship were newsreels, farces, educationals, 
publicity films, etc., while only 1/3 were feature films. Yet, 
the 731 pictures banned were almost exclusively features. 
The percentage of banned films, therefore, amounts to about 
1 5 or 20 per cent of the total submitted. 

Argentine Tariff Asked 

A DELEGATION representing Argentine film producing 
interests recently petitioned President Uriburu for tariff 
or other protection for the national film industry. Argentina 
produced last year five moving pictures. Releases from all 
sources amounted to 800, most of which came from the 
United States, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and England con- 
tributed some films. 

Third Dimension 

A FURTHER claim to have solved the problem of stereo- 
scopy has now been made by Continsouza, the French 
projector manufacturer, now part of the Gaumont concern. 
Nevertheless, in its present stage the invention is only ef- 
fective with one spectator. A film made on this new principle 
was shown in natural colors and projected through a new type 
of apparatus. Continsouza claims that it will be able to put 
the perfect three dimensional projector on the market in the 
near future. 

Berlin 

ANEW Chamber (No. 4) was instituted at the Berlin 
Court, beginning January 1, 1931, the competence of 
which involves litigations among artistic and musical employees 
(in theatre and film), film operators, cameramen, sound-oper- 
ators, etc. The Chamber will also control the execution of 
the decisions of the special vaudeville and stage arbitration 
court, and receive appeals against these d icisions. In view 
of the great number of cases submitted, the "Stage and Film 
Chamber" will have two presidents and meet five times a 
week. These presidents will be Messrs. Franke and Hilde- 
brandt, who for years have been specializing on film questions. 

France 

The French Exhibitors' Syndicate is organizing a month's 
visit to study cinema exploitation in the United States. The 
party headed by the president, Leon Brazillon, will leave Paris 
on March 15, next, and will visit New York, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, Boston, Dayton, Detroit, Buffalo, Washington, San 
Francisco, and Hollywood. A trip to Niagara will be included. 



ELMER G. DYER 

AKELEY SPECIALIST 

Aerial Photography Since 1918 

Phone HE. 8116 



Phone 


GL. 7507 


Hours 

Also by Appoi 


9 to 5 
ntment 




Dr. 


G. Floyd Jackman 

DENTIST 






706 Hollywood First National Building 
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave. 





HARRY PERRY, A. S. C. 

MULTICOLOR FILMS 



OXford 1908 



HEmpstead 1128 



HARVEY Wm. PRIESTER 

Insurance Experting 

CAMERA INSURANCE A SPECIALTY 

510 Cuaranty Building 

6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California 

Tel: CLadstono 4811 



MITCHELL CAMERA 

FOR RENT OR SALE 

Speed Movement — Fully Equipped — 5 Matched Pan 
Tachar f.2.3 Lenses — 4-3-2-40 and 35 — two 1,000-ft. 
and four 400-ft. Magazines — Friction Head for Panning 
— Gear Box for Different Speeds — Baby Tripod and 
High Hat — Cases for all with Yale locks. 

Glenn R. Kershner 

c/o A. S. C. 



Mitchell and (^ AKAHD AQ 
Bell & Howell ^ A/ VI L KAj 

SALES and RENTALS 

J. R. Lockwood 



Phone 
GRanite 3177 



1108 North Lillian Way 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 



Cable Address 
"LOCKCAMERA" 
Hollywood 



Have you ordered your Cinematographic 
Annual? 



Forty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



March, 1931 



INDEX to ADVERTISERS 



Classified Advertising 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar per insertion. 



American Society of Cinematographers 19 

Bell & Howell Co ~ 1 

Bredschneider, W. B 40 

Boothe Company... 6 

Cinematographic Annual - 37 

Composite Laboratories 40 

Davidge, Roy.... - 40 

Dunning Process Co - - 44 

DuPont Pathe Film Mfg. Co Inside Front Cover 

Dyer, Elmer 45 

Eastman Kodak Co 24, 25, Inside Back Cover 

Factor, Max 23 

General Electric 26 

Coerz American Optical Co., C. P - 43 

Hoefner, Fred 41 

Hollywood Camera Exchange.... 27 

Jackman, Dr. C. Floyd — 45 

Kershner, Glenn R 45 

Lakin Corp 7 

Lockwood, J. R 45 

Mitchell Camera Corp 43, Back Cover 

Mole-Richardson, Inc.. 2 

Perry, Harry _. ----- 45 

Priester, Harvey W _ 45 

Public Address Service Co 29 

Scheibe, George H 40 

Smith & Aller, Inc Inside Front Cover 

Superior Engraving Co 44 

Tanar Corporation 4, 5 

Walker, Vernon L 27 

Zeiss, Inc., Carl 42 



The TRAIL AHEAD! 

Don't miss the April issue of the 

American Cinematographer! Better 

than ever! More Big Features! Be sure 

you 

Get Your Copy! 



WANTED — MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 



WANTED — For cash, DeBrie, Pathe, Bell & Howell Standard cameras. 
Send full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison 
Street, Chicago 

WANTED — From Globe-trotting cameramen, film of foreign countries. 
Address Rex Cordon, 1215 N. June St., Hollywood, Calif. Phone 
CRanite 6933. 



FOR SALE— CAMERAS 



FOR SALE — One 200 ft. Universal Camera, latest model. Single front, 
Dissolving shutter; One 50 mm. F 3.5 Bausch & Lomb lens in 
Micrometer Focusing Mount; Two magazines; 1 carrying case. 
I Universal Tripod with Tilt and Pan. Camera and Tripod just 
overhauled and refinished Price $400.00. D. Hughes, 2309 
Osgood St., Chicago, III. 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera No. 230, Tripod with Mitchell legs, baby 
tripod, high hat, adjustable shutter, 6 magazines; 2-2 in. F 2.7, 4 
in. F 2.3, 6 in. F 2.7, 12 in. F 5.6 lenses with finder lenses. 
Motor attachment, carrying cases, first class condition. J. P. 
Muller, 2629 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La. 

FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3500.00 each. 
Special price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of 
CINEMATOCRAPHER. 



FOR SALE OR RENT — First Class Akeley Outfit complete. 
CR-4274, or write Dan B. Clark. A. S. C. office. 



Phone 



FOR SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. 
Reasonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or CR. 4274. 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, equipped up to| 
6-inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CRanite 1185. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes. Phone HE. 1841. 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell camera equipped for Sound. Al Cilks. 
HE-1490 or A. S. C. Office CR-4274. 

FOR SALE — Universals. Wilarts, DeVry, Bell & Howell, Carl Zeiss, Cir 
Nizo, Pathex cameras, projectors, films of all kinds. Lens 
kodaks. We buy, sell trade. List 4c stamps. F. W. Buchanan| 
Johnstown, Pa. 



FOR RENT— CAMERAS 



FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders, 
Mitchell tripods. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CR-1185. 



FOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, 6 magazines, 
equipped up to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga 
Ave. CRanite 1185. 



FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don 
B. Keyes, HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40, 50 and 75 
mm Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Home, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or CL-2791. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40, 
50 and 75 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol, 
6507 Drexel Ave. ORegon 7492. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell and Bell & Howell, Akeley Cameras. Lenses, 
accessories of all kinds, new and used — Bargains. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange, 1511 Cahuenga Blvd. 

FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS 



FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell 
and Bell & Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park 
J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga. CR-1185. 



FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor; 
1000 ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes. HE-1841. 



FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Pliny Home, 
1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or CL-2791. 





- 






In every state in the U. S. A. and in 36 foreign countries 
professional and amateur cinematographers, as well as 
men and women in various branches of the motion picture 

art, read 


The American Cinematograplier 




It has a record of 1 years' service behind it, and 
a reputation as 

A REAL AUTHORITY 

Mr. Manufacturer: 

You are missing a big opportunity if you fail to 
ADVERTISE IN 




The American Cinematographer 




A magazine published under the auspices of 

The AMERICAN SOCIETY of CINEMATOGRAPHERS 

an organization composed of the 

WORLD'S LEADING CAMERAMEN 






« « today » » 

WRITE FOR ADVERTISING RATES 

increase your sales 






The AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1222 GUARANTY BUILDING HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 






Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 


47 



L 



Forty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



March, 1931 




HAL MOHR 
VICTOR MILNER 
ARTHUR MILLER 
CHARLES C. CLARKE 
JOHN ARNOLD - 
WILLIAM STULL 



OFFICERS 



President 

- First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 

- Third Vice-President 

Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 



Chas. C. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Alfred Cilks 



Fred Jackman 
Glenn R. Kershner 
Victor Milner 



Hal Mohr 
Arthur Miller 
Sol Polito 



|ohn F. Seitz 
William Stull 
Ned Van Buren 



Philip E. Rosen 
Fred W. |ackman 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Caetano Caudio James Van Trees John W. Boyle 

Homer Scott John F. Seitz Daniel B. Clark 

Arthur Webb, General Counsel 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Mr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease 



Abel. David — Paramount. 
Allen, Paul H — 
Arnold, John — M-G-M. 
Archer, Fred — 
August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 

St. Paul. 
Benoit, Georges — Paris. 
Boyle, John W. — Sigma Films, 

Ltd. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C. — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. — Fox. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 
Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 
tone. 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 

DeVol, Norman — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell. Hollywood 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners' Vita- 
phone. 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A. 
Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 
Fildew, William — 



-Multicolor, 
r. — New York. 



Fisher, Ross G 
Flora, Rolla- — Fox 
Folsey, Geo 



Gaudio, Caetano — Warner Bros. 
Gilks, Alfred — M-G-M. 
Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros. 
Gray, King D. — 
Creenhalgh, Jack — F-B-O. 
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 
England. 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 
Hilburn, Percy — Universal 
Home, Pliny — 
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 

Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 
Jackman, Fred — Technical 

Director, Warner Bros. 
June, Ray- — United Artists. 

Kershner, Glenn — Metropolitan. 
Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Artists. 
Koenekamp, H. F.- — -Warner 

Bros. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 
Lindon, Curly — Paramount. 
Lockwood, J. R. — 
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 
Metropolitan. 

MacWilliams, Glen — -Fox. 
Marsh. Oliver — M-G-M. 



Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 
McDonell, Claude — London, 

England. 
Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 
Milner, Victor — Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Rogers. 
Morgan, Ira H. — M-G-M. 

O'Connell, L. Wm. — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 
Parrish, Fred — Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Polito, Sol— First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — 
Powers, Len — ■ 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 

Vitaphone. 
Ries, Park J. — ■ 
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 

Lasky. 
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 

Universal. 
Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 

Movietone. 
Schoenbaum, Chas. — James 

Cruz. 
Scott, Homer A. — 
Seitz, John F. — Fox 
Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 

Doug. Fairbanks. 



Shearer, Douglas C. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich. Harold— Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J. — Metro- 
politan. 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 
Studios. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 



Tappenbeck, Hatto— Fox. 
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-G-M. 



Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 

Kodak Co., Hollywood. 
Van Trees, James — 
Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 



Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox. 
Walker, Joseph — Columbia. 
Walker. Vernon L. — R-K-O. 
Warrenton, Cilbert — Universal. 
Wenstrom, Harold — 
Westerberg, Fred 
Whitman, Phil H. — 
Wilky, L. Guy — 
Wrigley. Dewey — Pathe. 
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 



Zucker, Frank C. — Warner 
Bros., New York. 




J 



r— M WISH "THIS 

J CAMERA HAD A FREE HEAP 
1 AND A CONTROL HANDLE-, 
f ON IT — IT TAKES TOO 

LONG TO GET \T CRANKED 
1 AROUND — GEE! WHEN DID 
1 YOU GET ONE OF THOSE. NEW 
) MITCHELL CAHERA CORPORATION 

TRICTlOfM HEAD CONTROL HANDLES! 
m TELLSCOPIC TOO - 
L — > MUST BE A DANDY 




f PRETTY CLEVER- ISNT IT ? 
all you got to do is to 
LOOSEN THE. CAM L ELVER, 
AND DOWN IT GOES -STRAI6HT 
DOWN OUT OF THE. WAY - WHY- 
BILL 8EAUDIN£ - SAID IT WAS 
THE FIRST TIME. HE EVER GOT 

vp close ro The vieon finder 

AND CAflERA WITHOUT GETTING 
THE HANDLE ALLTAN6LED DP )N 
HIS VEST OR NECKTIE AND BESIDES 
WHEN IT'S DOWN OUT of THE WAY 
I CAN UNLOAD AND LOAD THE, 
NEGATIVE 90ICKEJ*. 



mm 
J SlV* 




Advertisement 



f^* America 

(jraatoqepher 



*AS 



:ir-sji 




me 

Color Balance and Latitude 



of 




ESTABLISHED 1802 



SPECIAL PANCHROMATIC 
NEGATIVE 

(High Speed) 

remains f he same as in the regular emulsic 



The (0UPDNP Trade Mark Has Never Been Placed on an Inferior Product" 



SMITH & ALLER, Ltd. 



6656 Santa Monica Blvd. • Hollywood 5147 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Pacific Coast Distributors for 



DU PONT PATHE FILM MFG 

35 West 45th Street 



CORP. 

New York City 



The Bell & Howell 

Standard Camera 




interchai 

i 

SOUND 



or 




SPIED 

/ 



In one major mechanism, with quickly interchangeable parts, the Bell 
& Howell Standard Camera combines a regular, color, and ultra-speed, 
or regular, color, and sound camera into one. 

The ultra-speed silenced intermittent mechanism is instantly inter- 
changeable with the famous original pilot pin shuttle mechanism, 
which is easily adaptable to the handling of the "two neg es" or 
"Bi-pack" color process. 

AND NOW the shuttle intermittent mechanism, standard for 
nearly twenty years, can be silenced and therefore used for color and 
special-process sound pictures where PERFECT REGISTRATION 
is essential. 

Characteristic Bell & Howell precision marks the perfect function- 
ing and maximum interchangeability of every part of the camera, a 
hallmark of all Bell & Howell Cinemachinery for nearly a quarter 
of a century. 

BELL & HOWELL 

BELL & HOWELL COMPANY, 1848 Larchmom Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 
New York, 11 West 42nd Street - Hollywood, 6324 Santa Monica Boulevard 
London (B & H Co., Ltd.) 320 Regent Street • Established 1907 



Please mention the American Gnematographer when writing advertisers. 







Laura LaPlante and Harry Mcvtn in "Meet the Wife" — 
Produced by Christie • • • • at Metropolitan Sound Studios 
Directed by A. Leslie Pcarce. Released through Columbia. 



Mole- Richard son 

Products 

are lighting the set 

and 

taking the sound. 



Here is one out of hundreds of cases, 
where Mole- Richardson products, both 
sound and lighting, are used exclusively 
on the set. 

In this production they are using the 
finest lighting and sound equipment it 

is possible to buy much to the 

satisfaction of cinematographers, sound 
engineers and electricians. These 
gentlemen give their best when they 
work with Mole-Richardson products 
— for they know that their efforts will 
be reflected in the technical perfection 
of the production. 

MOLE-RICHARDSON, INC. 

941 N OR TH SYCAMORE AVEN UE 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



If It Isn't An @ It Isn't An Inkie 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



• AMERICAN ■ 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 

i 

HAL HALL 

HAL MONR Editor-in-Chief and Ceneral Manager, A. S. C. EMERY HUSE 

President, A. S.C. BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren Technical Editor, A S. C. 

Volume XI APRIL, 1931 Number 12 



CONTENTS 

Page 

PHOTOGRAPHING THE CARLSBAD CAVERNS, by Elmer G. Dyer 

and Hatto Tappenbeck 9 

THE DEPTH OF FIELD OF CAMERA LENSES, by A. C. Hardy 12 

SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich 15 

GROUND NOISE REDUCTION, by R. H. Townsend 16 

DuPONT SPECIAL PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE, 

by D. R. White 17 

HAL HALL SAYS 18 

LABORATORY DEPARTMENT, by Emery Huse 23 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING 26 

BABBLING ABOUT BRITTANY, by Lawrence Grant 29 



FOREICN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS. INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3 50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1931, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 




WHEN 



COOLNESS 



COUNTS 



s 



Scene from "The Royal Family' 



A Paramount Picture 




K 'HOOTING a scene with swift action 

requires light and plenty of it. Neither 
actors nor cameraman want heat. National Photo- 
graphic Carbons provide the brilliant illumination and 
photographic superiority of natural sunlight without 
the discomfort of less efficient light sources. 

And the carbon arc CAN be silenced. The number 
of successful sound pictures made under carbon arcs 
is definite proof of this fact. 

National Photographic Carbons are developed to 
give LIGHT . . . economical light . . . quiet light . . . 
cool light. 



NATIONAL 

PHOTOGRAPHIC 



CARBONS 




Proved by test the most economical form of studio 
lighting. Maximum photographic light per watt of 
electrical energy. A size for any studio arc lamp. . . 

NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Carbon Sales Division Cleveland, Ohio 

BRANCH SALES OFFICES: NEW YORK PITTSBURGH CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 

_ Unit of Union Carbide IM N N and Carbon Corporation 

Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



QUIET, PLEASE! 



Sh - Sh - Sh 



Sh - Sh - Sh - Sh - Sh - Sh - Sh - Sh - sh - Sh ! ! 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd., announces the perfection of a new 

NOISELESS RECORDING 

device for TANAR portable Sound-on-Film equipment. 



COME 



ON 



DOWN 



WHERE 



THEY 



CANT 



HEAR 



us 



This new TANAR feature may be built into all TANAR Sound Equipment, either Single or Double System, at a very nominal cost. 

The device adds only one pound to weight of equipment. 



SERVICE NOTE: All present owners of TANAR Equipment may have 
this feature installed in their amplifiers at small expense. 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd 

Originators of Portable Sound-on-Film Recorders 

General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Laboratories: 1100-12 North Serrano Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 



New York Office: 729 Seventh Avenue 

Sole Agents for India: M. L. Mistry & Co. 

46 Church Gate Street, Fort, Bombay 



Telephone 

HE-3939 and HE-3362 

Cable Address: TANARLICHT 

Postal Telegraph Private Wire 



Veuillez faire mention de TAmerican Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



WHEN you think of 

MAKE-UP 

you think of. . . 

Max Factor's 

MAKE-UP 

for 
STAGE and SCREEN 



Tel. HO-6191 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS 

Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Grand Ave. Cable Address "Facto" 

Other Foreign Branches 



London, England 

10 D'Arblay St. 
Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Paseo de la Reforma 36 Vi 
Havana, Cuba 

H-130, Vedado 
Lima, Peru 

Edificia Mineria 



Johannesburg, So. Africa 
Cor. Joubert & Kerk Sts. 

Manila, Philippine Islands 
No. 39 Escolta St. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
500 Sarmiento 

Honolulu, T. H. 
720 South St. 



Max Factor's 

Theatrical 

Make-up 

for the 

Stage 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



TRUTHFUL TESTS 




There is a Laco 
Lite built to meet 
every studio re- 
quirement of 
today. 



Paramount-Publix Corporation in Hollywood 
with the recent purchase of 125 18 inch and 50 
24 inch adopted JZ&cc^fe*. as standard light- 
ing equipment — but like all efficient but fair 
organizations, this decision was not made until 
after the merits of competitive equipment were 
weighed against those of Jg&ce products. 

These comparative tests required time — and 
time tells truths — revealing the facts that < ^%cv 
incandescent lighting equipment embodies all 
of the requisites of Paramount-Publix motion picture pro- 
duction — ability to render a superior service with appreci- 
able cost reduction — the latter effected through mechanically 
perfect construction which makes for ease of handling and 
minimum breakage. ^A equipment is backed by the 
assurance of Lakin Corporation that every product con- 
sistently must render perfect service. 

More than 500 jg&cv units now employed by Paramount- 
Publix Corporation is proof of that organization's confi- 
dence in ^&Gejglte^ equipment. 



If ifs not a < g&c<? it's not silent!" 



LAKIN CORPORATION 



1707 Naud Street 



LOS ANGELES 



CApitol 14118 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



Eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H E R 



April, 1931 




The Big Room of the Carlsbad Caverns. This unusually fine photo was made by Mr. Tappenbeck. 




Here we see Mr. Dyer at the camera in the Queen's Room. 






Photographing the Carlsbad Caverns 



With Incandescent Lights and Eastman Super-Sensitive Panchromatic Film 
by ELMER C. DYER, A. S. C, and HATTO TAPPENBECK V A. S. C. 



T 



HE GUADALUPE Mountains in the South-East of New 
Mexico with their desertlike aspect and growth contain 
vast subterranean caves, the Carlsbad Caverns. 

At the height of 4400 feet above sea level the road leads to 
the natural entrance of the cave, part of which has been ex- 
ploited for over two decades past for its valuable deposits of 
bat guano. However, the scenic wonders of the Carlsbad 
Caverns became accessible to the public only in recent years, 
especially since the National Geographic Society explored them 
scientifically in 1924. 

After taking the regular tourist trip in order to ascertain 
the possibilities of photographing the interior of the caverns 
and to get our bearings on the feasibility of making an educa- 
tional subject out of it, we — Elmer G. Dyer, A. S. C., Len 
Galezio, and Hatto Tappenbeck, A. S. C. — packed our heavy 
equipment in "packs" down the easy footpaths and broad 
stairways. These are fully lit from the indirect electric flood- 
lights, which are used for illuminating the dripstone forma- 
tions. Perry T. Convis, our guide and electrician, who showed 
an excellent knowledge of the photographic qualities of the 
cave, lead the way down to the 750 foot level, the starting 
point of our operations. 

Right here began our difficulties. Everything seemed un- 
familiar from what we had seen on our first inspection trip. 
Where ever we looked the formations were strangely similar 
and at the same time vastly different in detail. Every angle 
invited the camera. The aspect was indeed bewildering and 
confusing; such a variety of beautiful formations surrounded 
us. We chose our first set-up. Then came the huge task of 
photographing it. 

The cave is illuminated in sections through floodlights of 
100 to 2000 watts. The building and drilling of the new ele- 
vator shaft of nearly 800 feet required a considerable amount 
of the power available. For that reason we had to confine our 
lighting to the natural illumination of the cave formations with 
an occasional addition of a few 500 watt nitrogen lamps which 
we carried with us. The maximum light we used did not 
exceed 8000 watts at any time. 

The use of flares is prohibited. Past experiences with them 
showed that they blackened the formations considerably, and 
that it took hours and often days before the black smoke 
cleared away entirely out of the cave. That we were com- 
pelled to light our subject with incandescents only accounts 
for the excellent photographic roundness which we obtained, 
compared with the more or less contrasty and flat results of 
previous photographic attempts. Still photographs have re- 
quired up to 4 or 5 minutes exposure with the present lighting. 

You can picture the difficulties we had to overcome with 
the present rate of camera speed of 24 and the necessity of a 
character in nearly each scene. To express the size of the 
underground rooms and formations without showing a person 
for comparison is impossible, and to convey their size truth- 
fully to the condensed space available on the screen has thus 
far defied all efforts. There is no doubt that the accomplished 
result is of high teaching and educational value, but as far as 
realizing the immensity and the beauty of the Carlsbad Cavern, 
it seems to be only a feeble attempt. It may be best likened 
to the Grand Canyon which has never been photographed yet 
to a faith that does it justice. 



Our camera equipment consisted of a standard Akeley camera 
with a 230° shutter and motor. The fastest lenses made from 
35 millimeters up to 12 inches were at our disposal. In addi- 
tion to that we used the fastest commercial film made up to 
date, the new Eastman supersensitive panchromatic film, which 
gave us such a splendid recording, that, without exaggeration, 
we have obtained the best picture ever made of the caverns, 
considering the small amount of light we used. Only to 
record the extreme close-ups of the formations we used the 
Eastman Type 2 panchromatic film. This proved to be an ex- 
cellent stock for that purpose and helped considerably to save 
our limited supply of the supersensitive film for the longer 
shots. 

Not knowing the possibilities and limitations of the new 
supersensitive stock, we resorted to the testbox. The first 
tests we made were very discouraging. This was found to be 
mainly due to the rapid temperature drop of the developer 
which was especially prepared for this Eastman supersensitive/ 
film. The temperature inside of the cavern remains constant 
at 56° F during the entire year, day and night. The tempera- 
ture change of the developer was overcome by heating it in 
front of the strong incandescents and keeping the testbox 
itself warm by means of a smaller electric bulb inside of it, 
when not in use. During the night, however, the developer, 
hypo, water, and everything else dropped again to the constant 
temperature of the cave. 

In photographing the different formations of stalactites, 
stalagmites, coraline encrustations, popcorn and spaghetti-like 
growths, bunches of grapes, lily pads, etc. we encountered such 
unexpected results in regard to light-value, that a test before 
every shot was a necessity. The time we lost in testing 
proved to be well spent, since our efforts would have been 
futile without the tests to judge by. The photographic ex- 
posure meters which we used so successfully above the ground 
and on sets did not show any registration due to the great 
absorption of the light by the porous formation. Turning on 
a few incandescent lights was like striking a match on Broad- 
way. The weird and infrequent illumination of the cave defied 
any accurate guess of distance and therefore light value. 

We noticed in screening of the film that it is impossible to 
register depth in the proper way. It seemed to fade away in 
the distance. Smaller rooms and small objects recorded much 
more in their true proportion on the screen. This appeared 
to be due to an optical illusion which in connection with the 
unusual light effects exaggerated the small objects in the fore- 
ground and reduced the far ones, many times as large, to mere 
miniatures. 

No two formations in the huge rooms are alike, no two 
absorb or reflect the light in the same way. Occasionally one 
can detect a bit of color. A closer examination under a power- 
ful flashlight reveals, on the contrary, a wealth of color; chalk 
white, cream yellow, and a sparkling frost of the stalactites is 
found near the pink and rose tinted curtains and draperies, 
while the basic rocks show black, gray, and brick-red in addi- 
tion to the jade-green of the flowstone, the light cream color- 
ing of the great stalagmite domes, and the turquoise blue of 
the pools of crystal clear water. What a subject for color 
photography! 

The minerals of which these formations are built up, gypsum, 
lime, and sodium carbonate have their characteristic tints, 



Ten 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



April, 1931 




The Ciant Draperies — photo by Mr. Dyer 

which may be observed all the way from the entrance down 
to the lowest levels. Water which once deposited its minerals 
in the "Auditorium" and formed there the "Speakers Pulpit," 
etc. has seeped 7-800 feet down and does its work over 
again, creating the same eerie shapes and formations so char- 
acteristic of its chemical contents. 

On the 750 foot level, the only one thus far accessible to 
the public, are three enormous rooms and numerous smaller 
ones. The "Queen's Chamber," the smallest of the three, 160 
feet in length and 140 feet wide, is noted for its "Elephant's 
Ear," water pools with lily pads, lace draperies, and other fine 
examples of nature's creative art. 

Next in size is the "King's Palace," a room of gigantic di- 
mensions with many nooks and niches. Thousands of stalac- 
tites hang from the ceiling, and gleaming onyx folds form trans- 
parent curtains of infinite beauty. In one corner of the room 
the stalactites nearly reach the ground closely resembling the 
pipes of an organ. Indeed, a tune may be played on them by 
tapping the different stalactites, each of which resounds in its 
own clear and colorful tone, not unlike the chimes of an ancient 
clock. 

The "Big Room" is appropriately named. It is over 3 A of a 
mile long. Its maximum width is 625 feet, while its ceiling 
rises up to 300 feet. The Capitol in Washington could be 
placed into it and there would still be space left for other 
buildings besides! At first the task of lighting and photo- 
graphing this room so as to do it justice and to show its 
gigantic dimensions appeared to be impossible. Many tests 
were made, the few lights were changed time and again so as 
to use them to the best advantage, and the camera was placed 
to shoot the Big Room to its greatest extent. By the end of 
the day we had the satisfaction of having photographed what 
might perhaps be called the largest "Interior" with a minimum 
of light. The next day we went into the details of the room. 
The various formations lent themselves to artistic composition 
and lighting effects from almost every angle. Which one of 
the three or four set-ups to choose was always hard to decide. 
Each one presented such a beautiful picture that it was a stand- 
off to the others. 

One of the first shots we made was that of a waterfall, com- 
ing out of the ceiling and falling down over several ledges to 



the bottom of the cave. It reminded us of a frozen tree with 
many branches of ice and snow, which glistened in the light of 
the incandescents. On the screen finally it was a disappoint- 
ment. It turned out to be a neutral gray, which may be ex- 
plained that certain underlying minerals were seen by the eye, 
but did not register on the otherwise sensitive emulsion of the 
film. If this formation had been alive still, the result would 
have been different. The greatest art of the Big Room is now 
inactive. That made this location perhaps the hardest we ever 
worked on in the real sense of the word. Most of our camera 
set-ups were off the beaten paths, which had been covered with 
a clay or dirt like substance out of some pits in the cave. This 
was done to keep the dust down and to make the walking 
easy for the tourists. By the second day our boots showed 
signs of weakness and on the fifth they were worn through 
and we walked on our socks. To fall down or slip with the 
camera or other equipment resulted in severe abrasions to 
clothes and hands on the rasplike formations of lime, gypsum, 
and sodium carbonate. The latter could be found in blocks 
or powder form all over the cave. Our developer called for it, 
and there was enough of it right here to supply the demand 
for all the developers in the next hundred years. Once on 
setting the lights and climbing over the uneven ground in the 
semi-darkness Len Calezio lost his foothold on the loose rock 
and started sliding towards a large opening in the ground. 
"Keep away from there," the guide called, "that is the 'Bot- 
tomless Pit.' Nobody has been able to ascertain its actual 
depth yet, though one person has been let down in it for 300 
feet." On another occasion in order to get a good photographic 
angle we climbed fifty feet down with the camera in one 
hand, the other holding onto the wobbly rope ladder, which 
was left there by a previous expedition. 

The Twin Domes are undoubtedly the greatest attraction of 
the Big Room. They may be seen from every angle. Nearly 
in the center these giant specimens of stalagmites, light cream 
and yellow in color, stretch their heads — 60-70 feet high 




P* 



"V-- 



<flr¥ I. A 





Ciant Dome and Draperies — photo by Mr. Tappenbeck 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Eleven 



towards the ceiling. Their diameter at the base exceeds 16 
feet. Strangely enough, the little hill which forms their 
pedestal is of dark gray, nearly black color. Imagine the time 
it took to build these twins up with the slowly dripping water 
depositing its carbonate of calcium at the rate of one cubic 
inch per hundred years! The Twin Domes were comparatively 
easy to light and to photograph as they stand free and are 
quite accessible. On the sides of them huge stalactite draperies 
hang sixty or more feet down from the ceiling creating the im- 
pression as if it all was meant by nature to be a stage setting. 
The remarkable transparency of these pure onyx curtains is 
easily demonstrated with a few incandescents placed behind 
them. They photographed with surprising fidelity. 

Imagination plays a great part in these caves. The strangely 
shaped formations convey in many instances the forms of ani- 
mals to our mind. Some of the likenesses are so striking that 
they have received their names accordingly, such as the "Baby 
Hippo," the "Billing Doves," etc. The latter, two stalactites 
hanging from the ceiling on opposite sides of a smaller passage- 
way, have grown together and resemble closely a pair of doves. 
They are so delicately modeled that they seem to float across 
the room towards each other. 

The most exquisite creations of the whole cave are un- 
doubtedly to be found in that part of the Big Room called the 
"Crystal Chamber." The formations there are very active. 
Water is constantly dripping from hundreds of stalactites. The 
moisture gives them great transparency of a yellow waxen 
color. This is of high photographic value under the yellow 
rays of the incandescents, because the sensitiveness of the new 
panchromatic film has been greatly increased in the yellow 
band of the spectrum. 

Not more than 1000 to 2000 watts were required to photo- 
graph any part of this room. Here we had to make our tests 
in order not to overexpose. Often we switched our section of 



H 






HI >■ 






"' 



V* 5 






J tL 






*~ "ZJS^-Sm 



■-'-si 



Uj 




Mr. Dyer seated among "Lily Pads' 



"Elephant's Ear" in Queen's Chamber — photo by Mr. Dyer 

the cave lights off and thus made a natural dark room out of 
the cave itself. No testbox or changingbag were then required. 
As soon as we stopped moving around the moisture in the air 
made us chilly. Otherwise the coolness of the cave was very 
pleasing and refreshing. However, every night we took our 
exposed and unexposed film with us out of the cave, to avoid 
getting it damp and to prevent the dust from the sodium 
carbonate or lime to seep into the magazines and make chemi- 
cal stains on the film. 

Graceful draperies, exquisite lace embroidery covered the 
walls of this masterpiece of nature's handiwork. The dripping 
water collected in turquoise pools of clear drinking water, 
through which the formations showed so distinctly down to the 
bottom, as if there had been no water at all. We threw little 
stones in it to register the water in the film, creating the im- 
pression of drops falling from the stalactites above. Banks of 
a thin, ice-like crust of minerals stretched partly over the pools. 
Those were strong enough to hold our weight, at the same time 
transparent as a ground glass to the incandescent lights. 

Six days we spent transferring these wonders to the film. 
If we had attempted to photograph the entire cave it would 
have taken us over three months. We could go on filming 
indefinitely and still have found new subjects, new combina- 
tions of lighting effects and composition, even if we exposed 
enough film to make another "Hell's Angels." 

Every morning we descended a mile and a half into the earth. 
Every day we made new discoveries. We never got tired of 
looking at the beauty in the cave; in fact, the more we saw of 
it, the more understanding and appreciation came to us. On 
our daily trip to the surface we noticed in the far end of the 
"Auditorium" a beautiful sunset with overhanging clouds, 
painted in gorgeous colors by the light and shadow effect on 
the rear wall like a back drop of a stage setting. 

Then climbing towards the cave entrance, still hundreds of 
feet below the top we got another thrill, seeing the faint blue- 
ish-green rays of daylight suddenly burst into a beam of gold 
with the blue sky and the racing white clouds above. And 
there among them was Old Glory gracefully waving in the 
evening breeze. 



The Depth of Field of Camera Lenses 



With Special Reference to Wide Film 
by ARTHUR C. HARDY 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



BY THE very nature of optical imagery, a lens is capable 
of forming a sharp image of only a single plane of the 
object space. In practice, however, such factors as the 
aberrations of the lens or the graininess of the film establish 
a limit for the useful sharpness, so there is a certain "depth 
of field" that may be said to be in sharp focus. The depth 
of field is sometimes called the depth of focus, but the latter 
term has a different significance in optical terminology. 

The lack of depth of field of a lens is familiar to anyone who 
has ever attempted to make photographs with lenses of high 
relative aperture, but there is nevertheless a great deal of 
misinformation on this subject. This seems to be a conse- 
quence of the custom of judging the depth of field from the 
results of photographic tests, which are seldom conducted in 
such a manner as to yield results that are really significant. 
Even if they are, a lens of poor quality has apparently a greater 
depth of field than a well -corrected one, and the experimental 
method of determining the depth of field may therefore be 
very misleading. It is possible to treat this subject theoretically 
and, as it happens, the rigorous treatment is less complicated 
than the approximation that is sometimes made. 

This subject is particularly timely because of the current 
discussion concerning wide film. The effect on the depth of 
field, when photographing a subject on a wider film, is not 
immediately apparent. Nor is it apparent that the depth of 
field may be altered by making a large negative and printing 
by optical reduction on standard film. The purpose of this 
paper is to consider these questions in some detail, but before 
this can be done, a certain amount of optical theory must be 
developed. 

Theory 

The depth of field of any lens or optical system is given 
rigorously by the two expressions 

rP 
d, = (1) 



and 



d s 



mp — r 
rP 
mp + r 



(2) 



where di represents the depth of field on the far side of the 
object-plane in sharp focus and d^ represents the depth of 
field on the near side. The total depth of field then is 
d = d, + da. 

In the above equations, r represents the radius of the per- 
missible circle of confusion, P is the distance from the entrance- 
pupil of the lens to the object-plane on which the camera is 
focused, m is the magnification of an object in this plane on 
the film, and p is the radius of the entrance-pupil of the lens. 

An erroneous estimate of the depth of field of a lens is 
sometimes made on the basis of the so-called "hyperfocal 
distance." This is the minimum distance of an object-plane 
on which the lens can be focused and still have objects at 
infinity appear sharp. In other words, for this condition, the 
far depth di is infinite. From equation (1), it follows that 
this condition will obtain when 



mp — r = 0. (3) 

Now, in the Newtonian form of the lens equation, 

f 
m = — , 
x 

where x is the distance of the object-plane in sharp focus from 
the first focal point of the lens. On substituting for m in 
equation (3), we have 

fp 

x = — , (4) 

r 

where x is the hyperfocal distance measured from the first 

focal point of the lens. Equation (4) can be written in terms 

of the f/ number of the lens, since this quantity is the ratio 

of the focal length to the diameter of the entrance-pupil. On 

substituting, we have 

f\ f/number 

x = . (5) 

2r 

When equation (3) is satisfied, equation (2) shows that the 

near depth 

P 
d* = -. (6) 

2 

Hence, when a lens is focused on the hyperfocal distance 
given by equation (5), all objects are in sharp focus from 
infinity to a point half-way between the object-plane in sharp 
focus and the entrance-pupil of the lens. 

Now, a short hyperfocal distance indicates a great depth of 
field when the camera is focused on the hyperfocal distance. 
It is sometimes concluded from equation (5), therefore, that 
the depth of field of a lens varies inversely as the f/ number 
and inversely as the square of the focal length. This argu- 
ment takes no account of the fact that the size of the image 
varies with the focal length, and that a smaller circle of 
confusion is required for comparable quality in a small picture 
than in a large one. Furthermore, the lack of depth of field 
is seldom troublesome when the camera is focused on an object 
at the hyperfocal distance, but rather when it is focused on 
a nearby object. Under the latter conditions, the quantity r in 
the denominator of equations (1) and (2) becomes negligible 
compared with the quantity mp. Hence equations (1) and 
(2) become simply 



r P 

d. = — 

mp 



and 



d 2 = 



mp 



and the total depth of field is 

d = d, + d a 



2rr 



mp 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



The ratio p/p in the above equation can be transferred to 
corresponding quantities in the image-space by means of the 
well-known relationship in optical theory that 



12 



April, 193' 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Thirteen 



pp 



pp 
where n' is the distance of the film from the exit-pupil of the 
lens and p' is the radius of the exit-pupil. Equation (9) may 
then be re-written as follows: 

2rp' 

d = di + d, = . (10) 

m'p' 

Now, any comparison of the depth of field of two lenses 
must be made on a basis that insures the same exposure in 
both cases, since manifestly any desired depth can be obtained 
by reducing the lens aperture. It is a well-known fact that 
the amount of illumination on the film in the image of an 
extended object is determined by the ratio p'/p'.' Assuming 
a constant value for this ratio, the depth of field is seen from 
equation (10) to vary directly with the permissible size of 
the circle of confusion r and inversely as the square of the 
magnification. This result is independent of the particular 
form of the lens. In other words, any claim that one lens 
has a greater depth of field than another is absurd. If experi- 
mental tests seem to indicate a difference between lenses, 
either the two lenses were not used at the same effective 
aperture and magnification, or the image quality of one is 
inferior to that of the other and its depth only appears to be 
greater. 

The lack of depth of field is apparent to the motion picture 
audience when the size of the circle of confusion on the screen 
exceeds a certain limiting value. Let us designate by R the 
radius of the largest permissible circle of confusion on the 
screen. Then 

R = rm,,m> , 

where m, is the magnification between the negative and posi- 
tive in printing (in contact printing this quantity is 1 ) and m, 
is the magnification of the film on the screen in projection. 
Substituting for r in equation (10), we have 

2R p' 

d = . — . (ID 

m 2 m,,ms p' 
Let us assume now an object or actor of height h in the plane 
on which the camera is focused. The corresponding height 
of the image on the screen is 

H = hmm,,m„. (12) 

Let us designate the over-all magnification between the 
object and its screen image by M, where 
H 
M = — = mm,,m, . (13) 

h 
With this substitution, equation (11) becomes 

2R p' 



(14) 



mM p' 
We see, therefore, that for a fixed value of R and p'/p', the 
depth of field, as seen by the audience, varies inversely as 
the original magnification in the camera and the over-all 
magnification M. In other words, it is just twice as hard to 
obtain sufficient depth when the actor's head is to be ten 
feet high on the screen as when it is only five feet high. The 
advantage of making m small will be dealt with presently. 

Application to Practice 

Let us consider the case of standard 35 mm. practice where 
both the negative and positive film are of this width and the 
printing is done by contact. Equation (14) shows that, for 
a fixed over-all magnification M, there is a definite gain in 
making the magnification m, in taking, as small as possible. 
This implies either using camera lenses of short focal length 
or placing the camera at a great distance from the actors. 
For the same over-ail magnification M, equation (13) shows 
that m., must be increased in proportion to the decrease in m. 



In other words, the greatest depth of field is seen to resuit 
by making the original negative with as low a magnificat'on 
as possible and relying on subsequent enlargement to provide} 
the required over-all magnification. The limit to the subse- 
quent enlargement is set by the graininess of the negative 
material. Unfortunately, this limit has been reached with 35 
mm. negative film, as the magnification in the projector is 
already so high that any further increase makes the graininess 
decidedly objectionable. We must conclude, therefore, that 
the depth of field for a given effective lens aperture p'/p' 
is about as great as it can ever be made with 35 mm. film 
unless the graininess of the film can be reduced enough to 
permit greater magnification in projection. 

Let us now consider the effect of making the original nega- 
tive and release prints on a wider film. For the sake of con- 
venience, let us assume the film to be 70 mm. in width, or 
twice as wide as the 35 mm. standard. There are several 
possible ways of utilizing this increased width, but most pro- 
ducers seem to regard the wider film as an opportunity to 
include more action on a larger screen, the size of images on 
the screen remaining approximately as at present. If this plan 
is followed, it is obvious from equation (14) that the depth 
of field with wide film, at the same over-all magnification M 
and the same magnification in projection, is identical with 
that obtained in 35 mm. practice. This implies the use of 
camera and projector lenses of the same focal length as at 
present. If, on the other hand, larger images are projected 
on the larger screen, the increased over-all magnification M 
can be obtained only by increasing either m or m s . It is 
impossible to increase rru without increasing the appearance 
of graininess. Hence, any increase in M must be the result 
of increasing m, and equation (14) shows this procedure will 
decrease the depth of field. This is not exactly true, because 
a somewhat larger circle of confusion can be tolerated with a 
larger screen. Nevertheless, the fact remains that larger 
images on the screen are obtainable only by sacrificing depth 
of field. 

Consider now the case where the negative is 70 mm. in 
width and the release prints are 35 mm. in width, the print- 
ing being done by optical reduction. Since the quantity m p 
inequations (12) and (13) does not appear in equation (14), 
it follows that this reduction process neither increases nor 
decreases the depth of field when the other conditions are 
met — that is, when the same magnification m is used in the 
camera and a final image of the same size is projected on 
the screen. Equation (13) shows that when m,, is one-half, 
as it is approximately under these conditions, the magnifica- 
tion in projection iru must be twice as great to keep the 
over-all magnification M the same. It is claimed, with some 
justice, that this reduction process reduces the graininess and 
that the magnification in projection rru can therefore be in- 
creased over what is possible when the print is made by contact. 
If the reduction in graininess is one-half, so that the magnifi- 
cation in projection can be doubled, the depth of field of 
pictures produced in this way is the same as with the two 
methods that have been discussed previously. It may be re- 
marked in passing that it is no more difficult to design a 
projection lens to cover the 35 mm. film than one to cover 
the 70 mm. film if they are of the same relative aperture, 
but, with the same relative aperture, the illumination on the 
screen with the 35 mm. film will be approximately one-fourth 
as great. In addition, projection from the smaller film at a 
higher magnification imposes more severe requirements on 
the steadiness of the film in the gate. 

Reference 

1 See, for example, "The Distribution of Light in Optical Systems," 
A. C. Hardy, "Journal of 1he Franklin Institute, Vol. 208, No. 6, 
December, 1929. It may be remarked in passing that the f/ number 
is a measure of the illumination on the film only when the lens is 
focused on an object at infinity. 



The above article is printed through the courtesy of the "journal 
of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers." — Editor. 



Fourteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



April, 1931 



DEPTH OF FOCUS CHART 

FOR DIFFERENT STOPS OF 50 MM LENS AND 

FOR CIRCLES OF CONFUSION OF 0.05 MM 



o 
k 



100 
90 
80 
70 
60 

50 
40 

SO 

20 
IS 



FI6 Fll Fd F5.6 F4 



F2 



10 
9 
6 
7 
6 
S 
4 
3 
2 



- 














J Go / £ /-^ 


£ en yf en 5 


■j 


y. c 


: 


J 


■D £ 


c 


/ 

10 

95 


m 












"W 


T~Y~i--~ 


T#fct^7T-T 














9 

85 
8 
75 
7 
65 
















::MM 1 ikp 


1 /- */ ; - 


\ J- 


























Ez == -~ 




t r t 


V 
























z 




i 








j 




hi / 














































j\ l/l 1 ]-hjffl 


¥M- 




" 


— 








6 


















: = 1 = " 
















l ^— 














5 

45 

is s ; 

i 



2.5 J 
2 


















======! 














-l—z-£Z ^ 


y . 








...I 






















--3-----P 














f / 1 ly 


- ^4447 
















- 


tfftPr 














---.^i^ig 


h* A \^r ,, 




— 




I — 




— ; 
.... 


















i , 














b A / S 


IVrn * r 


I 


























._t__j 














Mi? Jt ^- 3 


T = T5'fHfTTffTni Tpt 


















:-<— ;£ 
















--r'^TTTr" 3 


t^- 




"H 1 " 






' V \ 


















:£==?:- 














A i*/ 10 2 Yt 


^"--+44+ttmt±l#tttf 


| 


ff+j 




jU 






















ht-1 










i , 




X/isVy~ 


fFrrfftttt^tift ■ 


y 


... 


- 




% 




















,- ^ -j 










Jv 






-~+\ ^ 






















txt^ 


J 












y '\ 






























; 


- / * 














/* ^* 




























/ 


2 Z-* 














^ •^^ 


v±m:Az*i:."::. .::. 


i 


























' 


y / 














\/ L^' 


-XJ&TzL 


i 








" 


' 
















1 
















^^ .^"' 




















1 












n 




r ^' ^i - 


I .Lr--"" 


i 






































t/ 






-\-+->- ] 


i 


























1— 












\ 




^^^ »--"' 


::[ jA^. j 




























t 1 


















i trff """HIT 




























T-t 
















**i ^--•"' __^_ 


I'd i i i' 




























t i 




' 












-C :„-='"-": 


1 1 














































::t:::::_..;l=-:ip:r: 


T '-- 


- 










15 
1 
































-"*! 










































■f**' 




^„_-- — -" 










































t 




_^-— — " 




1 




































t 






::f: ::::::::]::::::::Jn 






































i - """^ 




1_ 




I' 


, 






































1 


.x in 










































J- - - 
































? *■"' 










p 




^r 


mi 




1 


— 

.... 


7 1 " 

- 


.... 

- 


:: 

... 
.... 


















.»** 










i 




e :: 


f - - .... 444-1 




























i 




j_ 


__[ t jtt 
































t 




r 




.... 


.... 




























L 




j- 


_:t::::::::::::::::::::l!t 




























1 




4- ' 


^ T + 




































r 


:::::::::::::: J 




































E 


















































| 


























1 














__ .L__.ll 


i T 7 ! TT + ii 
......... ...11.... J 


l! ; 













F 2 



F4 



F 5.6 



F6 



F II 



F 16 



10 



<S 2 

DEPTH 



30 40 

OF FOCUS IN FEET 



SO 60 



70 SO 90 100 
L.M.DI ET ERICH 



Screen Definition 



by DR. L. M. DIETERICH 



Consulting Engineer 



Part 6 



SINCE the last issue of this magazine, the author has been 
approached by several members of the profession with the 
request to publish a "handy" set of charts for the quick 
determination of "Depth of Focus" for standard motion pic- 
ture lenses at various stops. 

Mr. Fred Westerberg showed in the International Photog- 
rapher, November 1930 issue, a very comprehensive diagram 
covering this subject and the author has, with his permission, 
used the fundamentals shown therein for the design of the two 
charts, herewith offered to the cameramen in a form which he 
hopes will be of practical value. 

The examples embodied in these charts, when once studied, 
should make any further explanation superfluous. 

Returning now to the continuation of the filter study of 
the last article and for the present especially referring to the 
"Moore" filters: 

The majority of filters now on the market and in common 
use, suppress mainly to a more or less pronounced degree 
the blue end of the spectrum for the purpose of either increas- 



ing definition by eliminating "blue" haze, cloud effects or to 
produce so-called night shots or moonlight effects by decreas- 
ing light transmission, but at the same time maintaining 
characteristic contrasts. 

Such at present standard filter series, however, materially 
unbalance the actinic color reaction of standard film emulsions. 

As an example a "night" scene photographed in daylight 
with a "night" filter and showing a North West Mounted 
Policeman in the characteristic red coat will, on the screen, 
depict him wearing a white coat. As another example, stand- 
ard panchromatic makeup shows under use of such filters 
serious color distortions and so forth. 

"Moore" filters obviate this destruction of actinic color 
balance by the proper blending of red and green filter elements. 

The blue contained in green controls red to such an extent 
that the proper balance of color values (other than the blue 
only) is maintained in all of the desired special effects to a 
far more correct degree than is possible with commonly used 
filters. 

(Continued on Page 37) 




;di$ter\c 



kfil ' 



15 



Ground Noise Reduction 



R-C-A Photophone System 
by RALPH H. TOWNSEND 



EVER since Thomas Edison made his first sound recording 
on a piece of tinfoil, reproduced sounds have been what 
we might call "victims of circumstances." This is true 
not only of phonograph disc reproduction but that from film 
as well. Always has the listener been compelled to hear re- 
produced sounds of speech and music accompanied by needle 
scratch or extraneous background noises of various sorts. 

In phonography this ever present background noise was and 
still is a source of untoward disturbance and annoyance. It 
has been reduced somewhat by careful attention to the many 
processes involved in record production. For instance, the wax 
on which the original recording is made has a homogeneity 
and uniformity undreamed of in the early days of the art. 
Electrolytic copper anodes, carefully prepared solutions, and 
accurate timing and temperature control now produce from 
the master record a copper plating of almost microscopic 
smoothness. The plastic compounds from which commercial 
records are pressed have been improved and refined to a re- 
markable degree. 

But in spite of all this we still have needle scratch or sur- 
face noise to contend with. 

Trouble Above 5,000 Cycles 

With the advent of electrical recording the useful frequency 
range was greatly expanded. Electrical reproduction was cap- 
able o* taking off the record all that was on it including sur- 
face noise and then what did we do? We found by analysis 
and measurement that a great deal although not all of the 
disturbance from background noise lay in the frequency 
range above 5,000 cycles. Electrical filters being easily con- 
structed we then proceeded to cut off by means of a low-pass 
filter everything above about 4,500 cycles. The surface noise 
disappeared to a considerable degree but so did most of the 
higher frequencies we had worked so long and diligently to 
include in our recordings. However the ground noise was re- 
duced, and that was what we set out to do, hence the experi- 
ment was a success. 

The use of film as a medium on which to record sounds in- 
volved all of the trouble heretofore encountered in disc re- 
cording and reproduction. As a matter of fact there is a 
striking similarity between the processes. Instead of granular 
wax we now have to contend with emulsion grain; instead of 
graphiting, plating and pressing we have developing and 
printing; instead of a plastic shellac compound we have an- 
other piece of positive film stock as a final record; instead of 
defective phonograph needles which do not fit the grooves we 
have light slits which get out of focus. 

You are no doubt all quite familiar with the reasons why 
ground noise interferes with reproduction and there is no 
necessity for a discussion of that particular point. If there 
were no ground noise or extraneous sound disturbances speech 
and music would be clearer — we will all admit that. The ques- 
tion is how can the ground noise be kept out or removed with- 
out interfering in any way with the wanted sounds or fre- 
quencies. 

Mr. C. R. Hanna of the Westinghouse Company and Mr. 
C. W. Hewlett of the General Electric Company in the early 
part of 1929 did considerable thinking and research on this 
problem and at that time devised ways and means of ac- 

16 



complishing such an end. So far as we know Hanna's method 
is the basis of all those used commercially today. 

Before we go further suppose we consider for just a few 
moments what ground noise is. A general definition would 
probably run something like this. "Ground noise is all sound / 
evident in reproduction which was not present in the original 
sounds." You have all sat in theatres and heard this type of 
disturbance but probably few of you have taken the trouble 
to try and analyze this background noise. It has been analyzed, 
however, and found to consist of disturbances from many 
different sources. 

Sources of Noise 
For instance during a take on a stage or set it is almost a 
physical impossibility to have perfect quiet. There is always 
a certain amount of set noise due to movement on the part 
of the many people who are on the set at the time, the crack- 
ing of arc lamp housings or incandescent lamp housings, noise 
due to the cameras and their driving motors, to say nothing 
of a certain amount of noise which is caused by traffic out- 
side the studio or extraneous disturbances in adjoining studios. 
The next source of noise is located in the microphones and 
their associated amplifiers No matter how carefully an ampli- 
fier is constructed we always find a certain amount of noise 
due to circuit conditions and tube characteristics. 

If we add all of the components of noise mentioned above 
we find that up to the film we have a total noise level which 
may and often does assume considerable proportions. In some 
instances actual measurements indicate that this noise level is 
as high as 20 db. Since all of these disturbances are in- 
cluded in the signal fed to the recording mechanism, whether 
it be an aeo light, light valve, or vibrator, all of them make 
their impression in the resulting sound track on the film. 
Every film on which recording is made has a certain definite 
resolving power, that is, the ability to respond evenly to ex- 
posure. The emulsion on film which is susceptible to the 
action of light and development is a very sensitive medium. 
For this reason it is very desirable that it be treated with 
respect. 

It is not reasonable to suppose that we can subject a film 
to under exposure and over development or over exposure 
and under development and get uniformity throughout the 
resulting opaque portions. In other words, unless the ex- 
posure and development is carried out with precision there is 
great possibility that the resulting granular structure will be a 
source of disturbance later on. 

During the developing, washing, and fixing of film there 
are plenty of opportunities, even in a well-ordered laboratory, 
for the film to pick up small particles of dirt. By small I do 
not mean particles of a size visible to the naked eye. These 
particles may be, and usually are, microscopic in size. Their 
ability to produce noise, however, is still considerable. 

The handling of film, that is, of negative film and also of 
the positive stock, during the printing operation is another 
potential source of noise. The developing and drying of the 
positive is still another source. 

You may well ask at this point how can the disturbance, 
due to a recorded sound track combine with dirt and make 
more disturbance. If you will consider for a moment the 
manner in which a sound track on film is reproduced as 
sound the answer will be quite evident. 

(Continued on Page 36) 



DuPont Special Panchromatic Negative 



by D. R. WHITE 



THE DATA here presented give direct comparisons between 
the characteristics of DuPont Special panchromatic nega- 
tive and DuPont Regular panchromatic negative. 

From a purely scientific angle a complete analysis of such 
spectrograms as are shown in Fig. 1 would give a very com- 
plete knowledge and comparison of the emulsion character- 
istics. The knowledge would be so detailed as to be only of 
laboratory interest and would not be of value to film users in 
such form. However, these spectrograms are reproduced here 
to show that the color sensitivity of the two films is essentially 
the same. No regions of the spectrum included in the older 
product are omitted in the new and no large changes in rela- 
tive sensitivity to different colors have been introduced. 

The scale of reproduction of the spectrograms is too small 
to allow much reliable comparison of general film speeds 
therefrom. With this in view, H & D curves are presented in 
Fig. 2. The curves were plotted from exposures made in a 
non-intermittent time scale sensitometer, using a tungsten 
lamp as light source. The exposures for the curves marked 
"white" were made with the light from the tungsten lamp 




Fig. 1. Spectrograms on DuPont panchromatic negatives 

A. Special 

B. Regular 

falling directly on the film. For the curves marked "red" a 
Wratten "A" filter was placed in front of the light which was 
kept burning at the same position and brightness as for the 
"white" exposures. In a similar manner the exposures for the 
"green" and "blue" curves were made by the use of "B" and 
"C" filters respectively. The sensitometric strips were de- 
veloped together for eight minutes in borax developer, with 
high agitation of the developer during development. The com- 
parison of these resulting curves, in pairs, confirms quanti- 
tatively the fact which was qualitatively evidenced by the spec- 
trograms, that there is no appreciable difference in relative 
spectral sensitivity in the two products. There is, however, 
a notable increase in speed of the Special film over the Regular. 
In actual practice it has been found possible to cut the set 
illumination from forty to sixty per cent in using this DuPont 
Special panchromatic negative. 

From these data it is evident that the filter factors for 
the Special and Regular panchromatic negative films are the 
same within very close limits. The lens stop or lighting used 
with the Special film should, of course, be reduced to take 
account of the increased speed, but the filter factors them- 
selves are essentially unchanged. As all successful filter users 
know, the correct filter factor for a given set of conditions 
depends upon three things, the filter, the lighting, and the 
sensitivity of the film. It is, of course, usual to specify a cer- 
tain type or source of light and prepare a table showing the 
factor by which the stop should be increased to make up for 
the light absorbed by each of a series of filters. This is 
thoroughly satisfactory only when the light source is constant 
in quality from time to time and place to place. Daylight is 



not constant in either way, but must be used for so much of 
the work where a filter is needed that filter factors for it are 
of great interest. Table 1 gives filter factors obtained in sun- 
light and shows, therefore, the factor by which aperture or 
time should be increased to compensate for filter absorption. 



Dc/Po/yt 

Panchromatic 



Rcgu/> 




sity 



24- g. 7 J.0 



Fig. 2. H and D curves on DuPont panchromatic negatives. 
White: exposed to tungsten lamp. 
Red: exposed to tungsten lamp through A filter. 
Croc;;: exposed to tungsten lamp through B filter. 
Blue: exposed to tungsten lamp through C filter. 

Where the light quality is not that of sunlight, these factors 
cannot be expected to hold accurately and a test shot should, 
of course, be made if the work is quite critical. Experience 
has shown that for shadow shots, when there is an absence of 
sunlight but a predominance of light from the blue sky, the 
factors for blue absorbing filters should be increased somewhat 
over the values given, and for blue transmitting filters, if 
used, somewhat decreased. 

Table I. 

The body of the table gives filter factor for the Wratten 
filters, designated by letter, for sunlit scenes, for both DuPont 
Special and Regular panchromatic negatives. 



Filter 

Kl 

K2 

K3 

C 

F 

A 

B 

C 



Filter Factor 
DuPont Special 
DuPont Regular 
2.2 
3.1 
4 
5 
10 
7 
16 
12 



The photo-micrographs, shown in Fig. 3 show that the 
increase in speed has not been at the expense of grain size. 
The importance of this consideration is obvious. The two 
photo-micrographs were made under identical conditions and 
represent directly a true comparison of the grain sizes in the 
two products. 

The dark room handling for camera loading and processing 
both of these negative films is most safely done in total dark- 
(Continued on Page 33) 



17 



Thoughts in Passing 

WONDER how so many cowboys manage to live .... 
thicker than fleas along Cahuenga Boulevard, and never 
seem to work .... Championship walkers ought to be dis- 
covered in picture studios. No matter what studio you visit, 
you get the idea that most employees must be hired to walk. 
They are always going somewhere in a hurry .... Wonder 
if they ever arrive .... Take note yourself some day .... 
Harry Burns, Editor of Filmograph, is now giving the Cine- 
matographers a bit of mention in his paper .... Thanks, Harry, 
but don't call them "Unsung Heroes" .... Call them darned 
fine artists who do an excellent job and are rarely mentioned 
in the public press .... Other papers please copy .... 
Wonder what has become of the picture stars who couldn't 
learn to talk .... Also .... Wonder how some stars get 
along who in the silent days simply couldn't work unless an 
orchestra was playing favorite musical number .... Notice 
some of these are doing excellent work, but wonder why they 
got away with the bunk so long in the old days .... Still 
waiting to see who can tell Welford Beaton, Editor of Film 
Spectator, what a motion picture is ... . Have often wondered 
why Welford doesn't tell us himself, as he is one of the most 
intelligent critics I have ever read .... Wonder how it feels 
to be hired by a big picture company to write stories .... 
then have big publicity break in papers .... only to be 
dropped three months later without having written a darned 
thing .... Irving Thalberg is one of the few really great 
production minds that has remained great throughout a long 
period of time .... Thalberg doesn't seem to suffer from brain 
fag no matter how long he works .... Remember how some 
said he would be just a flash-in-the-pan .... Perhaps one 
reason for his continued success is the fact that he devotes his 
time to intelligent thinking, and leaves public conversation to 
those who love to hear their own voices. 

This Month's Cover 

ON THE COVER this month is the daughter of one of the 
members of the American Society of Cinematographers 
She is Joan Marsh, daughter of Charles Rosher, one of Holly- 
wood's best known cameramen. 

While only eighteen years of age, Miss Marsh can look 
back many years upon her screen experience, for she made 
her first screen appearance when she was six months old. Sh'i 
very early showed ability, and her father wisely guided her 
footsteps toward a career — taking her out of pictures to send 
her to school. Then she returned to the screen and was 
featured at Universal. From there she went to Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer, where she is now under contract. Her father is one of 
the outstanding cameramen at the same studio. Needless to 
say he is proud of his daughter, for she is the only cinematog- 
rapher's daughter to gain a featured position on the screen 
to date, and she seems destined for stardom before she is 
through. So, we may well say our cover this month is an 
A. S. C. Cover. 



Advertising Films 



BIG business eyes are being centered these days upon the 
screen as an advertising medium. For years business has 
looked upon the screen and wished that the hundreds of 
thousands of theatre-goers could gaze upon delicious pieces of 
this cake or that butter, or this tractor or that brand of chew- 
ing gum, but until recently, the screen has fought shy of 
advertising, except when some particularly wise gentleman 
could have a closeup appear in a legitimate feature showing 
a particular brand of cigarettes, or something like that. 

But, now the country has become screen-advertising minded 
— or, rather, the advertisers and many production executives. 
It remains to be seen whether or not the theatre audiences 
will feel the same way. The success or failure of these films 
will depend upon the manner in which they are presented — 
on whether or not the producers use common, horse-sense. 
The public will not, it stands to reason, pay good money to 
go and see washing fluid glorified — unless the glorification is 
real amusement or entertainment. 

Richard L. Strobridge, secretary of the Newell-Emmett Com- 
pany, New York, seems to have touched the right note in his 
remarks made recently at a "talkie advertising" demonstra- 
tion given at the Advertising Club of New York. "The screen 
has very definite limitations as an advertising medium," he 
said. "It is dedicated, and rightly so, to the duty of enter- 
taining those who pay their admission at the box office. 
Therefore, it can offer nothing but entertainment if it is to 
keep faith with the public." 

He then pointed out that there is a strict line of demarca- 
tion between straight advertising films and those sponsored by 
an advertiser — the advertising film having a certain play on 
the advertised product, subtle or otherwise, while the sponsored 
film only mentions the advertiser in the credit titles, and is 100 
per cent entertainment with no attempt at showing the product 
of the sponsor. 

To our way of thinking, the sponsored picture can draw no 
criticism as long as it is entertainment. The straight advertis- 
ing picture is the one that must be watched. There is no 
reason why advantage cannot be taken of the screen as an 
advertising medium — but — it would be just too bad if the 
screen became like the radio of today. 

Mr. Nickolaus 

OUT AT the Metro-Coldwyn-Mayer studios in Culver City 
is one of the finest laboratories to be found in the mo- 
tion picture industry. Very little is ever heard of it — perhaps 
because of the character of the man in charge. That man is 
John M. Nickolaus, a man who stands out as one of the most 
brilliant men in the motion picture laboratory field. He is an 
unusual man in the picture business, for while others hammer 
at the gates of publicity he goes about his business quietly and 
efficiently, thinking only of how he can make his department 
a better one. At this writing, a new laboratory is being con- 
structed under his supervision, When it is completed it will 
be one of the finest in the industry, and will incorporate fea- 
tures that will be revolutionary. But, more of that angle later. 



18 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Nineteen 




Two charming studies by A. S. C. members. Cilbert 

Warrenton is responsible for the snow scene; John W 

Boyle for the marine. 




Ton cannot 



AFFORD 

to be without a 



CI NEM ATOGR APHIC 

ANNUAL 



CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 

1930 



A book valuable to everybody directly or indirectly interested in the 
Motion Picture Industry . . . Production, Photography, Exhibition, 
Sound Laboratory, Color Effects ... A wealth of facts and statistics 
such as can be found nowhere else . . . forcefully written by 
Master Technicians and recognized authorities . . . has a definite 
place in the Library of all Production and Distribution Executives, 
Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting Engineers, 
Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and Home Movie Makers. 



5 oo 



_ per copy 



Beautifully bound in Blue and Cold. 675 pages 
Postage prepaid anywhere in the World 



PUBU5MEB by 
THE AMERICAN SOClimf 

or 
ClN£. N UIOC-RAPli£ft5 



Compiled and Published by 

The American Society of 
Cinematographers 

Hollywood, California 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS. 

1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five 

Dollars ($5,001 for which please send me prepaid, one copy of your 

Cinematographic Annual. 



Name 



Addr ess 
City 



Stale 



20 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



TWICE AS FAST! 

-CASTMAN Super-Sensitive Pan- 
chromatic Negative, Type 2, has at 
least double the speed of ordinary 
negative, under artificial light. It 
has a finer grain, and very decided 
developing latitude. In addition it 
retains all the advantages of regu- 
lar Eastman Panchromatic Negative 
...and the price remains the same. 
Use this remarkable new film in 
your next picture. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, New York. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, 
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 

Eastman Super-Sensitive 

Panchromatic Negative, Type 2 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 

21 



Twenty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



April, 1931 



Bell Cr Howell to Erect New Hollywood 
Building 




THE BELL t HOWELL BUILDING IN HOLLYWOOD 

HII ■.-...-■ 



JH. McNABB, President of the Bell & Howell Company of 
.Chicago, before his departure for the East, after a prolonged 
stay in Hollywood, has announced the acquisition of a site, 
having a frontage of 240 feet on LaBrea Avenue, south of 
Melrose, upon which will be erected a Class A building to 
house the West Coast branch of the Company. 

The building itself and adjacent walled-in parking space for 
the convenience of Bell & Howell patrons, will extend over 
a frontage of 140 feet, the balance of the site to be reserved 
for future expansions. 

The building will be two stories high and be topped by an 
attractive tower, lending grace to the structure and classing 
it as a new Hollywood landmark. 

The phenomenal technical advances of the Motion Picture 
Industry has prompted Mr. McNabb to take the decision of 
establishing in Hollywood a fully equipped and competently 
manned Engineering Department, as a branch of the Chicago 
Research and Engineering Division of the Bell & Howell Com- 
pany. 

The Hollywood Engineering branch will offer its services to 
Cinematographers, Laboratory experts and Producers; gather 
and develop new ideas to still further the accomplishments of 
the industry with the double advantage of being "on the 
ground" where most technical developments originate and to 
have at its disposal the large resources of the Chicago long 
established research and engineering departments. 

A well appointed "shop" will take care of servicing all the 
Bell & Howell machinery in use in the Western territory, and 
will employ only the most skilled mechanics thoroughly versed 
with the various machines, cameras, printers, splicers, perfor- 
ates, etc. manufactured by the Company. 

In addition to professional Cinemachinery, the Bell & Howell 
Company producers high grade Amateur Motion Picture equip- 
ment and the Amateur Division in the Hollywood building will 
be entrusted with servicing it. 

Projection and editing rooms will be available to the public 
and constant displays of both professional and amateur equip- 
ment will acquaint those interested in the newest additions to 
the long list of Cinemachinery, which bears the Bell & Howell 
trademark. 

Of special interest to Cinematographers is the establishment 
of a fully equipped lens testing department and to laboratory 
experts the establishment of a fully equipped printing room. 

No expense will be spared to make this engineering and 
service laboratory one of the finest in the country, through the 
help of both personnel and equipment. 



Mr. McNabb was one of the pioneer Eastern manufacturers 
to establish a substantial permanent industry in Hollywood, and 
the present expansion is further proof of his confidence in the 
future of the Motion Picture Industry and a tribute to the 
members of the industry, to their courage and their accomplish- 
ments. 

At the same time that the Hollywood Bell & Howell build- 
ing is being erected, further enlargements are carried on at 
the Chicago Engineering Plant. A story is being added to the 
two already existing, which will soon increase the activities 
of the Bell & Howell Chicago Manufacturing Plant and its New 
York and London branches. 

Ground for the Hollywood Bell & Howell building is being 
broken at the time we are going to press and its occupancy is 
scheduled for the early part of July. 

Electrolytic Condenser Data 

ELECTROLYTIC condensers are very popular and are useful 
for certain purposes. They provide a large electrical ca- 
pacity with a minimum of space and cost. In addition, they 
automatically repair themselves in event of puncture due to 
excessive voltage. 

Here are the details of construction: There is a metal 
container, which is employed as the negative terminal of the 
condenser. In the center there is an aluminum plate, which 
is corrugated so as to enlarge greatly its surface area. The 
aluminum plate is the positive terminal. The electrolyte may 
be a liquid solution of borax or other special material, or may 
be a paste. In one instance the condenser is called "wet" and 
in the other "dry." 

In theory, the liquid is supposed to react chemically with 
the aluminum, forming an extremely thin coating of gas all 
over the aluminum plate. In this way, the aluminum becomes 
one terminal of the condenser, and the liquid in the cell the 
other real terminal. The separating medium or di-electric is 
only the extremely thin layer of the gas between the liquid 
and the aluminum. Because of the thinness of this gas layer, 
the electrical capacity is far greater than with condensers which 
are separated by paper sheets or other insulating substances. 
It is important that the aluminum be connected to the plus 
terminal of the circuit. 

The electrolytic condenser is principally serviceable for low 
voltages, but for higher voltages the great capacity available 
can be utilized by connecting several of these condensers in 
series. Condensers that serve for up to 500 volts DC are 
considered "low voltage." Electrolytic condensers can be used 
on DC only. 

Exciter Lamp Discoloration 

DISCOLORATION usually appears first at the top of the 
exciting lamp, which does not obstruct the intensity of 
the filament image. When checking a lamp for discoloration, 
remove the lamp holder from the exciting lamp housing and 
look at the lamp against a white background. This will give 
you positive proof of discoloration at the top and walls of 
the globe. Make sure the glass is perfectly clear and clean 
in front of the filament. 

Again, warning should be issued against lamps with saggy 
filaments. When the filament becomes slightly saggy, discard 
the lamp. Inspect sound lamps daily, and be assured against 
loss in volume and injury to sound film reproduction. 

Slow-Motion Pictures and Glider Pilots 

SLOW-MOTION pictures of trained eagles and falcons in 
flight are being used in Germany to instruct pilots in the 
handling of gliders. 

A training school for glider pilots at Rossitten used tamed 
falcons and eagles as models via the slow-motion film, and 
the student pilots study every phase of the birds' flight and 
movement of their wings 



Laboratory Lepartment 



Conducted by EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 



Desensitizers and Super Sensitive Films 

IT IS often desirable to inspect film during development even 
though the time and temperature method can be used to pro- 
duce negatives of a definite development contrast. With pan- 
chromatic emulsions the use of desensitizers has been made with 
some degree of success. However, desensitizers are not in 
general use in the motion picture field, but with the advent 
of the Super Sensitive type of panchromatic films questions 
relative to the more extensive use of desensitizing agents have 
often arisen. With very fast emulsions certain limitations are 
imposed upon the amount of illumination permissible in the 
dark rooms while handling the film. For Panchromatic Nega- 
tive the Wratten Series No. 3 safelight is very successful. 
With the Super Sensitive type of films, however, this same 
light can be used but the brightness emitted by it must be 
appreciably diminished. As a result of this it is only natural 
that the desensitizing question should arise. 

A photographic desensitizer is a substance which has the 
property of greatly diminishing the sensitivity of a photographic 
emulsion toward light action. This agent must not affect 
the latent image already present on the film and furthermore 
it must not interfer with its subsequent development. The 
most important reasons for using a desensitizer are: 1 — To 
permit the inspection of panchromatic film during develop- 
ment. 2 — To prevent aerial or oxidation fog. 

Desensitizing dyes can be used either in a preliminary bath 
or in the developer itself. This latter condition, however, 
depends greatly upon the chemical constitution of the de- 
veloper. Concentrations of desensitizing dyes as used in pre- 
liminary baths are of the order of 1 to 5000 or 1 to 10,000 
and the film is bathed in this preliminary bath for one or two 
minute periods just prior to development. This operation of 
course must be carried on either in the dark or with the proper 
safelight. When desensitizing dyes are used in the developer 
the concentration is usually of the order of 1 to 25,000, or 
less, and the film is left in the developer for about two minutes 
before exposing it to a brighter safelight having the same 
spectral distribution. Unfortunately, however, most desensitiz- 
ing dyes when incorporated in a single solution developer 
cause a precipitation of the dye, which results in trouble. 

With the rack and tank method of development desensitizers 
hold a relatively more important position but with the increas- 
ing use of developing machines for negatives visual inspection 
becomes less and less important, that is, visual inspection for 
quality and not for machine trouble. It would seem, there- 
fore, that there is relatively little application for the use of 
desensitizers in developing machines. 

In the consideration of desensitizers something must be 
known of their strength, their effect upon the latent image, 
their effect upon development, fogging action, solubility in a 
developer, and various other functions. Complete studies have 
been made of desensitizing dyes considering these facts. Such 
dyes as phenosafrinine, pinakryptol yellow, pinakryptol green, 
aurantia, and several others have been thoroughly studied. 
One of the most promising of those studied is pinakryptol 
green. 

In studying desensitizers, as mentioned earlier in this article, 
it is necessary to give consideration to the developing solution, 
especially when it is planned to incorporate the desensitizing 
dye in the developer. It is safe to say that approximately 



ninety five percent of the negatives developed for motion pic- 
ture production are developed in the borax type of developer. 
The use of a desensitizer in this type of a developer causes a 
precipitation and therefore should be ruled out. However, if^/ 
the use of desensitizers is seriously considered they should be 
used in a preliminary bath before the film reaches the de- 
veloper. In this case a preliminary bathing of one minute in 
a solution which contains 1 part in 10,000 of the dye chosen 
would decrease the sensitivity of the Super Sensitive type films 
sufficiently to permit the use of a Series 4 safelight at a dis- 
tance of approximately a foot during development. 

This article was intended primarily to give a brief discussion 
of desensitizers and their effects on Super Sensitive types of 
emulsions. That has been done, but in closing it should be 
stressed that it is much simpler and in the end much more 
satisfactory and less productive of trouble if work is done in 
total darkness or in a Series 3 safelight in which the amount 
of light has been cut appreciably. It has been found that 
most commercial motion picture laboratories prior to the advent 
of Super Sensitive emulsions were using safelights at a very 
low level of illumination. Many laboratories handled the Super 
Sensitive emulsions under these same conditions without fog- 
ging. It would seem, therefore, that the use of desensitizers 
would only complicate and not assist in the operations in the 
laboratory. As a final statement it is recommended that 
desensitizers not be used except as a last resort. 



Patent- Abstracts 

U. S. 1,780,585. A. Fried. Assigned to William Fox 
Vaudeville Company. A tripod head having means whereby a 
camera may be rotated both about a vertical and horizontal 
axis, including means for steadying such a movement. 

U. S. 1,777,828. L. DeForest. Assigned to General Talk- 
ing Pictures Corp. A method of making continuous photo- 
graphic sound and picture records of the same scene, which 
comprises employing a plurality of cameras at different focal 
distances from the scene, driving the cameras in synchronism, 
continuously photographically recording the sounds originating 
in the scene, photographically recording the scene by the 
cameras, and printing on a single positive film, the desired 
portions of the films of the different cameras including the 
sound record to obtain a continuous sound and picture record. 

U. S. 1,777,037. L. DeForest. Assigned to DeForest 
Phonofilm Corp. A binaural reproduction of sound comprising 
a film having different colored sound records thereon super- 
imposed one on the other and longitudinally spaced apart one 
with respect to the other, placed between sources of light and 
light-actuated cells sensitive to different wave lengths, and 
means separately actuated by the currents generated in each 
of said cells for producing sound. 

U. S. 1,779,653. C. N. Ball. Assigned to Warner Bros. 
Pictures, Inc. A motion picture camera having a sound insulat- 
ing housing and provided with sound insulating shields for the 
camera and associated parts, said shields being of such a char- 
acter as to provide easy access to the camera reels and other 
parts. 

23 



Eastman Announces Super-Sensitive Panchromatic Cut Fi 



m 



ONE of the most important announcements in years to 
portrait, commercial and still photographers, is the 
announcement by the Eastman Kodak Company of a 
new Super-Sensitive Panchromatic cut film. Many photo- 
graphic difficulties of the past should be swept away by this 
improvement of light-sensitive emulsions. 

"With incandescent lamps," states the announcement, "the 
new super-sensitive panchromatic film is from two to three 
times as fast as Portrait Panchromatic, a 'speed' sensation when 
announced two years ago. The sensitivity of the super- 
sensitive panchromatic film, usually termed speed, is greatest 
when incandescent lights are used, because this form of il- 
lumination contains a higher percentage of red than daylight 
or the light from arc lamps. 

"To give one the best idea of what the extreme color- 
sensitivity of this new super-sensitive film means to the man 
who works with artificial light, we should compare it with 
Par-Speed portrait film because this is a standard material 
used by both portrait and commercial photographers. 

"With clear incandescent lamps the Super-Sensitive Pan- 
chromatic is from five to six times as fast as Par-Speed. This 
means that if you have been accustomed to making exposures 
of from two to three seconds with Par-Speed film, your ex- 
posures with the Super-Sensitive Panchromatic would be about 
one-half second. If you have used enough light to photograph 
children in one-fifth of a second with Par-Speed, your ex- 
posure with Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film would be one- 
twenty-fifth of a second — too fast for a bulb exposure. 

"Such speed opens up unlimited possibilities in both com- 
mercial and portrait photography. The commercial photog- 
rapher will look upon this increase in speed, not as much as a 
means of making fast exposures, but rather for the advantage 
of making exposures with less light. When the photographer 
goes on an outside job he can feel safe with half his usual 
amount of lighting equipment, and will secure twice as much 
benefit from the illumination he finds on location. And for 
studio set-ups, which often require long exposures, exposure 
time will be cut more than half, which is a great advantage 
in studio work. 

"The same applies to home portraiture. Lighting equipment 
has made the work of the home photographer rather difficult. 
If he now has ample light, he can either be relieved of much 
of his burden, or shorten his exposures and be more certain of 
negatives which do not show movement. This latter procedure 
is the logical one for photographing children. 

"Industrial photographers are often faced with the problem 
of obtaining sufficient artificial lighting for subjects such as 
'long shots' of factory interiors or close-ups of machines with 
operators. Flashlights are banned in many plants, although 
the new photo-flash lamps have entirely eliminated smoke and 
the fire hazard. Since the Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film 
is especially efficient under artificial light, industrial photog- 
raphy is obviously simplified. 

"First — photographers will no longer be required to clutter 
working areas with large numbers of heavy lamps, and thereby 
avoid hampering general factory operations. 

"Second — the amount of electric 'load' is cut down. Third 
— where the usual amount of artificial light is available, much 
shorter exposures are possible. This is valuable in arresting 
the motion of people or moving objects. If shorter exposures 
are not required, smaller lens stops can be employed to in- 
crease sharpness and 'depth of field.' 

"The value of the Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film is 
equally well applied to industrial photo-micrographic work, 
such as studies of metal structure. The qualities of the new 
film will answer the requirements for combining speed, color 
sensitivity, and fine grain. 

24 



"The advantage of reducing exposures to a minimum when 
working under artificial light is highly valuable in doing live 
model work. No longer are models required to endure long, 
strained poses that often result in stiff and ungraceful postures, 
and incidentally a series of 'retakes.' In the past it has not 
been uncommon for model 'shots' to require five, ten seconds 
— even more — quite a long time for any but highly trained 
models to remain motionless. Short exposures usually result in 
more pleasing poses. 

"The new panchromatic emulsion is, in addition to all 
standard sizes for still photography, available in 35mm. mo- 
tion picture film. Industrial photographers who do motion 
picture work will find that when using the super-sensitive 
panchromatic film under incandescent lamps, the usual amount 
of light can be reduced from one-third to one-half. This 
factor is very important in modern time study of factory 
operations with the motion picture camera. 

"The sensitive emulsion of this new film is very closely 
related to one prepared for astronomical photography, as well 
as to the new Wratten Hypersensitive Panchromatic plates 
for the high-speed requirements of newspaper photography 
under artificial light. Astronomers, it has been learned, used 
the new emulsion recently in making observations seeking to 
discover whether there is moisture in the atmosphere of Mars. 
The necessary time for exposing the plates in the spectroscope 
was reduced from ten hours to four in the observations in 
question. 

"Eastman's new Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film presents 
the very great advantage of speed without the sacrifice of 
those qualities so essential to fine portraiture or commercial 
photography. It has fine grain, excellent exposure latitude, and 
builds up in the developer without blocking. 

"There is one very important precaution in the use of this 
new film which is necessary to good results. A film so sensi- 
tive to light of all colors can not be exposed to light of any 
color in a dark room without noticeable 'fogging.' The film 
must be opened, loaded, and developed, in total darkness. 
After about five minutes of immersion in the developing solu- 
tion, a certain amount of desensitizing takes place permitting 
the use of a Series III Safelight for the remaining period of 
processing. It is recommended that the time and temperature 
method of development be used when working with th'S 
high-speed emulsion. Once the time and temperature system 
is established as standard practice, it will be found to be the 
most satisfactory method of development." 

Milestone Develops Unique System 

TO LEWIS MILESTONE, director of "All Quiet on the West- 
ern Front" and "The Front Page," goes credit for a very 
novel and valuable innovation in picture making. 

A scene sketch chart is now used by Milestone as a "first- 
aid" in the production of his pictures. In other words, a com- 
plete scenic record of the entire play is sketched from the 
proper camera angles before the picture is filmed. Each set 
of characters in the action of each sequence is pictured by the 
artist as if it were from the eye of the camera. Beneath each 
sketch on each page of the chart is the dialogue and cues per- 
taining to the action. Thus this scene sketch chart proves an 
invaluable guide not only for director Milestone, but for his 
entire technical staff as well. The cameramen, film editors, 
assistant and technical directors have a daily reference index 
for their assistance in working out the details of each "shot" 
in the picture. 

For example; after each day's work is done the assistant 
director calls the cameraman and staff together, to refer to 
the sketch chart for the next day's work. Thus when director 
Milestone arrives on the set each day he finds everything 
ready to go. 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCR AP H ER 



Twenty-five 



Another Device From Jackson Rose, A. S. C. 






(gDNEMA 




STUDIO! 



PICTURE DAY 



"Trr*" 



DATE 



THIS 

SIZE IS BEST 
FOCUSED AT 
20 FT. FROM 



FOCUS 

THIS SPACES 
25 FT. FROM* 
CAMERA 



DIRECTOR CAMERAMAN 



mm% mMm 




SsS5S3iSSSSSS5SSSSaSSSSSiS!filfiSfiSfiSfiS!fiSfiifi!fi!fi 

WE OFTEN wonder when Jackson Rose sleeps. Jack is one of Hollywood's best known cameramen. But he is equally 
(A/ell known for his creation of new gadgets and devices to aid in the cinematographic field. Some time ago he brought 
out a focus chart that created much interest. Now he has improved upon that chart and has produced a gadget that should 
prove a very valuable adjunct to any cameraman's equipment. It is a combination focus chart and scene slate. On one side 
is the chart, on the other the slate. The entire gadget is of a heavy quality fabrakoid. The entire chart and slate folds up and 
when ready for packing or putting in the pocket is 12 inches x 4 3 4 inches in size. On the outside of the gadget is a place 
for the camera report for the laboratory. This device should b2 very valuable on location trips. 




COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 



SEVEN REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD USE THE 

Audic-Camex XtAem * » 



^AMEPA Exchange 

^^y CABLE: HOCAMEX-15II CAHUENGABLVD -PHONE HO Q43I 



by HAL HALL 



WHEN APRIL COMES — to most people it means that 
Spring is here. But, to the Amateur movie maker, it 
means that another delightful season for picture making 
is at hand. Already the home movie maker is dreaming of 
the coming vacation and the things he or she will do with 
the movie camera. 

Fine — but why not pause for a moment and check up 
on what you did wrong last Spring and Summer. Not only 
check up, but sit dcwn and make out a list of the faults 
of the past. And when this list is made out, just paste it in 
your camera case, or anywhere else you choose, and profit 
by the mistakes of the past. None of us are without faults. 
We all have made mistakes; probably will do so again, but 
we should not repeat the same errors — that is, if we do a 
little checking on ourselves. And Springtime is the best sea- 
son to make this check, for most of us (except those of 
us who are fortunate enough to live in Southern California) 
will do most of our picture making in the Spring and Summer. 

First — why not check the camera and camera equipment. 
If you do not trust your own judgment and mechanical ability, 
take your camera to the camera hospital and have it inspected, 
thoroughly. If any repairs are needed, have them made, by 
all means. Have the projector looked over, for after a winter 
of rather constant use, it may need inspecting. The least one 
can do is keep his equipment spotlessly clean and well oiled. 
As a rule you can judge the seriousness, and the ability, of an 
amateur by the condition of his camera. And, surely, a camera 
deserves attention. The equipment of a professional cinema- 
tographer is immaculateness itself. If he did not give his 
camera care, his work would suffer. True, the amateur's liveli- 
hood does not depend upon his camera, but his personal 
satisfaction and artistic reputation do depend upon the way 
he keeps it. 

In most amateur outfits the matter of maintenance is 
simplified because of the fact that the more delicate parts 
are tucked away out of sight and danger. But the inside of 
the camera box should be kept spotless and free from shreds 
of celluloid and other particles that do gather. Those parts 
that require oil should be oiled regularly — but be cautious, 

Lenses 

And then the lenses. Many lenses are horribly abused. 
I have seen some amateurs take a fairly soiled handkerchief 
out of the trousers pocket and rub vigorously over an ex- 
pensive lens surface. Cod help the lenses of such amateurs! 
Be careful how you clean that lens. Do not use your hand- 
kerchief, or the sleeve of your jacket. Use only the very 
softest cloth, or, still better, a special lens tissue for the 
purpose. Silk should not be used, and this writer would 
never use the so-called lens fluids or liquids that are supposed 
to clean. When not in use your lenses should be kept covered 
and shielded from the direct rays of the sun which seriously 
injure the polish. It is best to keep your lenses wrapped in a 
piece of soft cloth when not in use. If possible, have a special 
lens box or case. A good rule is to have a special box to hold 
both your lenses and your filters. In this way, you will always 
find them ready for use and in excellent condition. 

Speaking of filters, be even more careful with them than 
you are with your lenses. Keep them absolutely shielded from 

26 



the sun's rays, and remember that, at best, filters have only 
a definite lifetime. The filters used by amateurs are fairly I 
staple, but they deteriorate to considerable extent, and should 
be replaced. Right now is a good time to look yours over, 
and make the necessary replacements before you start your 
Spring and Summer cinematographic activity. Remember, that 
a replaced filter today may serve you a lot of grief when 
you are back in the wilds on that fishing trip before long 
— back where you can't even find a human habitation, much 
less new cinema equipment. If you use them much, it would 
be a wise plan to replace them at least a couple of times a 
year. So, if you have not done so since last Summer, look 
them over now and be sure of your filter equipment. 

While some of the professional cinematographers maintain 
an assortment of several dozen filters, the amateur, of course, 
need use but two or three. The most useful pair probably 
are the K-2 and the Aero No. 1. With them most conditions 
ordinarily encountered can well be taken care of. For most 
scenes the Aero No. 1 , very practical for general use, can be 
used; but when shooting through any considerable haze, or 
on subjects where more marked correction is needed, the K-2 
is very useful. 

The Tripod 

And, how about that tripod? Is it in first class shape, or 
does it need some repairs. You know, that a wabbly tripod 
may spoil the finest shot of the coming season. Perhaps 
you do not use a tripod. If you do not, let me advise you 
here and now to get one. The novice may think that the 
tripod is merely a useless bother; but to the advanced amateur 
it means security — it is a necessity, not an accessory. No 
matter how good your camera, you cannot expect to get a 
steady picture with an unsteady support. Common sense tells 
you that. No human hand can hope to rival in steadiness 
an inexpensive tripod. Long, long ago the still cameraman 
learned that the tripod is steadier than the hand. Most of 
them would as soon leave filter or film behind as to leave 
the tripod. It is obvious that the movie maker should use a 
tripod, also, if he wishes to get the best results. There are 
many tripods available to suit the individual purse — get one 
if you have not already done so, and see the improvement in 
your cine work. 

Reflectors 

Another mighty useful device for advanced amateurs is the 
reflector. Reflectors are as vital to excellent outdoor cinema- 
tography as a rudder is to a ship. They are the means by 
which the cinematographer controls the sunlight which paints 
the picture as he wishes. The professional cinematographer 
would not go on location without reflectors — they are in- 
valuable. Likewise, they can be of untold value to the amateur 
who is ambitious and wishes to secure the very finest of 
results. 

The amateur who is fairly handy with tools can make his 
own reflectors at a very little cost or effort. They are merely 
large sheets of compo-board covered with aluminum leaf. A 
perfectly smooth surface makes the hard reflector, or the type 
that reflects the maximum of light. The soft or diffuse 
reflector is about the same, only with a matte surface. Either 
of these will do well with any film, but studios sometimes 
(Continued on Page 3 5 > 




What you see, you get 
— with Filmo 



G 



#ARTER HARRISON, Jr., oivns this veteran Filmo. He has put it to every conceivable test since it 
was acquired in 1925. In Turkey, along the Mediterranean, and throughout Western Europe, it has served its owner. His 
father, Carter Harrison, Sr., former Mayor of Chicago, has used it in his travels in China, Africa, and India. This 
Filmo has an unblemished record of dependable performance . . . a record it will successfully defend for years to come. 



A PATRON at the camera counter of a large store was once heard to 
remark as he held a Filmo camera in his hands, "This is solid, life- 
time stuff!" A layman can see the value in a Filmo before he ever owns 
one. For its sturdy construction and the precision of its parts at once 
suggest the years of trouble-free service which lie within. 

Have you ever held a Filmo in your hands, examined it closely? To 
the trained eye of the amateur, there is a distinct lure in its finely made 
mechanism, its extremely simple operation. It is a camera that invites 
you to test it under every conceivable photographic condition ... a 
camera that has your confidence, even before you test it. It is a product 
of Bell & Howell, makers for more than 24 years of the professional 
cameras used by the world's major film producers. 

Filmo Cameras may be had for as low as $92. We shall be pleased 
to send full information and description on request. Ask for Booklet 
No. 35. Or call at your nearest Filmo dealer's. 

Bell & Howell Co., 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago 
New York, Hollywood, London (B. & H. Co., Ltd.) * Established 1907 



BELL & 
HOWELL 



FILMO 



PERSONAL MOVIE CAMERAS AND PROJECTORS 



New Accuracy in 

'Still" Photography 

Exposures 



Now, "still" camera 
exposure reaches all 
the scientific accu- 
racy of lenses and 
shutters. The new 
Bell & Howell 
Model B Photom- 
eter, in ten sec- 
onds, gives you the 
lens stop for any 
shutter speed with a 
precision which as- 
sures perfect photo- 
graphicresults.Yousightdirectlyon 
the object through the Photometer 
lens, fitting your exposure to high 
lights, shadows, or average light 
intensity. Filter factor and emul- 
sion speed modifications are also 
made by the scales. Write for de- 
tails. Photometer, Model B, for 
"still" cameras, $17.50 (with case, 
$20); Model A, for Filmo Per- 
sonal Movie Cameras, same prices. 




Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



27 



Twenty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



April, 1931 




Upper left, a typical Normandy cottage. Upper right, Normandy orchard. Left center, Abbaye aux Hommes. Center, Paul Cassion. 
Right center, Abbaye aux Dames. Lower left, Gypsies make a stop. Right lower, Church of St. Pierre. 



Babbling About Brittany 



by LAWRENCE GRANT 



Mr. Grant, one of Hollywood's best known actors, is also one of its 
best known amateur cinematographers and photographers. He never 
goes afield without his "still" and 16 mm. movie cameras. This is the 
first of a series of articles he has prepared for this magazine, dealing 
with out-of-the-way places he has visited and photographed. 

— The Editor. 

I REMEMBER once being shown over a stately cathedral by 
a serious minded guide, and we, being young, were making 
flippant remarks about some ribald carving when our guide 
reproved us saying: "Let us leave the follies and frivolities of 
the world, and note the beauties of the architecture." 

So would I say to those about to visit Brittany: "Let us 
leave behind the sophistication of our usual lives, let us go 
with the spirit to enjoy and not to cavel, for our pleasure in 
travel is governed by our own receptivity, we get what we 
give, and I would rather travel with a Ford and smile than 
a Rolls Royce and a grouch, for with just a little money and 
much courtesy, together with a desire to be pleased, you will 
be given in return all the politeness, all the help, all the 
hospitality you can desire." 

Don't do as many travellers, of all nations, do and give 
the impression that you are a person of a different and supe- 
rior planet looking down upon the antics of the natives as 
something to be tolerated; don't regard every custom as 
"barbaric" because it is not so done "way back home." 

Don't be like the Englishman, who, when asked if he 
liked Hollywood, said: "Yes, but it is so far away." And the 
enquirer asked: "Far away, — from where?" and instantly the 
reply came: "From England, of course; where else could I 
mean." 

If you will forget to expect hot water in your faucets (if 
any) or ice water in your glass, forget central heat, elevators 
and hurry, I can promise you such kindly people, such foods, 
at such attractive prices, as you have never had elsewhere 
in the world, peasants who will delight you, fisherfolk who 
will charm you, and plumbing (again, if any) that will astound 
and shock you, plumbing that could not be called plumbing, 
because plumbing means water, and water, many times there 
is not, only a sort of broom-like plunger, — but why go into 
that? — for at times it is simple, Oh! very simple, — simpler 
even than the peasant folk, and all this you will find in that 
far Northwestern corner of France — Armorica — for that is 
the old, old name for it, not America — though the first 
American troops, and many after them, did land there — but 
Armorica — now called La Bretagne. 

Only I must stop off on the way at a Norman city, just on 
the borders of Brittany, called "Caen," famous for William 
the Conqueror, Charlotte Corday, Metal work, lace, Cathed- 
rals, "tripe a la Caen," — and "Calvados." Of all these, give 
me Calvados. Very old, very "forte," very heady, very com- 
forting Normandy after dinner cordial, that delicious brandy 
made from Normandy apples, which is so potent that it was 
absolutely forbidden to soldiers in the city in war time, so 
naturally when one of them dined with me at the local hotel 
he had to have his in a demi tasse, just like being at home. 

I met this soldier, Paul Cassion, while I was exploring the 
Cathedral of St. Pierre, and he very kindly drew my attention 
to some small carvings in the arch which would have other- 
wise escaped me, and which would never be approved by 
Comstock, but had been slipped into other ornate work by 
some facetious architect or sculptor. And by the by, to those 
in search of the curious I recommend that they closely ex- 
amine the clapper of the great bell on the turret top of that 
lovely mansion in the city called "Hotel de Than." It consists 



of portions of the human anatomy never meant for striking 
belles. 

Don't miss it. Those who have seen it will understand my 
mis-spelling the word belles! 

This same soldier had been a naturalized American earning 
$150 a week as interior decorator in San Francisco, but had 
left immediately in August, 1914, to accept a penny a day and 
his uniform from France. 

Caen has been called the "City of Spires" and when one 
asks "why so many churches?" I reply, in French, "Cherchez 
la femme," for the best were built on account of a woman. 
Let me see; I can remember St. Pierre, St. Etienne le Vieux, 
Notre dame de Cloriette, the Abbaye aux hommes, and the 
Abbaye aux Dames; the last two built by William the Con- 
queror, and Mathilda his wife, in penance for marrying within 
forbidden degree of relationship. 

Then another, I forgot which, was built by William as a 
personal penance. Having suspected Matilda of some wifely 
digression he caused her to be tied to a horse's tail and 
whipped through the streets of Caen (for he was a great 
Conqueror, first he conquered Mathilda, then he conquered 
the English). Later when he found he had been a little 
hasty, he built another church, which, while very good for 
art, was not so much good for Mathilda. 

During this processional whipping she only complained at 
one spot, where she said "I am cold" — for in order to make 
the whipping effective she had been clad only in a chemise, 
or rather in those old times, "a shift," so that she could be 
hurt physically as well as morally. This is also commemorated 
by the street where it occurred, being called to this day the 
"Rue Froide." Better be Lady Codiva and ride naked and be 
peeped at than at the tail of a horse and be whipped. But 
either way the lords gave their ladies short shrift in those days. 

You begin with the primitive even here, for I saw a street 
water-sprinkled in a very ingenious, even if somewhat in- 
effective, way. No sprinkling cart seemed available, so the 
city worker let water flow from a street faucet and run down 
the gutter. Then he, with a very wide spade, caught the 
water and threw it off the spade over the street. This is 
quaint, but let us pause to realize that today France is short 
of labor. No unemployment mostly because they have not 
allowed vast machinery to supplant man power and man-made 
things. 

It makes one think. 

Their sense of humor is quaint, too. I dined in a small 
hotel restaurant, and round the room were eight enormous 
distorted mirrors. They made you long and thin, or short and 
fat, and crooked and twisted, and a monstrosity in every way, 
but each one different. And then, as you left, one good 
glass but of a color that made you pale green! 

There were rows of little pigeon holes in the dining room, 
like letter boxes at a hotel desk, and I wondered what for. 
I found they were to keep the rolled-up napkins of any guest 
who stayed for more than one meal! 

And I thought of the man who, in a small Canadian hotel, 
asked for sheets on his bed, finding he had only blankets, and 
was told: "If you want sheets, you'll have to wait till the 
10:40 train goes out, because we are using the only pair we 
have for table cloths just now!" 

Now we will get on to Brittany. 

Just inside the line from Normandy is Brittany's, even 
France's, greatest Gothic Treasure — one of the world's archi- 
tectural marvels — Mont St. Michel. Very few people know 

29 



Thirty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



April, 1931 



that due north of the spot off the coast of Cornwall, Eng- 
land, is another St. Michael's Mount, on a spot just like this 
in France, about the same distance off shore, and with a 
cathedral building so similar that a picture of one looked at 
without close examination may easily pass as a photograph 
of the other. 

A little placed called Pontorson is the getting off place. 
That is, where the nearest railyway is, and then by tram, 
bus or car. The last time I was there no tram was running 
and I, with one other voyager, an architect and lover of Mont 
St. Michel, M. le Brun from Paris, were the only ones off 
the train. 

The guide book says that at the station at Pontorson: — 
"L'ete, des voitures publiques (prix variable) font, parallele- 
ment avec le tram, le service du Mont." In this, if nowhere 
else, the guide book said a mouthful. For outside was an old 
car, and an older "wagonette" with a still older white horse. 
Both besought me. How much? Six francs. Too much. M. le 
Brun arrived on the scene by this time. How much for two 
and baggage? Both shouted "ten francs." The white horse 
parried with "nine francs." The car came back with "eight, 
fifty." From then it was a battle of bidding in Dutch auction 
style, until rock bottom arrived at "five francs" for the two. 
One franc less than the first bid for me alone, but they both 
stood firmly on this sum, so it became a matter of choice. 
Would the car start "toute suite"? "Mais certainement, 
Monsieur, immediatement." So we chose the car, and we start- 
ed, chauffeur, le Brun, baggage and me, including cameras. 
Oh, yes, and a Gend'arme. We made about two hundred 
yards, and then bang! A tire blown out. Evidently not un- 
expected, for he drove into a nearby farmyard, got a new 
tires out of some cacne he had there and began to adjust it. 

During this replacing he cursed long and loudly, by "bell, 
book and candle" every saint in the calendar — and St. Michel 
in particular. 

Le Brun, the Gendarme, and I went off to a buvette during 
this and drank cider, and when we returned we found that 
he was much chagrined to find that it was impossible to pack 
a large, broken and very muddy bicycle with us as excess 
baggage. 

However, we stopped once more at the Mairie, and though 
we had failed with the bicycle, we here succeeded in taking 
on two cans of petrol, two circular loaves of bread — with a 
diameter of 3 feet each by actual measurement — and one 
French officer. 

The officer had to drive, the chauffeur sat astride the 
bonnet, and off we set on our five or six mile journey to 
the gateway. 

Why is there so much romance in the word "mountain"? 
Mount Ararat — Mont Martre — Mont St. Michel — Monte Carlo 
— and none of these places will disappoint you — and after 
Monte Carlo — then, perhaps, the Mont de Piete, by which 
romantic name the pawn shops of France are, for some 
inexplicable reason, always called. 

Along the causeway to the entrance, le Brun all the time 
grouching because they had made the causeway permanent, 
and therefore the Mont a promontory, instead of an isle 
reached only over the sands at high tide. Much controversy 
had raged about this between artists and materialists, and 
all over the place there were still "affiches" remaining on 
the walls at many spots, put there by a French Artists Associ- 
ation: "II faut que Mont St. Michel reste une ile!" No use, 
the materialists built the Causeway. 

Mont St. Michel, famous for the great Gothic building; 
for the marvelous portion of it, called La "Merveille" — for the 
swiftest tide, going in and coming back with the speed of a 
galloping horse, and very dangerous for strangers who may 
be caught and drowned; for dangerous quicksands, also; for 
the salt marshes on which graze the sheep, later to become 



that delicious "pres salees" on the menu of your high-class 
restaurant in Paris; and for the giant omelettes of Mere 
Poulard, alas, no more of this world, though just inside the 
gates where the old Restaurant Poulard stood are several places, 
all claiming to be "the old original Poulard." 

On this visit of mine, though it was summer and season's 
height, when accommodation should be at a premium, not 
a soul there, not a single soul, but just le Brun and me. 

The trains arrived punctually at Pontorson. The women left 
in charge of the hotels knew how soon to expect the cars 
coming along the causeway, and there they would come out 
along the battlements, with elbows on the walls and field 
glasses pressed to their eyes they would scan the distant road 
for these cars. It was pathetic to see them, they looked 
like so many disconsolate "Sister Annes" waiting for someone 
who never came. 

The main hotels are all in a row on the top of the battle- 
ment wall, and facing the mainland. When we arrived the 
excitement was prodigious, and the reception royal. The hotel 
proprietor, at whose house we decided to stay, was regarded 
as a person who had drawn a prize in a lottery, and to the 
credit of these wonderful people, the women of France, we 
were cooked for and served as marvelously and as perfectly 
as if we had been visitors during the most crowded and 
cheerful season. 

No young men, only old men, and women carrying on — 
"pendant la Guerre." 

As for the Cathedral with all its ramifications it is beyond 
description. How any people, without modern mechanical 
contrivances, transported across the dangerous sands from the 
mainland such enormous blocks of stone, and having got 
them across how they managed to get them into their respec- 
tive places in the "pyramid of glorious antiquity" and how 
they carved this great mass into the infinite detail of exquisite 
art, is a mystery. 

It is beauty beyond comparison. To stand at one end of 
the refectoire and observe the perfect invisible and indirect 
lighting, the whole immense room being evenly and brightly 
lighted, puzzles one until you discover that deep set between 
each of the pillars that run down the sides is a long gothic 
window. The picture on the other side shows this lighting 
very clearly. The cloisters are of the most delicate beauty, 
while outside, the walls and staircases are massive beyond 
words. It is truly "La Merveille." 

When I left, and of course I had to leave, and the chauffeur 
knew that, he charged me ten francs for going back alone — 
so he evened up matters with me there. 

In getting him, I encountered one of those strange view- 
points you so often find in France. There was no telephone, 
so when I wanted him I was to telegraph — not to his house, 
as he was away all day, but to the station where he would 
be in and out all the time — so I sent the telegram there. 

"But." said the operator, "you are charged fifty cents extra 
for delivery as it is outside the free city delivery." 

I said "That cannot be. The railway station where I am 
sending it to this man is in the center of Pontorson." 

"That may me," said she, "but though it is sent there, and 
will be delivered there, the man resides outside the limits 
and therefore it must be without doubt that you pay fifty 
cents additional." 

"C'est la France." 



rj 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M A TOG R A P H E R 



Thirty-one 








Upper left, Mont St. Michel from mainland. Upper right, Mont St. Michel from the sea. Center left, Soldiers going on duty. 
Center, Heavy architecture of St. Michel stairway. Center right, Children going to church. Lower left, Salle des Hotes. Right lower. 
Refectory. 



Thirty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



April, 1931 



Cogs in the Wheel 



by EARL MILLER 

Chief Electrician Paramount-Publix Corporation 

WITH the introduction of sound pictures, the cooperation 
given the sound department by other production units 
of the motion picture industry is in a great measure responsible 
for the progression that the "talkies" have made. 

In an endeavor to bring sound production to a higher point 
of achievement, new features constantly are being introduced, 
many of which already have been adopted — but only after they 
have passed through experimental stages and have been sub- 
jected to tests that have proven costly to the industry. 

Endeavoring to minimize production costs while contrib- 
uting efficiency to the production of sound pictures, depart- 
mental executives have given materials and equipment exacting 
tests, which have resulted in the junking of much equipment 



The electrical department in any studio today is called up- 
on, on a minute's notice, to produce any number of lighting 
effects that come with modern treatment and modern picture 
production — and it is up to that department to meet those 
requirements with equipment that can fill the bill. For that 
reason the industry is more or less dependent upon those 
concerns whose endeavor it is to cope with the problems 
offered in picture production today. The fact that they keep 
abreast with the trend takes a great deal of worry, time and 
expense off our hands — as they maintain their own experi- 
mental department, and before their product is offered to the 
industry we are assured of its ability to meet our requirements. 

In the adoption of Laco products, Paramount-Publix Corpora- 
tion is confident that Laco Lite equipment has passed transi- 
tory and experimental stages — thereby minimizing cost to the 
studio — the conscientious desire of every studio technician. 




New Boston Studio 

ANEW organization has been formed in Boston, Mass., 
to produce commercial and educational pictures. A studio 
has been opened at 45 Broadway, and plans are under way 
for a laboratory. F. W. Adams is president. 



Paper Film 

ANEW type of film stock, made from paper, has been 
demonstrated recently in Paris. The film is very thin 
and transparent, and is quite free from fire hazard. Ozaphone, 
who produces it, claims that it can run 6000 times, and is 
so thin that 8,000 feet of it can be put in one spool box and 
be marketed at 50 centimes per meter. 



Earl Miller 

that was satisfactory prior to the advent of the microphone. 
These antiquated products have, of course, been replaced by 
modern equipment. 

And now, with the introduction of supersensitive film, the 
industry is confronted with similar problems to those solved 
when sound pictures first were undergoing the transitory stages 
of development. In no other branch of motion picture produc- 
tion is the importance of cooperation more essential than in 
the electrical department. 

The lighting requirements of supersensitive film demand the 
resourcefulness of our most adept studio technicians. The suc- 
cess of supersensitive film is, of course, dependent upon proper 
lighting and its advantages over the old film have been intensi- 
fied through the cooperation of the cameraman with the elec- 
trician. It requires less "juice" than the old film — which 
means a substantial saving to the studio in production cost — 
an important reason why every attempt will be made to bring 
out its virtues. 

Two streets, one of them more than 500 feet long, recently 
were completed for production on the Paramount-Publix lot. 
In order to properly illuminate these streets which represent 
two of New York's well known thorofares, several hundred 
lamps will be employed, the majority of which will be Laco 
Lites, which type we have found meets the most exacting 
requirements of sound pictures as well as supersensitive film. 

We adopted Lacos as standard equipment only after we had 
subjected them to severe tests, which resulted in our recent 
order for one hundred and twenty 18 inch and fifty 24 inch 
Laco Lites, augmenting our supply of Laco products to more 
than 520 units. 



Harry Perry Abroad 



HARRY PERRY, A. S. C, has left for an extended trip 
through the Mediterranean. He is photographing a series 
of scenic pictures in Multicolor for Brown and Nagle — Educa- 
tional release. He will be gone about six weeks. Perry had 
to fly from Los Angeles to New York to catch the boat. 
Improved his time enroute by photographing Grand Canyon 
from the air. 



New Apparatus Exhibit 

ONE of the features of the Spring Meeting of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers, which will be held in Holly- 
wood next month, will be an exhibit of new motion picture 
equipment developed during the past year. The equipment 
will not be in the nature of a trade exhibit. Rules regulating 
the exhibits state that no pamphlets or advertising literature 
will be permitted. Each exhibitor will be permitted to dis- 
play one small card giving the name of the manufacturing 
concern, and each equipment shall be labeled with a plain label 
free from the name of the manufacturer. 



Excuse Us! 

MUCH as Ye Editor hates to admit it, he committed 
a large-sized error in last month's issue. He an- 
nounced that the stork had brought a DAUCHTER to 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward O. Blackburn. The genial Mr. 
Blackburn says the announcement was perfect except 
for the fact that it was a SON that the stork brought. 






April, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-three 



Dupont Negative 

(Continued from Page 17) 

ness. Light that does not reach film does not fog it. Under 
some operating conditions both on commercial and experimental 
scale total darkness is a considerable handicap. Practical 
experience has shown that, where extreme caution is used, a 
dim green safelight can be used, which will permit some vision 
and still not fog the film in exposures of a few minutes dura- 



German Returns to New York 







• * .* ■*•*'' °"> 


. , *«%>..& ; ' .. 


. • . - r. V*r ? ■ 




»: '•• «i»"rf ' -»f - ^ 


«.*•■ .-.■;% *V-v 


*.■..!.* ■• •<? ■ .-a 


• . . "- V* . v .•••»•. 


n »y i . : v*- r .g« -;•« 








/■ 


£> 



Fig. 3. Photo-micrographs of grains from DuPont panchromatic 
negatives. 

A. Special 

B. Regular 



tion. No such light can be here successfully specified that 
will meet all working conditions. It is suggested, however, 
that where such light seems essential, dim green safelights 
be used and tested in place. Such a test can readily be made 
by exposing short lengths of the type of film to be handled 
in some simple holder such as a fold of black paper or card- 
board which will expose part of the film to the light under 
test and protect part from that light. This may well be in 
the form of a slide such that the protecting cover may be 
moved back at specified time intervals, allowing a series of 
exposures on one piece of film. The threshold of fogging 
action can readily be determined in this manner with a mini- 
mum of time, film and effort. Developing such pieces of film 
will quickly show whether an exposure of any chosen duration 
at the selected position will or will not produce fog on it. 
Obviously no light can be judged safe when it fogs film in a 
time equal or less than the probable exposure of the film to it 
in processing. A factor of safety must always be considered 
to allow for a possible and probable variation in handling time. 
A second type of safety factor must be considered if light is 
used at more than one stage, since harmful additive exposures 
might occur to lights individually judged safe enough. All ol 
these considerations should lead one to handle and process 
the film in total darkness unless the value of the presence of 
light is great enough to warrant adequate planning, testing 
and continued watchfulness in use. 

Where it has seemed desirable to desensitize film to permit 
the use of an increased amount of light to watch develop- 
ment, the same procedure may still be used. The increased 
original speed of the Special negative may, in limiting cases, 
require the use of slightly less light after desensitization than 
could be used with the slower Regular negative, but in all 
tests made, desensitization of both was great enough to permit 
very satisfactory working light for development after desen- 
sitization. 

With all of these facts in mind, the DuPont Special pan- 
chromatic negative is seen to require no change in technique 
of make up, taking and processing. In using it, all that is 
needed is to cut the lighting and go ahead in just the same 
way as with the Regular panchromatic negative. 




William German 

WILLIAM GERMAN, Vice-President and General Man- 
ager of J. E. Brulatour, Inc., has returned to New York 
after a brief stay in Hollywood. Mr. German came to Holly- 
wood to supervise the introduction of the new Eastman Super 
Sensitive Panchromatic film. On leaving he expressed much 
satisfaction over the way the film had been received, fifteen 
pictures being in production with the new film being used. 

Leigh Griffiths Heads R-K-0 Mechanical 
Staff 

LEIGH GRIFFITHS, formerly head of the Langley Field re- 
search laboratory, has been signed by Joseph I. Schnitzer to 
head the mechanical engineering staff of R-K-O. Griffiths 
will begin immediately on the designing of precision equip- 
ment for R-K-O's new Coast laboratory. 

New Color Company Formed; Studio 
In L. I. City 

OPTICOLOR CORP. has been formed to make and market 
a new three-color, additive process. Merrill Waide is 
president of the organization, which is operating at its studio, 
4377 Vernon Ave., Long Island City. Backing the venture 
are T. W. Phillips of Butler, Pa. and Chester Breining, New 
York broker. The process involves a lens which may be 
attached to any standard projector. 

Opticolor is also interested in a sound process for 16 mm. 
film. 

Eight-Reel Commercial Being Made 
for Goodyear 

AN EIGHT-REEL talking picture for the Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber Co. of Akron is nearing completion at the Detroit 
Sound Studios of Jam Handy Picture Service, according to 
John A. Freese, studio manager and director. This picture, 
"Every Third Wheel," is the first commercial of feature length 
to be recorded with the new Western Electric Noiseless Record- 
ing System. The greater part of the action was shot in the 
complete tire shops built inside the studios, although there 
are numerous exterior scenes, including views of the giant 
Goodyear Zeppelin dock at Akron. 

It is understood that the completed picture will be shown 
at more than 150 points throughout the country to Goodyear 
dealers and their salesmen. 



Thirty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



Filmo Abroad 



April, 1931 



Listen Laura! 








Sir William Letts, K. B. E., was the guest of honor at a great 
war dance held at Johannesburg, and, of course, recorded the 
colorful ceremony with his Filmo. He is seen here talking with 
the dance leader just after the action had stopped. 



Theatre Test for 16 MM. 

IN ORCHESTRA HALL, Chicago, recently a travel lecture by 
I Burton Holmes was followed by an interesting demonstra- 
tion of the Bell & Howell 16 mm. talkie reproducer, the 
Filmophone. 

In this demonstration, it is stated, a new model Filmo pro- 
jector unit, equipped with one of the recently perfected 375 
watt lamps, threw perfectly clear pictures sixteen feet three 
inches wide on the screen, and the voice and musical accom- 
paniment could be distinctly heard in the farthest corner of 
the big theatre which seats over 2500 people. 

The size of the picture on the screen was determined by 
actual measurement, and the quality and volume of the sound 
accompaniment was tested in several parts of the hall, accord- 
ing to those present. 

The test of the talkie outfit was staged by the Industrial 
Film Division of Burton Holmes Lectures, Inc., after the 
audience which had attended the Holmes lecture had left 
the hall, although Mr. Holmes and several of his friends re- 
mained to see the results of the demonstration. Naturally, 
the acoustics of the hall would have been improved by the 
presence of an audience, but even so, it is stated, the slightest 
sound from the record could be heard right up to the last seat 
in the hall. "In the top gallery," says Burton Depue of the 
Burton Holmes organization, "I could distinguish every word 
coming from the loud speaker on the stage, but for the life 
of me I could not tell where the speaker was located; it was 
too far away to be seen from this point." 

The Filmophone was placed in the regular projection booth 
of the hall, over 90 feet from the stage, and a cord approxi- 
mately 1 50 feet long was extended from the booth to the 
loud speaker. A regular two-inch lens was employed in the 
projector. 

The volume of the sound accompaniment is reported to 
have been so great that it was unnecessary to advance the 
volume control to capacity. 



It is the intention of Czechoslovak exhibitors to create a 
special sound-film group, with a view to protecting the inter- 
ests of wired theatre owners, and to obtain the most favorable 
conditions for the purchase of sound-film reproduction equip- 
ment. This is following along the line adopted sometime ago 
in Great Britain. 




HARRY MEYERS is in the midst of a graphic explanation, 
to Laura LaPlante, of the surprising features of the new 
Mole-Richardson Integral incandescent lamp. He tells her the 
Integral Inky is absolutely noiseless. In other words eliminates 
all cracking or popping noises when current is switched on. 
Miss LdPlante and Mr. Meyers are playing in "Meet the Wife," 
a Christie production, A. Leslie Pearce, director. 



New Color Device 

ANOTHER new entrant into the color field is Rotocolor, an 
iinvention of Harold Muller of 160 West 45th Street, New 
York City. The new process, as reported, involves a shutter 
device attachable to any standard projector and which is 
quickly removable, allowing switching between black and 
white and color. The process does not concern laboratory pro- 
cessing of film. The inventor claims that his system is very 
inexpensive in comparison with other color systems. 



Sound For Navy 



SIX officers and fifty-six enlisted men of the United States 
Navy have been graduated in the first classes of the sound 
technician schools organized by RCA Photophone to instruct 
students in the operation of sound equipment soon to be in- 
stalled on navy ships and at various stations. 



New Laboratory Corp. 

REPORT has it that Sol Lesser and Mike Rosenberg have 
parted company with Roy Davidge in the laboratory busi- 
ness. Davidge has incorporated under title of Davidge Film 
Laboratory, Ltd. Davidge plans to build a new structure on 
Santa Monica Boulevard. Work is slated to start within a 
month, according to report. 



Paramount Adding Stage to New York 
Studios 

PARAMOUNT officials have approved plans for a new stage 
to be built adjacent to the present New York studio. A 
heavy feature producing schedule, augmented by an ambitious 
shorts program, has made it necessary to provide more room. 
This annex, the latest of several added in the past two years, 
will be connected with the main building by an underground 
passageway. 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-five 



Driving Off! 




THE FIRST whack of Bobby Jones as a motion picture star. 
The world's greatest player of the ancient and royal game 
makes the drive that is his debut as a Warner Brothers' star 
in a series of golfing shorts. Director George Marshall is the 
gentleman in the link-side seat. A Mole-Richardson Mike 
Boom is taking the sound. 

• 

Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 26) 
use gilt, or bronze-surface stock for panchromatic film. For 
convenience and protection, put a light wooden frame around 
the reflector, and hinge a prop on the back which will support 
it while it is in use. Three of these, two soft and one hard, 
are sufficient for the amateur, although four, two of each 
kind, is ideal combination. Unless you have tried the use 
of reflectors you have no idea how much they will help. It 
takes but a little practice to become proficient in lining up 
reflectors on a subject, and the results are ample to justify 
the effort. They eliminate or lighten unpleasant shadows and 
enable the cinematographer to paint with sunlight, and the 
only cost is that of construction, for the sunlight is as free 
as the air. 



Throw Light Five Miles 

PROJECTION of light from a bulb only about five or six 
times larger than the ordinary tungsten lamp used in the 
home, so that a person five miles away is able to read a 
newspaper by its rays, was demonstrated recently. 

The demonstration was conducted by W. A. Pennow, air- 
port and airway lighting engineer with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company at Cleveland, Ohio. 

The light was projected from a searchlight throwing a 
narrow beam over Lake Erie. The beam spread only slightly 
over its course, Pennow explaining that the spread was only 
twelve feet a mile. Thrown on the clouds the searchlight 
produced a round spot that looked about as big as a washtub. 

"The searchlight is designed principally to aid aviation in 
determining the height of cloud banks," Pennow said. 

"The searchlight, containing a 420-watt lamp, produces 
1 ,840,000 candlepower. Four per cent is lost every 5000 
feet on a clear night. Light haze will absorb about 10 per 
cent a thousand feet. In heavy haze, the light can be seen 
a mile. 

"Used in fighting fires, the searchlight can penetrate about 
every kind of smoke but the blackest pall." 



Paramounr's New Color Process 

PARAMOUNT now has in preparation for next year a new 
three-color additive process which will cut color film costs 
to 4J/2 cents a foot, as compared with present price of 8'; 
cents. This process involves the use of ordinary black and 
white prints, with the color added by means of a filter mounted 
in front of the projector. 



Filmo Topics 

FILMO TOPICS, the Bell & Howell Company's monthly pub- 
lication for users of 16 mm. cameras, has an excellent 
table of contents for the April number. This magazine may 
be obtained free by sending your request to that company at 
1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, III. The April contents 
follow: 

1. Taking Movies of Children. 

2. Filming the Flappers. How a girls' summer camp di- 
rector produced and used Filmo motion pictures. 

3. Mr. Fuller and His Filmo Abroad. A traveler tells of 
filming Europe. 

4. Filmo News Pictorial. News photos of Filmo owners. 

5. Titling Your Films. No. 7 . . 
"continuous strip" titles. 

6. Cleaned from Here and There, 
movie technique from Filmo owners. 

7. More About Projection Lamps. 

8. Questions and Answers. 



Making "climbing" or 
A collection of ideas on 



VERNON L. WALKER, A. S. C 

First Cinematographer Specializing in Process Work 

ADDRESS 

601 West Fairmont, Clendale, California 
Telephone: Doug. 5032R or HE-1 1 28 



Thirty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



April, 1931 





attention 



The pictorial section of the next volume of 
the Cinematographic Annual is being com- 
piled. Anyone wishing to contribute prints 
for this section may send them in now 
for consideration. 




Cround Noise Reduction 

• Continued from Page 16) 
Influence on Reproduction 

Most reproduction from film is accomplished by interposing 
the recorded film between a source of light and a photoelectric 
cell. The intensity and amount of light may be considered as 
fixed, consequently any change in the opacity or width of the 
sound track as it passes through the light beam will cause a 
variation in the current through the photocell. The output 
of any given cell varies directly with the amount of light change 
and is independent of the rate of light change. This being true 
it makes no difference whatever to a photocell whether the 
light is cut off or varied by means of a sound track variation 
or by specks of dirt or foreign matter on the surface of the 
film. 

You will be shown later what a variable area sound track 
looks like and will note, too, why we are not particularly in- 
terested in varying density. In normal variable area recording 
the sound track is always made up of equal portions of ex- 
posed and clear film. 

Any dirt or foreign matter getting on the exposed or dark 
side of the track would have no effect whatever but should it 
get on to the clear side its presence would be noticed as noise 
in the reproduction. The reason for this is evident. Dirt is 
opaque and the dark side of the track is nearly so, but dirt on 
the clear portion would cause a change in the amount of light 
falling on the photocell and produce noise. 

At the normal gain settings during reproduction, the ease 
with which wanted sounds can be heard depends on the ratio 
of the recorded sounds to the ground noise level. In other 
words, if the modulation during recording was low i. e.: of 
the order of say 1 or \5% and we accumulated a little noise 
from each of the sources mentioned a few minutes ago we 
would find it difficult to distinguish speech or music above the 
noise level. 

Hanna-Hewlett Method 

The problem then was how to drop the level of ground noise 
to a point where it no longer interfered with recorded sounds. 
Hanna and Hewlett did it by making opaque all that portion 
of the track not actually occupied by modulation. An obvious 
and simple solution wasn't it? 

Their method was simple and effective too. They merely 
took a little of the output of the amplifier just before it was 
fed into the recording mechanism, amplified it, rectified it and 
used the resulting direct current to furnish what may be termed 
a secondary control over the vibrator. A detailed description 
of this method and the circuits involved will follow shortly so 
it will not be necessary to dwell at length on that point now. 

What happens, however, is this. The output from an audio 
frequency amplifier is in the form of alternating current. The 
wave shape may or may not be symmetrical but in all cases the 
current values during any cycle start at zero, increase to a 
positive maximum, decrease through zero to a negative mini- 
mum and then increase again to zero. If these values be 
plotted and a straight line be drawn through the zero points, 
this line may be considered as a base line above and below 
which the current values rise and fall. In RCA Photophone 
recording this base line corresponds to the center line of our 
sound track when the vibrator is at rest in its normal position. 

Since the vibrator is designed to change its position with 
respect to this base line under the application of current 
changes, its position at any instant is determined by the value 
of the current at that same instant. As the current rises to 
a positive maximum, the vibrator twists to an extreme position 
in one direction. As the current falls through zero and de- 
creases to a negative minimum, so the vibrator twists back 
through normal to an extreme position in the opposite direction. 

Suppose now that some direct current were introduced into 
this circuit. It would have the effect of shifting the base line 
about which the vibrations took place to a new position and 



April, 193) 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-seven 



we would have a new zero line. Current changes and vibrator 
deflection with respect to the base line would remain the same 
as before but neither would be the same with respect to the 
new zero line. 

It will be noted that the value of the d c from the rectifier 
placed across the output of the amplifier is at all times pro- 
portional to the strength of the a c signal so we here have an 
automatic and positive control over this d c component or 
"bias" if you will. In other words it is necessary only to 
choose first the new base line for the vibrator setting and 
second the proper value of the d c to return the vibrator to 
its heretofore normal position in the center of the sound track. 
Both are easily obtained and once set the ensuing action is 
simple, positive and automatic. 

Applications of this principle have been made during the 
past year or more at R-K-0 Studios and Pathe Studios, where 
a number of productions have been made and released. 



The above paper is from the Technical Digest service of the Academy 
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Another paper on the same sub- 
ject, prepared by Hugh McDowell, Jr., of Radio Studios, will appear 
next month. — The EDITOR. 



Screen Definition 

(Continued from Page 15) 

Regarding above cited examples, the red coat will show its 
proper density in the same balance as if the scene would 
have been taken without filter and standard panchromatic 
makeups are not affected by "Moore" filters. 

The series of 20 filters established under this system starts 
with No. which theoretically transmits no light and ends 
with No. 20 which theoretically transmits with a stop of f 2.7 
as much light (in proper color balance) as the same lens 
would pass at a stop of f 9 without a filter. 

The intervening filter numbers, gradually, not only increase 
in light transmission value from 1 to 1 9 but are individually 
compounded of such relative color and transmission values 
for the red and green components that a correct density bal- 
ance is maintained. 

In a previous issue the components for filters 1 to 6 have 
been given as selected from available Wratten filters. They 
produce with an f 2.7 stop less density than the same lens 
would produce with an f 9 stop. 

For night effects this series is especially effective and the 
choice for either of them depends upon the existing illumi- 
nation in order that necessary good contrasts are produced. 

Beyond No. 6 these filters transmit sufficient light to reduce 
the contrasts below the value necessary for night effects. 

They have, however, been proved very useful to produce 
soft tones to blue skies, to absorb such blue light as char- 
acteristic of hazy, dust- or moisture-laden atmosphere and to 
produce the characteristics of effective cloud formations and 
structures within themselves, even without the existence of 
the blue background. 

Unfortunately the filter series beyond No. 6 cannot be com- 
pounded by Wratten filters but special red and green tone 
values must be used, which can in writing only be established 
by chemical formulae and minute description of relative pro- 
portions, methods of preparation and proper mixing control 
which would be of no value to the cameraman and therefore 
be beyond the limitations of this study, intended to contain 
as always useful disclosures of practical nature. 

The ideal of professional dreams — the answer to an amateur's 
prayer — the Cinematographic Annual. 




GOERZ 



Sraars-Newcomer-Goerz 

CINE-PANOR 

FOR 16MM MOVIES 

Takes and Projects 




a 50% ivider picture 

The Cine-Panor does not function like 
the ordinary wide angle lens. The 
wide angle amateur movie lens is 
panoramic to the extent that it in- 
creases the field of view but com- 
oresses it to the limitations of the 
standard 16mm picture proportion. 
The Cine-Panor is a panoramic lens 
which gives you true wide angle 
perspective on the screen by increas- 
ing, in a horizontal direction, the size 
of the screen throw by 50 '^ . 

SEND FOR BOOKLET A C 4 



CRGOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 

317 EAST 34™ ST. NEW YORK CITY 



Thirty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



April, 1931 



WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the 
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us, 
we have acquired an exclusive license to all '-'Trans- 
parency" patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX 
CORP. and ROY J. POMEROY. 

A few current releases containing Dunning Shots 
"WHAT A WIDOW" — Cloria Swanson 
"ON THE LEVEL"— Fox 
"SOUP TO NUTS"— Fox 
"HER MAN" — Pathe 
"ROMANCE" — M-C-M 
"HALF SHOT AT SUNRISE"— R-K-0 
"WOMEN EVERYWHERE" — Fox 
"LEATHERNECKINC"— R-K-O 
"MADAME DUBARRY"— United Artists 
"HOLIDAY"— Pathe 

"THE LOTTERY BRIDE"— United Artists 
"BORN RECKLESS" — Fox 

DUNNING 
PROCESS 

CCHPANy 

"You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow" 

Telephone GLadstone 3959 
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 



When you need engraving 
you need the BEST 

Cd • You GET it at the 

Superior 

ENGRAVING 

fCOMPANY 

Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half-Tones 

Color Work Designing 

Electrotypes 

Mats, Etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS 




lor follow-up shots art 
known for their smoothness 
of operation, equal tension 
on all movements and being 
unaffected by temperature. 



Model B 

The Model B is for Bell 
W Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their respective 
tripods. 

The handle is telescopic 
and adjustable to any angle. 




The Model A is made 
for Amateur motion picture 
cameras and also fits the 
Standard Still tripods. 



Trueball tripod heads are 
unexcelled for simplicity, 
accuracy and speed of opera- 
tion. 



The Hoefner four-inch Iris 
and Sunshade combination is 
also a superior product. 



FRED HOEFNER 



5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD 



CLadstone 0243 



LOS ANCELES, CALIF. 



s& 



MERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1222 CUARANTY BLDC. 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Centlemen : 

Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign rates additional), 
for one year's subscription to the American Cinematographer, to 



begin with the issue of , 19. 



Name. 



Street No. 



Town State 



CLUBBING RATES 



U.S. 



Canada 

$3.50 



American Cinematographer $3.00 

In Club with: 

Camera Craft 3.90 4.65 

Photo-Era 4.75 5.00 

The Camera 3.90 4.40 

Please make all remittances payable to 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Foreign 

$4.00 

5.40 
6.40 

5.40 



April, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-nine 



ELMER G. DYER 



AKELEY SPECIALIST 



Aerial Photography Since 1918 



Phone HE. 8116 



HARRY PERRY, A. S. C. 

MULTICOLOR FILMS 



OXford 1908 



HEmpstead 1128 



ROY DAVIDGE 
FILM LABORATORIES 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 

exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

GRanite 3108 



WILLIAMS' 
S HOTS 



Will give you the results you need. We have 
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 

Cinematography in Hollywood. 
Any background, either real scenes or minia- 
ture, may be used. Scenes may be corrected 

without retakes. 

Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 

dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 

Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 

for a sequence or one scene. 

Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 

Composite Laboratories 



Santa Monica Blvd. 



Tel. OXford 161 1 



WILLIAMS' SHOTS 



Phone GL. 7507 


Hours 9 to 5 
Also by Appointment 


Dr. G. 


Floyd Jackman 




DENTIST 


706 Hollywood First National Building 
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave. 



Classified Advertising 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar per insertion. 



WANTED — MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 



WANTED — For cash, DeFJrie, Pathe, Bell & Howell Standard cameras. 
Send full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison 
Street, Chicago. 

FOR SALE — CAMERAS 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera No. 230, Tripod with Mitchell legs, baby- 
tripod, high hat, adjustable shutter, 6 magazines; 2-2 in. F 2.7, 4 
in. F 2.3, 6 in. F 2.7, 12 in. F 5.6 lenses with finder lenses 
Motor attachment, carrying cases, first class condition J. P. 
Muller, 2629 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La. 

FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3500.00 each. 
Special price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of 
CINEMATOCRAPHER. 



FOR SALE OR RENT — First Class Akeley Outfit complete. 
CR-4274, or write Dan B. Clark, A. S. C. office. 



Phone 



SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. 
Reasonable Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or CR. 4274. 

SALE — Akeley Camera outfit. Mitchell tripod, equipped up to 
6-inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 1185 



FOR 
FOR 
FOR SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes. Phone HE. 1841 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



FOR SALE OR RENT— Mitchell camera equipped for Sound. Al Cilks. 
HE-1490 or A. S. C. Office CR-4274. 



FOR RENT — CAMERAS 



FOR RENT — Mitchell camera fully equipped for sound. Harry Perry, 
Phone OX- 1908. 

FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders, 
Mitchell tripods. Park ). Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, 6 magazines, 
equipped up to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga 
Ave. GRanite 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don 
B. Keyes, HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40, 50 and 75 
mm. Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Home, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or GL-2791. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40, 
50 and 75 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol, 
6507 Drexel Ave. ORegon 7492. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell and Bell & Howell, Akeley Cameras. Lenses, 
accessories of all kinds, new and used — Bargains. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange, 1511 Cahuenga Blvd. 



FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS 



FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell 
and Bell & Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park 
). Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga. CR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor; 
1000 ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes. HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Pliny Home, 
1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or GL-2791. 



The TRAIL AHEAD ! 

Don't miss the May issue of the 

American Cinematographer! Better 

than ever! More Big Features! Be sure 

you 

Get Your Copy! 



Forty 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



March, 1931 




OFFICERS 



HAL MOHR 
VICTOR MILNER 
ARTHUR MILLER 
CHARLES G CLARKE 
JOHN ARNOLD 
WILLIAM STULL 



President 

- First Vice-President 
- Second Vice-President 

- Third Vice-President 

Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 

Daniel B. Clark 



Chas. C. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Alfred Cilks 



Fred Jackman 
Clenn R. Kershner 
Victor Milner 



Hal Mohr 
Arthur Miller 
Sol Polito 



John F. Seitz 
William Stull 
Ned Van Buren 



Philip E. Rosen 
Fred W. Jackman 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Caetano Caudio James Van Trees John W. Boyle 

Homer Scott John F. Seitz Daniel B. Clark 

Arthur Webb, General Counsel 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Mr. Emery huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Dr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease, Dr. L. M. Dieterich 



Abel, David — Paramount. 
Allen, Paul H. — 
Arnold, John — M-G-M. 
Archer, Fred — 
August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 

St. Paul. 
Benoit, Georges — Paris. 
Boyle, John W. — Sigma Films, 

Ltd. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C- — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. — Fox. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 
Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 
tone. 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 

DeVol, Norman — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell. Hollywood 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners' Vita- 
phone. 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer. Edwin L. — M. P. A. 
Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 
Fildew. William — 



Fisher, Ross G. — Multicolor. 

Flora, Rolla — Fox. 

Folsey, Geo. J., Jr. — New York. 

Caudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros. 
Gilks, Alfred — M-C-M. 
Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros. 
Gray, King D. — 
Greenhalgh, Jack — F-B-O. 
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 
England. 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 
Hilburn, Percy — Universal 
Home, Pliny — 
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 

Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 
Jackman, Fred — Technical 

Director, Warner Bros. 
June, Ray — United Artists. 

Kershner. Glenn — Metropolitan. 
Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Artists. 
Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner 

Bros. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 
Lindon, Curly — Paramount. 
Lockwood, ). R. — 
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 
Metropolitan. 

MacWilliams, Glen — Fox. 
Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M. 



Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 
McDonell, Claude — London, 

England. 
Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 
Milner, Victor — Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Rogers. 
Morgan, Ira H. — M-C-M. 

O'Connell, L. Wm. — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 
Parrish, Fred — Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Polito, Sol — First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — 
Powers, Len — 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 

Vitaphone. 
Ries, Park J. — 
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 

Lasky. 
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 

Universal. 
Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 

Movietone. 
Schoenbaum, Chas. — James 

Cruz. 
Scott, Homer A. — 
Seitz, John F. — Fox 
Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 

Doug. Fairbanks. 



Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich, Harold — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J. — Metro- 
politan. 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 
Studios. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 



Tappenbeck, Hatto — Fox. 
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-C-M. 



Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 

Kodak Co., Hollywood. 
Van Trees, James — 
Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 



Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox. 
Walker, Joseph — Columbia 
Walker. Vernon L. — R-K-O. 
Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal. 
Wenstrom, Harold — 
Westerberg, Fred 
Whitman, Phil H. — 
Wilky, L. Guy — 
Wrigiey. Dewey — Pathe. 
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 



Zucker, Frank C. — Warner 
Bros.. New York. 



EASTMAN 

SUPER- SENSITIVE 
PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 

TYPE TWO 

Pictures Completed or Currently in Production 

PRODUCTION PRODUCER PHOTOGRAPHER 

REGISTERED WOMAN CHAS. ROGERS-R.K.O HAL MOHR 

CHERI BIBI M.G.M OLIVER MARSH 

BROCK COMEDY R.K.O EDDIE CRONJ AGER 

MME. JULIE R.K.O ROY HUNT 

BIG BROTHER R.K.O EDDIE CRONJ AGER 

OUR GANG .HAL ROACH ART LLOYD 

TODD-PITTS COMEDY HAL ROACH GEORGE STEVENS 

WOMEN OF ALL NATIONS FOX LUCIEN ANDRIOT 

RIDING FOR A FALL FOX ERNEST PALMER 

CURE FOR THE BLUES FOX CHESTER LYONS 

LAUREL-HARDY COMEDY HAL ROACH JACK STEVENS 

THE MIRACLE WOMAN COLUMBIA JOE WALKER 

RED HANDED FOX ARTHUR EDESON 

YOUNG SINNERS FOX JOHN SEITZ 

DANCING PARTNERS M.G.M OLIVER MARSH 

Photographic Perfection 

EASTMAN 

SUPER-SENSITIVE 
PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 

TYPE TWO 

J. E. BRULATOUR, Inc. 

NEW YORK HOLLYWOOD CHICAGO 



THE new "QUICK RELEASE" for 
telescopic handles is now standard 
on all new Mitchell Friction Heads. 
It enables the telescopic handle to be 
instantly dropped out of the way 
when not needed. The handle can 
be quickly made ready for use by 
lifting it into place and locking by a 
quarter turn of cam lever arm. 




■■■■■lis' 




THIS CONVENIENCE 
CAN BE INSTALLED 
ON YOUR PRESENT 
MITCHELL FRICTION 
HEAD AT A SMALL 
COS I » » » » 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. Robertson Blvd., West Hollywood 

Cable Address ' , MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 1051 





:, 




: 



23 Cervts a Copy 



ionah *-> J ^Amateurs 



/V\/\ I N I A I N I NCjJ the same relation of 

color balance 

as its Regular Product 




ESTABLISHED 1802 



SPECIAL PANCHROMATIC 
NEGATIVE 

requires no change in 

Make-up, Costuming, Painting 

and Dressing of Sets 



SMITH & ALLER, Ltd 

6656 Santa Monica Blvd. • Hollywood 5147 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Pacific Coast Distributors for 



DU PONT PATHE FILM MFG. CORP. 

35 West 45th Street New York City 



/ / I # / 



New Silent Unit I 
Pilot Register Movement 



f 



or 



COLOR and SOUND 

in the B & H Standard Camera 



WHEN BELL & HOWELL 
engineering gave pilot 
pin registration to the industry, 
another chapter in the epic of 
the cinema was written. 

Today, history again dips its 
pen. Bell & Howell presents a 
silenced pilot pin mechanism 
adaptable also for color by the 
Bi-Pack processes. Thus, color 
comes to the sound stage, and with equipment that 
is fully tried and tested. 

The new Bell & Howell silent Unit "I" move- 
ment features a special cam cut to give a much 
shorter stroke than the regular cam. Register leaves 
are therefore controlled within very close limits, 
eliminating "slap" on the aperture plate. Rocker 
arm and register leaf are made extremely light. 
Special rollers minimize the flapping of the film 




Basic Model B & H Standard Camera 
adaptable for color, sound, or speed 



Roller and inserts are of formica. 
Write for complete informa- 
tion on the new B & H Silent 
Unit "I" pilot pin mechanism. 

B & H 16 mm. 
CONTACT PRINTER 

An adaptation of the famous 
Bell & Howell Standard Con- 
tinuous Model "D" Film 
Printer, the B & H 16 mm. Contact Printer has 
every advantage and distinctive feature of the 
35 mm. model. 

Creepage or slipping is wholly overcome, film is 
controlled at printing aperture; precision mechanism 
assures perfect film movement and protects film 
from abrasion, film contact at aperture is achieved, 
lighting is mechanically controlled, framing is 
unnecessary. Write for full details. 



♦ BELL & HOWELL ♦ 

Bell & Howell Company, 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, Illinois • New York, 11 West 42nd Street 
Hollywood, 6324 Santa Monica Boulevard • London (B & H Co., Ltd.) 320 Regent Street • Established 1907 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



QUALITY 




TYPE 324 INTEGRAL INKIE 



THERE IS NO COMPROMISE 



/ 



Mole - Richardson products never compromise on quality. 

Quality DESIGN 
Quality ENGINEERING 
Quality MATERIALS 
Quality WORKMANSHIP 

bring as a result 

The QUALITY PRODUCT which bears our 



mar 



Ic. 



If It Isn't An (jH It Isn't An Inkie. 



MOLE-RICHARLVON'nc 

yTUDlO LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

941 N. SYCAMORE AVENUE HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



• AMERICAN ■ 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 

i 

HAL HALL 

JOHN ARNOLD Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C EMERY HUSE 

President, A. S.C. B0ARD 0F EDITORS: Cilbert Warrenton, William Stull^ H. T Cowling, Ned Van Buren, Technical Editor. A. S. C. 

Joseph Dubray, George Schneiderman, Hatto Tappenbeck. 

Volume XII MAY, 1931 Number 1 



CONTENTS 

Page 

JOHN ARNOLD ELECTED PRESIDENT OF A. S. C 9 

THE PRINCIPLES OF SENSITOMETRY AND THEIR PRACTICAL 

APPLICATION, by Emery Huse ._. 10 

SUPER-SENSITIVE FILM IN PRODUCTION, by Oliver Marsh. 1 1 

PRACTICAL PORTABLE SOUND EQUIPMENT, by Arthur Reeves 12 

GROUND NOISE REDUCTION, by Hugh McDowell, Jr 13 

SOUND AND SPEECH IN SILENT PICTURES, by A. E. Krows 14 

THE KEYSTONE COPS RETURN, by John Boyle, A. S. C..._ 17 

HAL HALL SAYS 18 

LABORATORY DEPARTMENT 20 

IN THE REALM OF SOUND _. 27 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 30 

BABBLING ABOUT BRITTANY, by Lawrence Grant 33 

WIDE-FILM PICTURES ON NARROW GAUGE FILM, by Fred Schmid 36 

MAKING THE AMATEUR MOVIE, by J. P. Lawrie 39 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS, INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING. HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1931, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 



WHEN you think of 

MAKE-UP 

you think of '. . . 

Max Factor's 

MAKE-UP 

for 
STAGE and SCREEN 






Tel. HO-6191 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS 

Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Crand Ave. Cable Address "Facto" 



London, England 

lOD'Arblay St. 
Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Paseo de la Reforma 36 Vi 
Havana, Cuba 

H-130, Vedado 
Lima, Peru 

Edificia Mineria 



Other Foreign Branches 

Johannesburg, So. Africa 
Cor. Joubert & Kerk Sts. 

Manila, Philippine Islands 
No. 39 Escolta St. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
500 Sarmiento 



Honolulu, T. H. 
720 South St. 



Max Factor's 

Theatrical 

Make-up 

for the 

Stage 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziares. 




or those who want proof . 




this is NOT a picture of a WORM TURNING 



It is a highly magnified oscilloscope photograph of the wave form of a 
mouth organ note recorded on the Tanar Single System. 

Exacting tests made with the oscilloscope at the Dr. R. C. Burt Scientific 

Laboratories last week proved conclusively that the Tanar System when 

used with the TANARLICHT is properly balanced. 



OUR NEW CATALOGUE IS NOW READY 

FOR YOU. ITS FREE! JUST SEND YOUR 

NAME AND ADDRESS 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd. 



Originators of Portable Sound-on-Film Recorders 



General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Boulevard 



Laboratories: 1 100-12 North Serrano Avenue 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 



Telephone 
HE-3939 and HE-3362 

Cable Address: TANARLIGHT 

Postal Telegraph Private Wire 

New York Office: 729 Seventh Avenue 

Sole Agents for India: M. L. Mistry & Co. 

46 Church Gate Street, Fort, Bombay 






MAIL TODAY 
I 



V 



TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd., 
5357 Santa Monica Blvd., 
Hollywood, California, U. S. A. 

Please mail me at your expense your new Tanar cata- 
logue. 



Name.... 
Address: 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 






Af 



ter tests 



covering two years time . . . 



tL RAYTAR LENS 

is ready for your approval. 



• Now, two years after the completion of 
the first Raytar Lens (designed under 

the direction of W. B. Rayton, director 
of the B & L Scientific Bureau) the com- 
plete line is ready for distribution. Dur- 
ing these two years the lens has been sub- 
jected to exhaustive laboratory tests much 
more exacting than the actual require- 
ments of the studio. 

• These tests prove that no competing lens 

equals it in the even definition it pro- 
duces over the whole picture area. The 
results of these tests, supplemented by the 
enthusiastic approval of users whom we 
have been able to contact directly, abund- 
antly justify us in announcing to Cine- 
matographers, the Raytor, backed by the 
full B & L guarantee as to quality and 
performance. 

Positive Focus 

• Sharp definition and positive focus are 
characteristic of the Raytar. The point 

of focus is very definite and a slight adjust- 
ment in either direction shows the image 
to be distinctly out of focus. Hence there 
is no uncertainty and an exact focus is 
easily obtained. 

Class That Will Not Tarnish 

• The Raytar is made from glass developed 
and made in the Bausch & Lomb Class 

plant and it will not tarnish or discolor. 



Rigid tests over a three year period con- 
firm this statement. 



Fully Corrected 

• These lenses are fully corrected and per- 
form equally well with arc or incandes- 
cent illumination and with orthochromatic, 
panchromatic or high speed film. 

The Mountings 

• Special attention has been given to the 
accuracy and mechanical construction of 

the mountings and they will stand up 
under more abuse than they would 
ordinarily be expected to endure. 

Speed and Focal Lengths 

• Lenses of the following speeds and focal 
lengths are now in stock: 



f2:3 



f2:7 



35mm 
40mm 
50mm 
75mm 
100mm 
1 52mm 



• The above statements are made only 
after the most severe tests and can be 
confirmed and substantiated. You are in- 
vited to try the RAYTAR. 



BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL CO 



ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



FOR BETTER 
PERFORMANCE 



AN COMPARING values, performance should be the determining 
factor — it is the only true test of worth — the standard by which 
true economy must be measured. 

Low first cost, low operating cost, low up-keep, long life are 
the results of intensive research and experimental work given to 
the development of JZ x&oc incandescent lighting equipment before 
it was offered to the motion picture industry. 

Numerous individual J^zcc * ^t& features, protected by patents 
pending both here and abroad, assure motion picture producers 
of consistent o^ ggg value and integrity, backed by Lakin Cor- 
poration's guarantee that J% &cv products always must yield 
that efficiency that has gained for them a preference among 
notable producers. 



"If it's not a c ^c^ it's not silent!" 

LAKIN CORPORATION 

1707 Naud Street LOS ANGELES CApitol 14118 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 




The Trail 



Jackson J. Rose, A. S. C. 



John Arnold Elected President of 
American Society of Cinematographers 

Three New Members Added to Board of Governors 

by HAL HALL 



JOHN ARNOLD, head of the camera department at the 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, was elected President of 
the American Society of Cinematographers at the annual 
election of officers of the society held on April thirteenth. 
Mr. Arnold succeeds Hal Mohr, who held the office for the 
past year. 

Other officers elected were: Victor Milner, First Vice- 
president; John W. Boyle, Second Vice-president; A. L. Cilks, 
Third Vice-president; William Stull, Secretary; George 
Schneiderman, Treasurer. Mr. Milner and Mr. Stull held the 
same offices last year. 

The new Board of Governors chosen by the society is the 
same as the previous year with the exception of three mem- 
bers: Gilbert Warrenton, Ray June and George Schneiderman. 
The complete Board chosen follows: John Arnold, John W. 
Boyle, Daniel B. Clark, Charles G. Clarke, Elmer Dyer, A. L. 
Gilks, Fred Jackman, Ray June, Victor Milner, Hal Mohr, 
George Schneiderman, John F. Seitz, William Stull, Ned Van 
Buren and Gilbert Warrenton. 

The installation banquet was held on Monday evening, April 
twentieth, at the Uplifters Club, Santa Monica, with more 
than sixty members present. This meeting was one of the 
finest and most enthusiastic gatherings of A. S. C. men in 
years, and, judging from the enthusiasm displayed, the A. S. C. 



is facing what should be the most successful year in its 
history. 

Hal Mohr, retiring President, was master of ceremonies 
at the dinner. In his introductory remarks he reviewed briefly 
the events of the past year, and thanked the members for 
their splendid cooperation. He pointed out the remarkably 
healthy condition of the society and urged all to give the 
same cooperation to Mr. Arnold. 

President Arnold gave great indication of being a truly 
splendid leader, for he presented no platftorm; declaring that 
in his belief the laying of a platform by a President is not the 
best policy because of the fact that most platforms cannot 
be carried out according to promises. 

"I have no platform," said President Arnold. "Instead, 
I give you my solemn promise to work hard, sincerely and 
constantly for the good of the organization and of the camera- 
men. That is all one can do — work as hard and faithfully 
as possible. I have one aim — that is to make the American 
Society of Cinematographers an even still greater organiza- 
tion than it already is. We have a splendid society. We 
must not only keep it so, but must make it better; make its 
influence felt even more widely. The only way to accomplish 
this is for every one of us to give the best we have." 
(Continued on Page 22) 










John Arnold 



The Principles of Sensitometry and Their 

Practical Application 



by EMERY HUSE 



West Coast Division Motion Picture Film Department, Eastman Kodak Company 



[It is the intention of the technical editor, as author of this series 
of articles, to enter into a rather detailed discussion of the general 
principles of sensitometry. These principles will be stressed first, 
followed by a discussion of the applications of these principles as con- 
trol elements in the motion picture field. Of course these principles 
apply to any branch of practical photography but as the motion picture 
field is probably the largest commercial photographic venture, it is 
here that the need of scientific control is strongly recognized. This 
is especially true in sound photography but the laboratory is also 
rapidly applying sensitometery to control all photographic phases of its 
work. It is hoped that such discussions will bring a new and better 
understanding of the technicalities underlying photography and will 
greatly clarify the minds of those to whom sensitometry seems a trick 
rather than one of the most valuable tools of photographic procedure. 

Photographic literature is filled with books and articles covering the 
various principles of sensitometry and their application in practical 
photography. Most books of this type attempt to cover the entire 
photographic field and as a result there is no complete treatise of 
sensitometry that can be viewed in the light of a reference book. A 
serious attempt will be made to have this series of articles fill such a 
field. 

Before entering into a discussion of the subject of sensitometry there 
are many preliminary items to be cleared up. The logical starting point 
must deal first with the historical aspects of photography, and secondly 
with the introduction and expansion of the basic principle underlying 
sensitometry as originally specified by Hurter and Driffield. — Editor's 
Note]. 

Brief History of Photography 

PROBABLY the first person to notice that silver salts were 
darkened by light was J. H. Schulze, who made the dis- 
covery in 1732. Undoubtedly others observed this phe- 
nomenon at about this same time. No photographic use was 
made of this discovery until about 1802 when Wedgewood 
published a paper entitled "An Account of a Method of 
Copying Paintings on Glass and on Making Profiles by the 
Agency of Light Upon Nitrade of Silver." Wedgewood con- 
ceived the idea of making silhouettes by using paper treated 
with silver nitrate. He also was one of the first to take photo- 
graphs in the "camera obscura". The camera obscura con- 
sisted of a box with a lens at one end and a ground glass at 
the other. After focussing his image his prepared paper was 
substituted in place of the ground glass and photographic 
images were recorded. Very little success was achieved by this 
method due to the extremely low sensitivity of the photo- 
graphic material. It was left to Sir Humphrey Davy, who 
continued Wedgewood's experiments, to more or less success- 
fully make photographs using a microscope with the sun as the 
light source. These attempts of Davy's no doubt constitute 
the first picture made by means of a lens on a photographic 
material. 

The difficulty in his method was that it was impossible 
to make the image permanent. It was quite some time later 
before fixation was discovered and along with it development. 
This work was advanced considerably by Fox Talbot in the 
middle of the nineteenth century and his work was succeeded 
later by the wet collodion process. In the meantime Niepce 
and Daguerre were working independently on various methods 
of recording photographic images. Later these two entered 
into a partnership and in 1839 published the method of 
photography which was named "Daguerreotype." This was 
really the first portrait process and became very popular. How- 
ever, it was more or less a departure from the emulsion 
process of photography which is known and used generallv 
todav. 

The collodion wet plate was made by dissolving nitrated 
cotton, such as is now used for the film base, in a mixture of 

10 



ether and alcohol. The worker of the wet collodion process 
had to make his own plates at the time when he wanted to 
take a picture. He would clean a piece of glass and coat it 
with the collodion in which the chemicals were dissolved and 
then put the plate in a bath of silver nitrate which formed 
silver iodide in the collodion film and made it sensitive to 
light. The plate had to be exposed while wet and imme- 
diately after exposure it was developed by pouring the de- 
veloper over it. This process of course was filled with many 
difficulties and the making of a photograph was a very tedious 
task. 

These difficulties disappeared with the coming of the gela- 
tin emulsion process, which is in use today in all fields of 
photography. The gelatin solution with the silver is called 
an emulsion because of the way in which the silver remains 
suspended in the gelatin. The first gelatin emulsions were 
made in 1871 by Dr. Maddox. In those days all negatives 
were made on glass plates as that was the only medium on 
which it was conceived possible to coat the sensitive emulsion. 

The discovery of film base came about somewhat by acci- 
dent. After the invention of "stripping film," George Eastman 
continued his experiments trying to find a light flexible sup- 
port for the emulsion to be used in place of the brittle and 
heavy glass. During his experiments he one day tried soluble 
cotton and wood alcohol as a varnish. This was very thick and 
like strained honev and Mr. Eastman knew at once that he had 
made his first step in the production of the long awaited base. 
Thus the present nitro-cellulose film base came into being 
in August, 1899, and amateur photography was born. This 
discovery made motion pictures possible. 

Photography in the past decade has advanced materially, 
and has led up finally to the present day high quality Panchro- 
matic Negative emulsions, together with Positive, Duplicating, 
and other special types of film emulsions. 
(To be continued) 



New Pacent Reproducer 

STATING the company is ready to make immediate deliveries 
and that the average exhibitor will be able to save 20 per 
cent, Louis Gerard Pacent, president of Pacent Reproducer 
Corporation, announces the new series of "Z" reproducer, 
specially designed for smaller theatres. Among the series the 
double projector sound-on-film installation at $1,695 is ex- 
pected to be the most popular model. 

In line with the company's outright policy no compulsory 
service charge is demanded. The apparatus is purchased out- 
right at prices ranging from $795 to $2,295. 

Prices include complete equipment, which is A. C. operat- 
ed. Simple in operation without any complicated mechanism 
is one of the four important factors outlined by the company. 
Other relevant points are that the compact installation elim- 
inates possibility of a bulky power plant, no dead-spots, no 
distorting horn speakers to disturb even sound distribution 
and no crackling noises and no fluttering sound in reproduc- 
tion. 



Super-Sensitive Film in Production 



by OLIVER MARSH, A. S. C. 



EVERYONE who is intimately connected with the technical 
side of the motion picture industry is agreed that the 
recent introduction of Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film 
is perhaps the greatest forward step in cinematographic tech- 
nique since the introduction of the Incandescent light. In this 
they are quite right; anything that will aid the cinematographer 
in his effort to put the best possible picture on the screen is 
of vital importance to the industry as a whole, and the intro- 
duction of Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film has afforded him 
such a powerful means of bettering his work that its value is 
of fully as great importance as its most ardent advocates could 
desire. 

But after having used this new film to photograph two suc- 
cessive productions — "Cheri Bibi" and "Dancing Partners" 
for Metro-Coldwyn-Mayer — it seems to me that all of us, 
technicians and laymen alike, have looked at this film from 
the wrong angle. We have stressed its greater sensitivity, or 
speed, far too much, and almost completely overlooked the 
fact that its greatest advantage is its immeasurably superior 
rendition of color. 

After all, it is of relatively little importance to the studio 
cinematographer that it is some forty per cent more sensitive 
to light. Even in this period of hard times, no studio is going 
to be "saved" by a mere reduction of thirty-five or forty 
per cent in the quantity of current consumed in lighting its 
productions. Such a monetary saving is important, of course, 
but it is valueless if the quality of the picture which ultimately 
reaches the screens of the world is harmed. Therefore this 
new film is of merely minor importance if it brings only in- 
creased speed, without improvement in photographic quality. 
If it brings increased speed plus some improvement in quality, 
well and good. But if it brings not only a considerable in- 
crease in speed, but also a proportional increase in photographic 
quality, then truly is it a great advancement in cinematographic 
technique. 

And this new film is exactly that. It gives an increase of 
some forty per cent in speed — -which is by no means unim- 
portant — and it gives an even greater improvement in photo- 
graphic quality — which represents its real claim to importance 
for studio work. Speed alone is sometimes an advantage in 
studio production, but improved photographic quality is in- 
variably of vital importance. And since the new Super-Sensi- 
tive film embodies both of these qualities to a high degree, it 
is of actual, practical value in our exacting work. 

It is generally conceded that the best rendition of color is 
that which most closely approaches the natural visual bril- 
liancy. The old Orthochromatic film distorted these relative 
values very badly, despite anything that we cinematographers 
could do with filters and careful arrangement of lights. We 
were satisfied with it because we had to be, since nothing 
better was available. Then came the first Panchromatic film. 
This was a memorable advance, for it allowed us to achieve 
a closer approximation of what we actually saw on the set. 
By the time that we were fairly well accustomed to using 
"Pan," along came the Mazda light, and an improved Pan- 
chromatic emulsion, the familiar "Type Two Pan." By this 
time, we have learned to use these new tools quite effectively, 
and our pictures bear witness to the fact that we are now 
getting quite good color rendition and tonal quality. But even 
this is noticeably short of perfection. Our blues no longer 
reach the screen as a muddy white, nor do our reds and greens 
photograph between a dark gray and black. Intermediate 
colors reproduce in a respectable range of half-tones. But 
they do not reach the screen with the same relative brilliancy 
that we actually see. We are still short of perfection. 



With the new Super-Sensitive Panchromatic film, however, 
our cameras can now see things much as our eyes do. When 
the Art Department hands us a set to photograph, we know 
that we can now pass that set on to our audiences with its 
tonal values practically intact, though in monochrome. Our 
time and ingenuity will no longer be spent in an effort, with 
lights and filters, to prevent our films from distorting the 
tonal contrasts achieved by the Art-Directors and Costumers. 

But to secure these advantages of tonal quality and color 
separation, we must make sure that they are first in the set, 
and that the sets are then lighted in a manner that will 
enhance these tonal contrasts. Many cinematographers who 
have tried the new film have overlooked the importance of 
these details, and have accordingly been disappointed with the 
flatness of their results. Too many of them have confused 
improved speed with exaggerated contrast. This is a grave 
injustice to a truly excellent film. It can not be expected 
to do something that it is not intended to do. Our aim today 
is natural tonal contrast with an artistic softness; but this soft- 
ness can never be achieved by flat lighting. We can — and 
should — use a soft lighting, yes, but it should be normally 
balanced, sacrificing none of the tonal and physical contrasts 
which we wish to preserve, though keeping to a uniform degree 
of softness throughout. As a rule, we should work with a nor- 
mally balanced lighting, taking pains to enhance the contrasts 
which we wish to preserve, and trust to the film not only for 
better color-separation, but for the desired softness, as well. 

Of course, the less that is said about lighting, the better, 
for no two cinematographers work in quite the same manner. 
But one thing I must say: just because the new film is in the 
neighborhood of forty per cent faster, do not be deluded into 
altering the balance of your lighting. If you can make a forty 
per cent decrease in the total amount of current consumed on 
your set, well and good; you can save quite a bit of money 
that way, and the financial gentlemen in your company will 
hardly like you any less for it. But if you try to make this 
reduction in lighting at the expense of your natural balance, 
it will seriously effect the quality of your picture. Don't be 
deluded into trying to make this reduction in the number of 
units you use, for you've got to have a certain number of 
light-sources to preserve your balanced lighting: use smaller 
globes in your present equipment, and arrange things just 
as you always have. In that way you will be able to secure 
all the advantages of Super-Pan film without running the risk 
of the inevitable disappointments which attend its unintelli- 
gent use. You will find that the tonal quality, color-separa- 
tion, and general gradation of your picture will be vastly 
improved, and with this improvement will come a surprising 
improvement in perspective. I have seen comparative tests, 
made with the same camera, lens, and set-up, but with Type 
Two Panchromatic and Super-Sensitive Panchromatic films, in 
which the difference in perspective was so marked as to make 
experienced cinematographers doubt that the same lens was 
used in both instances. But, above all things, remember that 
while cinematography has never been a task for the thought- 
less workman, it is vastly less so now that we have so sensitive 
a tool as this new super-film; and the measure of the results 
obtained from Super Pan is exactly the measure of the care 
and thought put into its application to the problem in hand 
— getting the best and most natural picture in the most 
efficient way. 

11 



Practical Portable Sound Equipment 



by ARTHUR REEVES 



A FTER all the sound track is the thing. To get this result 
/■A we must take into consideration many things, the 
/ \ recording and the development of the sound track. I 
could dwell an entire page upon the development of sound 
track. But at this time the most important thing is sound 
equipment. The two most important factors in the develop- 
ing of the sound track is the light transmission of the track 
and the gamma which is the relation of the exposure to the 
contrast. The gamma is a term used in the measuring of 
the contrast of the sound track. 




Figure 1 

There are two systems of sound track recording in use 
today. One is the single system used by news reels and the 
double system that is used in the studios of Hollywood. The 
single system records the sound track simultaneously in the 
camera upon the same negative as the picture is being taken 
upon. The double system implies a sound camera running 
in synchronization with the picture camera. The sound 
camera, of course, uses positive film with which to record the 
sound. While the picture taking camera, as usual, uses the 
negative film. 




The Recorder 



One of the most successful single systems in use today is 
the Fox Movietone and ihese cameras were specially built by 
the Wall Machine Works in Syracuse, New York, at a cost 
of approximately $10,000.00 each. It has been understood 
that this cost was due to the accuracy that was demanded of 
this type of camera. It is almost impossible to rebuild a 
camera that will run absolutely accurately and have constant 



motion. At this time there are none of our regular camera 
manufacturers making a special camera for sound recording. 
It has been rumored that one of our large camera manu- 
facturers will put on the market in a short time a specially 
designed silent camera with a filtered sprocket for sound and 
will be specially adapted for the use of the single system. 
When this camera appears upon the market, the Audio-Camex 
will then put out a single system that will be worthy of its 
name. 

The double system uses a separate recording head which 
was specially designed for sound work and runs with a con- 
stant motion giving a perfect sound track. The double system 
also gives the laboratory a chance to handle the sound track 
negative in the proper way. The double system also enables 




The camera, showing mounting of D. C. interlock motor 

the cutter to cut the picture and track separately. It also 
enables the making of sound separate from the camera and 
has many other uses. Every studio in Hollywood uses the 
double system. 

The Audio-Camex, double system, consists of seven cases. 
These cases are metal covered with angle iron all around with 
strong construction. They are built to withstand the hard 
usage usually given to camera equipment. The cases are of 
the natural light color and reflect the heat which is necessary 
in hot weather. They also do not contain glue or leather 
as it is known that leather will mildew in humid climate, and 
in certain countries ants will eat glue. The empty cases alone 
are about one third of the total weight of the total equip- 
ment. In figure one, case No. 1 contains the camera motor, 
case No. 2 contains the camera motor battery, case No. 3 
contains recorder motor battery, case No. 4 contains the 
(Continued on Page 21 ) 



12 



Ground Noise Reduction 

R-C-A Photophone System 
by HUGH McDOWELL, Jr. 



DURING the filming of the R-K-0 production, "Hit the 
Deck," in September, 1929, musical effects were desired 
that would produce extremes in volume beyond the range 
of the normal variable area recording system. At this time, Mr. 
Carl Dreher, Director of Sound at R-K-0 Studios, mentioned 
to the writer a system of recording by Mr. C. R. Hanna, of 
the Research Laboratory of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, for the purpose of eliminating ground noise 
and consequently permitting greater volume spread. 

The writer was much impressed by the principle that Mr. 
Hanna had made use of, namely, eliminating the unused 
clear portion of the sound track in the variable area method 
of recording, and proposed further investigation. The objec- 
tion was raised, however, that as this system displaced the 
position of the sound track at minimum modulation to the edge 
of the film, it was of doubtful utility in commercial projection 
machines, as any weave in the film in its travel might cause 
it to lose contact with the scanning beam during intervals of 
low modulation. The writer thereupon set about devising a 
system which would retain the advantages of Mr. Hanna's, but 
would keep the sound track at all times in the center of the 
seventy mils allotted to it on the film. The writer is also 
indebted to Mr. C. W. Hewlett, of the Ceneral Electric Com- 
pany, for the use of a portion of his system which is similar 
to Mr. Hanna's. 

Two Recording Essentials 

Natural sound film recording must meet two essential re- 
quirements, namely, good quality of pickup, and range of sound 
from soft to loud with only a tolerable amount of noise. In 
standard methods of recording, the former is accomplished, 
while the latter is restricted to the limiting factor of ground 
noise caused by the unused clear portion of the emulsion on 
the film, admitting unnecessary light to the photoelectric cell 
of the reproducing equipment. As the light reaching the 
photocell is in effect the carrier of all current within the cell, 
it is evident that unused clear portions of the film cause the 
cell to produce energy not required by the legitimate sound, 
thereby producing extraneous noise in the output. 

Noise is also produced by the transparent portion of the film 
not being totally clear, but containing dirt, scratches, etc., 
which disturb the carrier in such manner as to cause addi- 
tional noise, in effect, reproducing the dirt, scratches, etc. It 
is obvious, therefore, that in the standard method of record- 
ing sound volume reaching the film must at all times be ade- 
quate to overcome the ground noise factor, which remains con- 
stant. This requirement restricts the compass of electrically 
reproduced music and is an obstacle to natural and effective 
reproduction. 

The remedy for this condition in variable area recording is 
found in eliminating the clear portion of the film, except at 
times when the modulation requires it. With this accom- 
plished, it is possible to allow the modulation to fall to its 
natural minimum and rise to its natural maximum, for with 
the clear portion of the film eliminated, ground noise no longer 
remains a constant quantity, but changes in proportion to the 
degrees of volume. 

Roughly, in standard methods of recording, the volume 
range from minimum to maximum is approximately 20 db., 
while with the anti-ground noise methods of recording de- 
scribed herein, the volume range may be extended to ap- 
proximately 35 db. 



Electrical and Mechanical Design 

The following description of the device does not take into 
account later simplifications in design. 

Connected to the output of the recording amplifier is a 
two-stage amplifier of sufficient power to operate a rectifier 
tube following. The d c output from the rectifier is then 
passed on to a direct current amplifier which amplifies the d c 
impulses of the rectifier, increasing their amplitude to any 
desired point, by varying the input voltage on the two-stage 
amplifier. The d c impulses are then fed through one-half 
of a voice coil of an electro-dynamic shutter movement to a 
resistance and battery of low voltage which aids the flow of 
current from the plate circuit of the d c amplifier to ground. 
Across the aiding battery and ground is connected the remain- 
ing one-half of the voice coil which is excited by the aiding 
battery when the normal plate current is depressed, due to 
rectified modulation. 

It is seen, therefore, that two voice coils in series in this 
manner are excited in such a way as to cause one coil to exert 
pressure, when excited, in one direction, while the other coil 
exerts an opposite pressure when excited in the other direction. 
This balanced circuit of voice coils in the magnetic field causes 
pressure to be exerted equally and oppositely in both direc- 
tions, and in opposite phase. To these voice coils is directly 
attached a moving shutter actuated by the voice coils which 
is placed mechanically in the beam of light reflected by the 
vibrating element of the recording system. The shutter, there- 
fore, moves in proportion to the amount of input to the two- 
stage amplifier, moving outward under pressure of the recti- 
fier and voice coil to accommodate the peaks of the modulation 
on the film, and moving backward when the modulation de- 
creases, also under pressure of the voice coil. It is obvious, 
then, that electromagnetic pressure is exerted in both directions 
in the functioning of the shutter. 

The electromagnetic assembly is supported mechanically by 
a lathe carriage arrangement so that manual adjustments may 
be made to place the shutter in the proper position with respect 
to the light beam. 

The vibration of the shutter is in exact accordance with the 
d c impulses of the rectifier, and, therefore, it admits light 
to the extent required by the peak modulation reaching the 
film at any given instant. When no modulation occurs, the 
shutter is adjusted to admit to the film light approximately 
five thousandths in width as against thirty-five thousandths 
width for the normal variable area recording system. It is seen 
by this that there remains about ten per cent of the clear por- 
tion of the film that formerly existed. This factor in turn 
admits only about ten per cent of the light formerly reaching 
the photo-electric cell in the projector, cutting down overall 
excitation of the photo-cell when no sound is in evidence, and 
consequently reducing extraneous disturbances in the cell. 

Equipment Used 

The equipment used in recording during 1930 consisted of 
a two-stage amplifier-rectifier and direct current amplifier 
built in a steel box 18x18x8, internally divided, the partition 
separating the d c amplifier, from the other units. The two- 
stage amplifier is operated from a small B-supply working 
from 50-cycle alternating current and supplying 250 volts to 
these stages. The direct current amplifier consisted of seven 
(Continued on Page 44) 

13 



Sound and Speech in Silent Pictures 



by ARTHUR EDWIN KROWS 



THE voice that is new brought to the heretofore silent 
screen is not in itself a new expression, but a new aid 
to expression. That it enables the artist to approximate 
life more nearly is comparatively unimportant, because the 
purpose of art is not the precise imitation of life but its 
interpretation. The films of the future will not be any more 
original in essential thought because of the super-addition 
of voice than bygone silent pictures; but because of voice their 
expression will be more flexible. 

The prime caution is never to think of the spoken word 
merely as sound. The voice makes a sound, but the word 
uttered may express the reverse of sound. For instance, the 
clerk of the court may call out in stentorian tones, "Silence." 
Or, going into other seeming contradictions, the well-known 
giant, muttering his "fe-fo-fi-fum," may continue, "I smell 
the blood of an Englishman." Or Gaffer Hexam (in Our 
Mutual Friend) may remark, as he steals a sixpence from a 
body floating on the Thames, that, "It feels cold and clammy 
and wet." Or the proud Balboa, extending his vision by 
poetic license from "a peak in Darien" to the Pacific Ocean, 
may utter raptures concerning what he sees. In short, the 
spoken word may easily appeal also to any of the five senses 
other than that of hearing. 

So it is that the spoken word is usually, and perhaps quite 
invariably, a symbol for something else. It requires translation 
by the listener, whose imagination completes the suggested 
idea. It is that something else — whatever it may be — that 
measures the true effectiveness of the speech. Speech is the 
vehicle and not the end. The eloquence of Demosthenes, as 
that of Lincoln, was less in what he said than in what he 
literally thought. Thus it is that the expert stage dramatist 
writes his play not in words but in the ideas that the words 
are intended to convey — the reactions of the audience; and 
in this attitude of mind he is able to detach himself from the 
tyranny of words as such, and not use them at all if some 
of the other resources of his medium will at the given moment 
serve him better. In the theatre of today dialog is crisp and 
snappy in its interchange partly because the great alteration 
in living conditions demands a more telegraphic style, and 
more because many other factors have been developed to carry 
on the play. Shakespeare's stage was so meagerly equipped 
that the dialog had to state that the scene was a forest, a 
palace, a street — that it was day or night, and many more 
clues to circumstance that a random dip into any of his 
masterpieces will soon disclose. Nowadays scenery and light- 
ing particularly relieve dialog of these unfair burdens and relate 
it far more nearly to every-day speech. 

Talkie Lessons From Movie Titles 

Strictly speaking, the strange new element is sound and 
not speech. Speech has been joined with motion pictures 
since their infancy in the shape of the printed "titles" — or 
"legends" or "captions"- — upon the screen; and in the artistic 
sense speech of that sort is not much more second-hand than 
that which is directly spoken. As the word that is heard by 
the ear commonly has to be translated afterward by the brain 
as something other than sound, the printed word seen by the 
eye frequently also has to be translated because it has nothing 
to do with sight directly. 

When the talkies permanently came, speech was already 
so far a part of motion picture practice that one-third of the 
footage of the average reel consisted of titles. Attempts 
had been made, every couple of years, to prove that the 

14 



motion picture art was in its zenith when a picture had no 
titles, among the interesting later productions of this sort 
being a version of James Whitcomb Riley's "The Old Swim- 
min' Hole," starring Charles Ray, and "The Last Laugh," 
starring Emil Jannings and directed by another superb artist, 
F. W. Murnau. But because speech, even in printed title form 
is so naturally and easily a part of motion picture appeal, its 
elimination upon such arbitary grounds as provided by what 
here seems to be an over-nice and possibly mistaken artistic 
sense, has not been approved by the industry at large. On the 
contrary, titles have been pushed to the apparent limit of 
their expression, the records showing a wide variety of experi- 
ments to develop their effectiveness. 

Experiments With Printed Speech 

As many years ago as the heyday of the old Lubin Studio 
at Philadelphia, there was tried out a scheme whereby the 
witnesses in a courtroom scene gave their testimony in words 
double-exposed in dark areas over their heads on the actual 
picture. In a much later but now long-past feature called, 
if memory serves true, "Sporting Life," the action of the scene 
suddenly "froze," so to speak, and became a background of 
the printed title imposed over it — a method tried anew by 
Ceorge Loane Tucker in 1915-1916, when that gifted pro- 
ducer was director-general of the then recently organized 
Goldwyn Pictures Corporation. 

The cut-and-try worker, urged to explain the abandonment 
of these devices, probably will say after brief reflection that 
mechanical delays entailed, and, above all, the item of trans- 
lation for the foreign market, made them impractical. The 
fact lies deeper. They were given up because in effect they 
didn't seem right — the titles didn't "get over" as well as by 
the established plan of "cutting" them in. And whether 
those persons in the game divined the reason or not, it was 
this: the spectator appreciates best when he is able to con- 
centrate; and his mind is so constituted that he concentrates 
best on one thing at a time. To watch the scene in the court- 
room, however familiar it already may have become, to restudy 
the orientation of characters and their varying facial expressions 
and at the same time attend their speech presented in this 
fashion, was a little like dividing one's attention over a three- 
ring circus. 

Now, of course, in the regular theatre one does not literally 
blot out the scene while he listens to the speech — and yet, if 
the production is carefully made, that is, in effect, what hap- 
pens. As in concentrating on a word one is reading on a 
printed page he is also vaguely conscious of an area of printed 
text around the focal point, the engrossed audience listens to 
the player's telling words with a momentary dimming of the 
unrelated parts of the scene, the dimming being done by 
themselves. If attention is genuinely concentrated on the 
speech, the physical scene, to all intents and purposes, is not 
there save as one wishes to recall it. And what the venerable 
"cut-in" title does is artificially to assist such concentration 
by complete elimination of the scene for a brief interval. Thus, 
the universally used, traditional title was, in one respect at 
least, firmly rooted in approved psychology. 

The stumbling-block here was the lack of uniformity in 
the audience itself. One person could read and appreciate 
quicker than another; and if he was not loud in his complaints 
that the title was held on the screen too long — in other 
words, that the scene was blotted out too long — the tenuous 
thread of interest snapped for him and he became restless. 
In this quandary the producers hit upon a device which was 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C ! N E M ATOCR AP H ER 



Fifteen 



to decorate the title background with something that would 
divert the eye that too quickly had exhausted the meaning 
of the lettering. Being specific about it, probably the first 
decorated titles were made about 1908 by Richard Klaussen, 
the artist for many years in charge of the title department 
for the old Vitagraph Company of America at Brooklyn, N. Y. 
They seem to have been re-invented independently a few years 
later at the Thomas H. Ince Studios in California, by Irvin V. 
Willat and Mon W. Randall, the former then a master-camera- 
man and the other an artist less celebrated then than later for 
a highly original, vigorous technic. The Vitagraph Company 
had virtually abandoned the decorated title because there were 
too many other novelties to engage public attention for films; 
but early in 1915 the Ince picture, "Peggy," starring Billie 
Burke and with decorated titles throughout, was submitted 
to the distributors, Triangle Film Corporation, with a request 
for approval of the title backgrounds, in particular, that the 
practice might be continued for all Triangle- Ince releases. 
Approval readily given, the adornment became regular practice 
not only for the Ince division but for most of Triangle's com- 
petitors. Curiously enough it never was favored by D. W. 
Griffith, who at that time headed another division of Triangle. 
But the public liked it; and an even more potent reason for 
widespread adoption was the fact that it helped so much to 
"pretty" or "doll up" otherwise mediocre films. 

In the half-dozen years following those in which workers 
in the first celebrated companies accepted and developed such 
basic advantages as the close-up, fade-back, double exposure, 
one-to-one shooting and shooting through scenes painted on 
glass, there was no organization that contributed more to 
picture technic than that at Culver City, California, dominated 
by the far-seeing genius of Thomas H. Ince. Hence the eager 
interest in title development of his chief of camera staff, 
Irvin Willat, was aided and abetted. Willat carried title 
decoration to its high-water mark represented by such achieve- 
ments as one in a play of big city politics, starring William 
H. Thompson and Charles Ray, showing a living spider actually 
ensnaring a fly, and, more remarkably still, a tiny frieze with 
living figures acting out an allegorical prologue back of the 
opening titles of "A Gamble in Souls," starring William 
Desmond. 

Finding Where Words Belong 

These experiments were only incidental to other pioneer 
work which had to do with matters more fundamental than 
ingenuity of background. It was discovered, for instance, 
that titles should not anticipate action, which was precisely 
what had been learned about spoken words centuries earlier 
by stage folk. Of late years one has not seen much of the 
anticipatory title — that is, anticipatory in that sense; but in 
the first decade or so of the present century, it was one of 
the commonest technical sins. A title would read something 
like this — "Next day John Smith took his wife out driving;" 
and the succeeding picture-sequence would forthwith show 
John Smith domg precisely that thing, with the inevitable 
boring effect on the audience of having done it twice. The 
title should not "give the snap away" — should not, by telling 
too much, "take the edge off the story." 

Then it was found, too, that the decorated title background 
slowed the tempo by inviting, without concentrating, further 
attention. The outcome here was that the best practice 
eschewed decorated backgrounds in all titles that belonged 
expressly to the pictorial action — "cut-in" titles, as they say 
— using them only for "editorial" titles leading up to action, 
or for those covering lapses between sequences or chapters of 
action. This explains the distinction drawn in the usual 
shooting script, of the silent picture days, between "titles" 
and "spoken titles." The former only were to be decorated. 

Nor was this all. The title writer began to learn that the 
words were very definitely related to the pictorial action, and 
that writing one was by no means like composing a sentence 



for a printed page. In Erich von Stroheim's interesting and in 
many respects notable picture "Foolish Wives," there was a 
"lapse-of-time" title something like this: "Night . . . music 
. . . women's voices . . . surf . . . fragrance . . . fireflies." 
No subject and predicate, no questions of syntax, no harrassing 
infinitives or metaphors — just those items of the "milieu" 
necessarily omitted by the silent picture and here supplied. 

To the casual eye the title in its more advanced forms 
seemed more remarkable for what it left out than for what 
it said. Compression seemed the rule. One writer, Roy 
Summerville, on the scenario staff of old Triangle-Fine Arts, 
boasted occasionally that he was the first to use the three 
dots of elision to suggest the continuance of conversation not 
actually given on the screen; and there were other forms of 
editing words that forcibly reminded one of Henry Holt's 
famous advice to authors to practice their art by writing tele- 
grams. There were also efforts to avoid the distractions of 
punctuation marks; and if Roy Summerville should go down 
to fame for three asterisks, the present writer may claim the 
innovation of "no periods at ends of titles." In William 
De Mi lie's production of "The Fast Set," made from Frederick 
Lonsdale's stage play "Spring Cleaning," even the usual quota- 
tion marks were cut from spoken titles. The reason back of 
all this is the same that applies to newspaper headlines where 
punctuation also is frowned upon. Nothing there is permitted 
to interfere with reading the full meaning at the first glance. 
And in spoken titles the word uttered "trippingly upon the 
tongue" is of high importance. 

The title differs from the printed sentence in this other 
particular — there can be no turning back to read it again. 
It comes but once in the ideal telling of the story, and then 
in the most effective succession of bids for attention in which 
acting and scenery also figure. The title is now seen as 
essentially confirmatory of the pictorial action — a supplement 
to things literally seen. By and large this endorses and carries 
on a long-standing practice of the stage where speech inter- 
prets the gesture, gesture there being commonly made first. 
This order of precedence, that the gesture is before the speech, 
is psychologically based on two points — one that the eye is 
quicker than the ear, and that the spoken word, being oftenest 
a symbol of something other than mere sound, requires more 
interpretation. 

But with the coming of talkies it is observable that this 
is no final statement of the case. Words are generally sec- 
ondary to the pictorial action; yet there are times when the 
words are quicker in point of time. Certainly it is more 
economical (to revert to a celebrated anecdote of Barrie and 
Granville-Barker) , to say in words that one has "a red-headed 
brother who drinks port in Shropshire" than to try to show 
it altogether in pictures. There indubitably is a time when 
the spoken word, despite its familiar character as a symbol 
of something else, comes to the forefront as the most effective 
of the available means to the given end; and it is a very short- 
sighted director or continuity writer who does not seize upon 
it at that moment as a thoroughly legitimate means of artistic 
expression. 

Perfection of the motion picture title has brought about an 
economy of words. This telegraphic character, however, is 
little more than has been attained by stage dialog, in which 
every phase is fraught with meaning to just that extent that 
it may be comfortably absorbed by the audience — not to do 
less with words but to do better. The tendency has been 
not to dispense with words, but to boil them down to elemental 
strength, just as the poet prunes and polishes his verse with- 
out meaning in the slightest degree that he is thereby re- 
linquishing his verbal medium. 

Sounds Beyond Words 

Turning from the symbolism of speech, one sees that there is 
a power of pure sound, proverbial and known first-hand to 
(Continued on Page 26) 



Sixteen 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 




Top, the three Moore brothers in "Stout Hearts and Willing Hands." Center, the Keystone Cops 
doing a "come-back." Bottom, Laura LaPlante, Mary Carr and Alee Francis in one ot those 

heart-rending scenes. 



The Keystone Cops Return 

Masquers Bring Them Back in "Meller Me I lend ram a" 
by JOHN W. BOYLE, A. S. C. 



IT IS NOT often, I'm sorry to say, that a cinematographer 
laughs so much on a set that he has difficulty in doing his 
work. The ordinary run of comedies thus far has not reached 
that point of perfection. As a matter of fact, comedies, gen- 
erally speaking, are very serious things. 

But, I have just finished photographing one that would 
make even the ex-King of Spain laugh if he saw it while 
on his way out of the country with a troop of Republican anti- 
Monarchists at his heels. And, did it bring back old memories 
of those golden days that have gone — those days of the distant 
past when sound tracks and super-speed film were not even 
thought of! I'll say it did! 

When I walked onto the set the first day I could hardly 
believe my eyes. There I saw Ford Sterling, Chester Conklin. 
Mack Swain, Jimmy Finlayson, Hank Mann and Clyde Cook — 
the Keystone Cops — all in their old-time uniforms, trick mus- 
taches and everything. It was like a flashback to the days 
when comedy was not comedy unless there was a flock of 
pies straying through the air in the general direction of some- 
one's head; the days when the seat of a comedian's pants was 
intended for just one thing — a spot on which to plant the toe 
of a boot. 

And, would you believe it, the name of the picture is 
"Stout Hearts and Willing Hands"; a picture that is a comedy, 
but is packed with the old "mellerdramer" as you never saw 
before. This picture is one of a series which the Masquers, 
Hollywood's "Lamb's Club", is making with which to raise 
funds to build a new club house. It is typical of the members 
of this wonderful organization to go out and work for the 
funds rather than to try to raise them by other methods. All 
talent in the series is 
volunteer. The first story 
was written by Al Austin 
and Walter Weems, and 
was directed by Bryan 
Foy. Two outside "will- 
ing hearts," Laura La- 
Plante and Mary Carr, 
add their bit to the mem- 
bers of the club in mak- 
ing the cast complete — 
and there are more stars 
in the cast than there 
are in the heavens. 

Working with this 
group was a real joy. 
First the story was so 
funny. Then, the 
"asides" of the actors, in 
true old-fashioned style, 
were uproariously funny. 
At times, too funny for 
those of us who were 
trying to put it on the 
film. 

I don't know which 
struck me the more 
forcibly, the all-around 
sportsmanship of Director 
Foy, or the general 
esprit-de-corps. Judging 




Mr. 



from my experience, working for the Masquers, in the 
mind of a member, is like giving your all on a football 
team for old Harvard. Not a grumble although there were 
hours of waiting. Not a yip of disapproval if someone had 
funnier lines than the other. Not an expression of anything 
like jealousy if someone got more footage than the other. 
I'm telling you it was a joy to work with such a crowd. I 
can't understand how they went through their act without 
breaking down. There were Alec Francis and Mary Carr, the 
old folks with the mortgage, and Laura LaPlante, the "little 
Nell." Lew Cody, the villain holding the mortgage. Frank 
Fay as the "True-Blue Harold," an open-chested hero, if ever 
there was one. 

Of course, there was the saloon with the three Moore boys 
as the bartenders. And if you don't know them, they put 
their names on their chests. You'll die when you see the 
hero ask for a glass of buttermilk to calm his nerves for a 
big play on the roulette table. And then, there is the sawmill 
where the circular saw threatens death to the hero, and of 
course, all ends happy with the villain out of the way. 

But the kick to me was the return of the famous Keystone 
Cops, who jump to the alarm in the same fashion they did 
years ago in the old-time pictures. And how they jump! 
Even the Admiral of the United States Navy is called in — 
and he has an English accent. That's enough. You'll know 
why we laughed when you see it. 

A remarkable group are the members of this Masquers club. 
They are an outstanding example of what cooperation will do 
in the picture industry. They need a new clubhouse. Times 
are hard. But they take advantage of these slow times when 

many of them are not 
working and put in their 
spare time in doing 
something that will bring 
them the house they 
want. That's using the 
head for more than a 
hat-rack. And — the way 
they plunged into the 
work a real joy to watch. 
A nice crowd to photo- 
graph, too, for none was 
trying to have better 
lighting or nicer closeups 
than the other. There 
was no star who frowned 
upon a bit player who 
seemed to be getting a 
bigger "break" than us- 
ual. All you had to do 
was make the best pic- 
ture you could, and never 
think about the feelings 
of any player. You can 
shoot pictures when all 
you have to think of is 
the picture. But that's 
the way of the Mas- 
quers. Cooperation seems 
to be their watchword. 

17 



Boyle at the camera during the shooting of Masquers' picture. 
Franklin Pangborn is the "lady" in the foreground. 



Thoughts In Passing 

WONDER just what it's all about . . . Passed a street 
corner this morning and bought an apple from a poor, 
old woman whose gratitude at my nickel purchase fairly 
radiated from her wrinkled face . . . Came to the office and 
read where a movie star was kicking because her salary for 
the next three years would total but a measly one million 
dollars . . . Shucks . . . there must be something wrong . . . 
Friend of mine . . . nice, clean, industrious chap with wife 
and three babies came to me the other week to borrow ten 
dollars so he could get some groceries . . . The next Sunday 
I was in Caliente and watched a man lose six hundred dollars 
in five minutes in a crap game . . . that would buy a lot of 
groceries . . . Doesn't seem to be much happiness for anybody, 
anyhow ... the poor are unhappy because they need so much 
the rich are unhappy because they have so much to 
worry about . . . This writer can't figure out where he stands 
but, sometimes we wish we were back on that old, rocky 
farm in Pennsylvania where we used to have a good time on 
Sunday just sitting and whittling on a piece of soft pine . . . 
Too much rushing about, going like the Devil and getting 
nowhere . . . matter of fact, most of us couldn't tell you 
where we're aiming, anyway . . . 

Vision 

THIS may be a far cry from the technical end of the motion 
picture business . . . but, did you ever stop to think what 
a big spot the dreamers play in this world. So often you hear 
someone say, "He's just a dreamer." They make a mistake, 
for a large part of the time the person they refer to is a man 
with Cod-given "vision." He is a man with an idea; a man 
with faith in that idea. And, those are the men who have 
made possible most of the great things of this world. Edison, 
Bell, Columbus, Fulton — they dreamed. They had faith. 
They gave the world something. Same in this picture industry. 
The men who in the beginning had the vision to see a future 
in the motion picture, and stuck to their dream, landed on 
top. If it had not been for them we would not have the 
picture of today. 

Congratulations 

MUCH credit must be given Joseph Walker, A. S. C, and 
Elmer Dyer, A. S. C, for the splendid cinematography in 
Columbia's picture "Dirigible." Mr. Walker was Chief Cine- 
matographer and Mr. Dyer was the aerial cinematography 
specialist. The two gentlemen surely did an excellent piece of 
work, and again prove that the cinematographers of this indus- 
try are artists. 

Tanar Catalogue 

ONE of the most attractive catalogues that has come to 
our attention for some time is that of the Tanar Corpora- 
tion, Hollywood manufacturers of portable recording equip- 
ment. This catalogue, consisting of 24 pages, is profusely 
illustrated and is gotten up in an unusually attractive color 
combination of red, green, black and buff, and is another 
indication of the progressiveness of this organization which in 
a year has made most unusual strides. 



Musicals 

JESSE LASKY says that Musicals are coming back. Thanks, 
Mr. Lasky. We always have liked musical comedy — ■ 
when well done — and we hope your prediction is correct, for 
a good musical on the screen is a welcome relief from so 
many crook pictures. We hope that the various producers 
will use a little judgment when they do return, and not give 
us so many of them that we will be overstuffed. The trouble 
is that as soon as one company makes a picture that clicks, 
no matter what the type, all the others join the gold-rush 
and turn out similar pictures. But in their mad scramble to 
get in on what they think is the popular fancy, they neglect to 
give us good stories. That is the chief reason why the 
musicals went out as they did a while back. Too many of 
them — and too many bad ones. Wouldn't it be a marvelous 
thing if some company should make a successful picture and 
no other company would try to make one like it! 

President Arnold 

THE AMERICAN Society of Cinematographers is to be 
heartily congratulated upon the organization's selection 
of John Arnold as President. Mr. Arnold is a man of few 
words; but he is very strong on work and results. The fact 
that he has been with the Metro-Coldwyn-Mayer company 
for so many years is mute evidence of that fact, for picture 
companies are not prone to keep men in their employ for 
eighteen years. 

Mr. Kershner's drawing on the opposite page is a splendid 
one, for it really portrays the real John Arnold — a man who 
works, and will continue to work for the benefit of the A. S. C. 
and every cameraman in the picture industry. Mr. Arnold 
believes the cameraman should be given greater recognition. 
He will work toward that end — and we predict that he will 
succeed. 

This Month's Cover 

THOSE of you who want to see a native daughter of Cali- 
fornia will kindly turn to the cover of this issue. There 
you will see Dorothy Revier, born in San Francisco. One 
of the few Californians to become a brilliant figure in the 
State's most famous industry — motion pictures. 

Dorothy started out to be a dancer. In fact, she became a 
very excellent dancer. And then, seven years ago, someone 
saw her and figured she was screen material. They figured 
right. After a year of free-lance work, Dorothy was signed 
by Columbia. She stayed with them for six years. She and 
Columbia sort of grew up together in the picture industry, 
for her fame rose along with the fame of that picture organiza- 
tion which now takes no back seat for any company when 
it comes to turning out pictures that are entertaining and 
worthwhile. Dorothy has left Columbia now. She is again 
a free-lance. She just completed work in "The Black Camel" 
for Fox, and present indications point to a very rosy future 
for this native daughter of California. 



1! 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Nineteen 




«*4K 




.^b infill* 



THRT — HAS 

616 AnBltlOlV f 
-fO POT THAT ( 
5I6N UpfHEHtj 

WHERE IT 8&ON6S 



President Arnold ot the A. S. C. aims tor Recognition tor Cameramen 



Labcratcry Department 



Conducted by EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 



Preservation of Motion Picture Film 

FOR years before the nitro-cellulose base was generally 
adopted for the support on which photographic emulsions 
were coated, study was made of the preservation of negatives 
of which the emulsion was coated on glass. This early study 
of photographic images on glass proved that a silver image 
in gelatine would keep almost indefinitely, provided certain 
conditions in the manipulation were complied with. 

The making of photographic images with an emulsion coated 
on nitro-cellulose base is more recent than the glass and paper 
processes and, as a consequence, there are not many records 
of long standing which may be considered as having established 
a comparison between the stability of film and glass photo- 
graphic images. 

Motion picture negative film having a nitro-cellulose base 
was first made in 1889 and as the emulsion was not then, 
nor for a considerable time afterward, as sensitive as the 
present emulsion, it was also used for printing positives until 
about 1895, when positive film was first manufactured com- 
mercially, though it was not until some years later that the 
use of either negative or positive film began to be of conse- 
quence. 

However, during this period there had been an increasing 
demand for negative film in roll form for the making of snap 
shot negatives and as this film was basically the same as 
motion picture negative film and received the same general 
manipulation, we are able to form an opinion as to the com- 
parative keeping qualities of film and glass negatives, except 
for such differences as might be affected by the customary 
method of storing glass plates and cut film negatives in special 
paper enclosures, whereas motion picture film has always been 
wound into a tight roll from which air is excluded. 

As a result of the experience gained from the storage of 
negatives cut from rolls of film as used in the Kodak, which 
had been thoroughly fixed and washed, it is known that 
preservation over long periods of time is possible. 

The constituent parts of motion picture film are a cellulose 
nitrate base and a gelatine coating which contains the silver 
image. The cellulose nitrate base consists chiefly of nitro- 
cotton and this substance, while apparently stable, is subject 
to a very slow change with time, while the gelatine contain- 
ing the emulsion, if properly fixed, washed and dried, is 
absolutely permanent. 

The change or deterioration in the nitro-cellulose base will 
be negligible if it is stored at a consistently low temperature, 
but more gradual if subjected to a high temperature, which 
causes the release of volatile substances which affects the 
physical properties of the base and is liable in time to attack 
the emulsion and gradually destroy the silver image. 

On the other hand, insufficient fixing and failure to wash 
the film thoroughly to remove all traces of hypo will greatly 
accelerate this change and may result in a yellow discoloration 
of the gelatine coating. Furthermore, insufficient care in the 
processing manipulations combined with poor storage condi- 
tions of the finally processed film likewise causes trouble from 
the standpoint of film shrinkage. 

When motion picture film is prepared for storage it should 
be wound on wooden cores, wrapped in chemically pure paper 
and placed in a sealed container, preferably of fibre or hard 
rubber, which in turn should be enclosed in a metal box, but 

20 



no metal should be permitted to come in direct contact with 
the film during the storage period. 

In view of the effect of temperature on film base, the 
container should be stored in a cool but not too dry atmos- 
phere, or such as would ordinarily prevail in a well constructed 
and properly ventilated film vault. Ideal conditions might be 
compared to the temperature ordinarily prevailing in a house- 
hold refrigerator. Under such conditions there would be little 
to fear either from a change in the physical properties of the 
base or the gelatine coating or from the possibility of shrinkage 
to a degree which would affect the perforation pitch and cause 
difficulty in printing future positives. 

The use of negatives for making reprints at intermittent 
periods has a beneficial effect as far as the stability goes, 
as this permits the escape of any small trace of gases which 
may have accumulated but under all circumstances, especially 
with negatives which are inactive for long periods, there 
should be careful examination by re-winding at least once a 
year, so that any change may be detected and the film copied, 
because once deterioration has started it is difficult to check it. 



Waxing Prints 

SOME film processing concerns so treat the prints that there 
is absolutely no trouble with film sticking or collecting 
on the tension shoes during the first couple of runs. But 
some prints seem to be coated with a substance that causes 
trouble for the projectionist. 

The result is that tension shoes, sprockets and even the 
sound slit is filled with what seems to be a brown floor wax. 
During the first two or three runnings, especially with high 
intensity lamps this substance melts off and collects on the 
first cool surface it comes in contact with. 

The result, one side of the intermittent sprocket piles up 
with wax until the tooth will hardly enter the sprocket hole 
and a wobbly picture on the screen is the result. 

The application of this stuff is seldom equally applied and 
as a rule only one side of the sprocket is affected. After the 
sprocket has all it will hold the rest passes down to the take 
up sprocket and it fills up in turn, following which the slit 
in the sound gate gets a share with fatal results to the volume 
and quality of the sound. 

The use of ordinary waxes of this kind for this purpose 
constitutes a fire hazard for, if the intermittent tooth fails 
to engage because of this clogging, the film is liable to stop 
in front of the aperture. Then fireworks with the amperage 
we carry today. 

Get yourself a good stiff toothbrush and keep it on the 
starting box where it is easy to grab when you see the sprocket 
turn dark between the teeth. It will save you trouble. 



Max B. Du Pont, A. S. C. 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 
on "SINGLE SIN" HE. 1746 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



Portable Sound Equipment 

(Continued from Page 12) 
recorder, case No. 5 contains the amplifier, 3 audio lights, head 
phcnes, audio light cable, volume setting cable, extra tubes, 
case No. 6 contains the amplifier batteries, case No. 7 contains 
all the accessories that go to make a practical portable equip- 
ment. By practical equipment I mean instead of the usual 
25 feet of very light cable, we give with the Audio-Camex 
system 200 feet of five wire shielded cable. This cable alone 
weighs about 60 pounds, but when you are away from Holly- 
wood it is very hard to get extra cable. With this outfit 
we also use cannon connectors throughout. These connectors 
are the same standard connectors as used by the studios of 
Hollywood, and cause no trouble whatsoever and do not get out 
of working order. Our battery cases may be a little heavier 
than usual because we use a heavy duty battery believing that 
the best is none too good and the weight from the heavy duty 
battery more than pays for itself in the life and service given by 
a battery of this type. 




-*r 



\ 



The Audio Recording Light 



When the idea of the portable double system was first 
thought of there was one obstacle in the way, and that was 
a method and means of synchronizing the motion picture 
camera with the sound recording head. The Audio-Camex 
engineers after much work and the aid of one of the largest 
motor manufacturers in the world completed a pair of direct 
current motors operating on B batteries interlocked and 
synchronized with each other. These motors were first an- 
nounced in this magazine last October and were the first ones 
that were ever put on the market for any sound system. These 
motors run both as direct current motors but each makes its 
own alternating current on one end of the motor. And when 
the interlocking switch is thrown on, the alternating current 
running from both motors must stay in step or the motors 
will buck and not perform at all. The amplifier is so con- 
structed that it will work in any climate or humidity and 
perform satisfactorily at all times. The main amplifier is 
impregnated in a catacomb filled with wax. It is a four 
stage direct coupled amplifier. It has a plate current meter 
and volume indicator. The plate current in each tube can be 
measured and one can tell if each tube is properly functioning. 
It has a two position mixer and will handle two microphones 
or it will also handle one microphone and a phonograph pickup, 
mixing phonograph record music with voice. The cable con- 
nections are all on the panel making it rigid and when the 



cover is on the case there are no protruding connections what- 
soever, it will be noticed all the connectors are of a different 
type, the microphone connections having five point connectors, 
the battery cable connectors being a six point, the audio light 
connector being a four point. It is, therefore, impossible to 
connect up the outfit the wrong way. 




Amplifier Case 

The bottom drawer of the amplifier case has a place for 
three audio lights, four extra tubes, a pair of head phones, 
audio light cable and volume indicator setting cable. 

The audio light has a three prong base and will fit any 
standard radio c-x socket. This light is about one and one- 
eighth inches in diameter and about six inches long. It has 
a life from thirty thousand to a hundred thousand feet of 
film. One of the tubes being used here in Hollywood has 
already been used for one hundred and fifty thousand feet 
of film and is still in use. The life of a tube generally depends 
upon the amplifier and the matched impedence. 






•8fe 




Bullet Type Microphone with cover removed 

The recording head is specially built and designed for sound 
recording. Its construction is strong and sturdy and will stand 
considerable abuse without getting out of adjustment. It only 
consists of as few gears as possible to make it operate. The 
sprocket wheel is made to run absolutely accurate so there 
will be no flutter in the recording of sound at any time. In 
fact all good sound depends upon good motion in the sound 
camera. Our recording slit sits right close to the film and 
is a very unique construction and is made in such a way that 
the slit will not fill up with dust or dirt and at all times will 
record good track without having the modulation cut down 
by dirt and scratches. (Continued on Page 42) 





Br 



mmm 



! 



Amplifier Unit 



Interior of Amplifier 



Amplifier Panel 



Twenty- two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 



John Arnold New President 

(Continued from Page 9) 

Among the other speakers were Past Presidents Dan Clark, 
John F. Seitz, John W. Boyle, Fred Jackman and James Van 
Trees. All spoke briefly concerning the aims and accomplish- 
ments of the society, and Mr. Jackman had the house in up- 
roarious laughter by his reminiscences. 

President Arnold was born in New York City, and it was 
there that he started his career as a cinematographer. It was 
back in 1908 that he "broke in" with the old Thomas Edi- 
son Company at Orange, New Jersey. From there he went to 
the American Mutoscope Company — lots of you may have 
forgotten those days — From Mutoscope he went with Rex 
Film Company. Then to International Film Company, Yankee 
Film Company, Atlas, World Film Company, Rayno, Columbia 
Photoplays and then to the famous old Biograph. 

After a considerable stay with Biograph, Arnold entered the 
employ of the Rolph Photoplays. This was the organization 
controlled by B. H. Rolph who has long been out of pictures 
and whose famous orchestra is heard over the radio on the 
Lucky Strike Hour. 

Then, in 1913, Mr. Arnold joined the Metro Pictures 
Corporation. It was not so large in those days, but through 
the years that concern by various mergers and reorganizations 
finally grew into the great Metro-Coldwyn-Mayer company 
which is one of the greatest of today. And through all the 
changes that took place during those eighteen years, John 
Arnold remained with the company as one of the outstanding 
cameramen of the industry. Executives came and went. New 
presidents passed in and out, but Arnold remained. Now he 
is head of the organization's camera department, and for some 
time has not been behind a camera. He holds a unique record 
with Metro-Coldwyn-Mayer because of the fact that, as far 
as can be learned, he is the only man in the production end 
of the company who was with it at the start eighteen years 
ago and still remains. 

Mr. Arnold should prove to be an ideal leader for the 
society. He is a man who has little to say, believing that 
actions always speak more eloquently than words. He is a 
calm, cool thinker; a man with vision, but one who believes 
in being practical. In other words, he is the rare combination 
of a dreamer and a hard-headed man of action. Under his 
leadership the society should enjoy a year of great success. 

Mr. Milner, First Vice-president, is one of the industry's 
most outstanding cinematographers, and no more able man 
could have been chosen for this office. For years he has 
photographed some of the greatest pictures that Paramount 
has presented. The strength of any organization lies in its 
reserves; and in Mr. Milner the society has a man admirably 
fitted to take over the leadership if it should become necessary. 

Mr. Boyle, Second Vice-president, is another admirable 
officer. He served one term as President, and brings to the 
society the experience so gained. To the writer, the society 
uses excellent judgment in placing former Presidents in office. 
Incidentally, it shows the real bigness of a man who has once 
been President if he accepts another office in later years. 
Mr. Boyle is another man whose cinematographic ability needs 
no introduction. For years he has been one of Hollywood's 
best. 

In selecting Mr. Ci Iks as Third Vice-president the society 
again has shown fine judgment, for he is not only one of the 
best cinematographers in the industry, but is a man of keen 
business sense and a man who has the quality of leadership so 
necessary. 

Mr. Stull did such an excellent job of handling the office 
of Secretary last year that he was, quite naturally, unanimously 
chosen to serve again. A tireless worker and a stickler for 
detail, Mr. Stull stands out as one of the finest Secretaries 
the society has ever had. 



Mr. Schneiderman is not a stranger in the position of 
Treasurer, for he held the same office some years ago, and 
was such an able man that his selection this year when Mr. 
Arnold left the treasureship to become President was a fore- 
gone conclusion. Incidentally, Mr. Schneiderman is another 
of the industry's great cinematographers, for years being one 
of the biggest men in his field with the Fox organization. 

With such a group of officers, the society has nothing to 
fear for the future. 

The annual report of the society, presented at the close 
of the past year, revealed the fact that the society is in the 
healthiest condition of its history. Despite the period of 
depression, the magazine has forged ahead and the Cinemato- 
graphic Annual successfully weathered the storm of its first 
appearance, and gives promise of being still greater in its 
second volume, publication date of which has not yet been 
announced. 

The following committees have been appointed for the 
coming year: 

Public Relations — -John Arnold, chairman, Joseph Dubray, 
Georges Benoit, H. T. Cowling, Claude McDonnell, Harold 
Sintzenich, E. L. Dyer, Ariel Varzes, Frank Zucker, Claude C. 
Carter, Charles Bell. 

Research and Education — John F. Seitz, Joseph Dubray, 
Emery Huse. 

Membership — Fred Jackman and Daniel B. Clark. 

Production — Daniel B. Clark. 

Social and Entertainment — Hal Mohr, Frank Good and 
Gilbert Warrenton. 

Program and Exhibition — Ray June, Elmer Dyer and Hatto 
Tappenbeck. 

Board of Editors — Gilbert Warrenton, Wm. Stull, Joseph 
Dubray, H. T. Cowling, Ned Van Buren, George Schneiderman 
and Hatto Tappenbeck. 



Cameramen Want Silence 

SIXTY FIRST cameramen, representing all Hollywood studios 
replied to the questionnaire on camera silencing sent out 
in March. 91 percent of the replies advocate strong efforts 
toward the development of cameras which would not require 
blimps or covers of any sort. 52 percent of these replies 
urged such efforts in strong terms. 

The weight of the blimps in use was condemned by 90 
percent of the replies; the bulk by 87 percent. 55 percent 
said the blimps made focusing difficult and 73 percent said 
they crowded the sets uncomfortably on close-ups. Prac- 
tically every type of camera cover in use in Hollywood was 
criticized for one or more of these reasons. 

At the meeting of the Producers-Technicians Committee 
April 16th, it was resolved to bring this situation to the at- 
tention of the camera manufacturers and inquire what efforts 
are being made toward the production of a silent camera. 
The Committee will offer to have studio experts confer with 
the manufacturers in an endeavor to advance such efforts. 

The Committee expressed its appreciation of the coopera- 
tion of the American Society of Cinematographers, and of the 
International Photographers of the Motion Picture Industries 
(Local 659 of the I. A. T. S. E. and M. P. M. O.). 

The questionnaire also inquired the effects of directional 
microphone devices (concentrators, ribbon microphones, etc.), 
and also of "noiseless recording" systems. The replies, how- 
ever, revealed that too few cameramen have worked with any 
of these devices to permit generalization as to their effects. 
Several leading cameramen expressed the opinion that the 
development of adequate concentrators would reduce the im- 
portance of silencing the camera. On the other hand, the 
recording systems which eliminate ground noise make inci- 
dental noises, as from cameras, more noticeable. 



A REMARKABLE 
NEGATIVE FILM 

IN OW you can have from two to three 
times the speed of ordinary negative, 
especially under Mazda lights . . . greater 
exposure and developing latitude . . . un- 
excelled color balance . . . every other 
quality essential to the finest sound pic- 
tures, including typical Eastman uniform- 
ity .. . at no increase in cost. Every test, in 
the laboratory, in the studio, on the lot, 
confirms the belief that Eastman Super- 
Sensitive Panchromatic Negative, Type 2, 
is the most remarkable negative emul- 
sion ever offered the camera man. Eastman 
Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, New 
York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 

Eastman Super-Sensitive 

Panchromatic Negative, Type 2 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 23 



INTRODUCING 

A NEW LAMP 

AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO YOU 



NOW another General Electric 
product — the Photoflash lamp — 
eliminates the smell, smoke and noise of 
flashlight powder. Already it is in wide 
use among press, commercial and pro- 
fessional photographers generally. 

The lamp itself is simple enough, both 
in construction and operation. Thin 
aluminum foil in crumpled sheet form, 
pure oxygen and a specially coated fila- 
ment aTe the contents of the clear glass 
bulb, which has the usual medium screw 
base. When the current — which may be 
that supplied by A.C. or D. C. circuit or 
by dry-cell or storage battery — is applied, 
a brilliant flash of white light which lasts 
only 1/50 second occuts. 

The lamp is used with suitable TeflectoT 
equipment for best results. One lamp 
amply illuminates small areas with few 
subjects, while several lamps can be 
flashed simultaneously for largeT groups. 

The General Electric Photoflash 
MAZDA lamp is assured a definite place 
in the cinema industry. The creation of 
artificial silent lightning is one of many 



GENERAL 
ELECTRIC 



Join us in the General Electric radio program 

broadcast every Saturday evening over a 

nation-wide H- B. C. networ\. 



uses that suggest themselves at once. 
In still photography, Photoflash will be 
used extensively in publicity shots in the 
homes of film stars, wheTe its cleanliness, 
convenience and efficiency will be wel- 
come. Wherever flashlight shots aTe 
desired — in public places, on boats, 
trains, in hotels — the G. E. Photoflash 
MAZDA lamp will make them their best. 




24 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



Announcement Extraordinary No. 2 

The Moreno -Snyder 
Continuous Camera Is a Fact 

In the American Cinematographer for November, 1930, we announced that the camera 
(and projector) was in process of manufacture and that it would soon be ready. Delays 
were caused by the addition of important new devices invented by Mr. Moreno. 

Well, here it is — the camera that wise ones said could not be successfully fabricated — 
and by test it looms as the ideal precision instrument in its field. 

It is offered to the trade on its merits and here are some of them: 



CONTINUOUS. The film passes through the camera at con- 
tinuously uniform speed with no intermittent motion on 
either the film or any moving part of the camera. 

NOISELESS. This fundamental kinematic characteristic per- 
mits of a design which is noiseless in operation. 

EXPOSURE TIME. At the now standard intermittent film 
speed of 90 feet per minute the exposure time per picture 
frame is 1 /4S seconds. With the M. S. Camera, and at a 
continuous film speed of 90 feet per minute, the exposure 
time per picture frame is about twice as long or 1 /24 sec- 
onds. Result: Standard exposure with M. S. camera is 
obtained by about 50% of now necessary standard illumina- 
tion or of working lens aperture, thereby increasing photo- 
graphic values of picture. 

SLOW MOTION. This camera is without any necessary 
change of adjustment a silent "slow motion" camera up to 
a film speed of about 300 frames per second or 1125 feet 
per minute. 

SOUND RECORDINC. On account of the continuously uni- 
form progress of the film synchronized sound recording can 
be effected at the corresponding picture frames and not a 
predetermined distance therefrom — another decided ad- 
vantage over present standard practices for sound on film 
methods. 



COLOR PHOTOCRAPHY. The increased exposure time for 
standard film speed offers great advantages for any system 
of color photography. 

DEPTH OF FOCUS. Another desirable characteristic of the 
M. S. Camera is the fact that a greater depth of focus is 
obtained for any definite setting of any standard lens. 

FOCUSINC DEVICE. The change of camera from focusing 
(finder) position to exposure position does not move any 
heavy part of the camera; but is effected by the jarless 
and practically resistless moving of a small lever for about 
W'. The photographic lens and the film are untouched, 
therefore, no movement of any kind is required. 

MACAZINES. Delivery and windup film magazines are 
separate from each other, permitting about 50% reduction 
in weight and bulk of handling of camera film supply. 

CONVENIENCE. The M. S. Camera is lighter than most 
professional cameras, is easy to set up and its silence makes 
it a boon to the news men. 

EXPOSOMETER. The handiest device ever installed on a 
camera; at a glance the cameraman is able to determine the 
correct intensity of light and exposure. This means stand- 
ardization of negative density — enables the operator at will 
1o absolutely duplicate any predetermined lighting condition. 

TRICK WORK. For trick work alone the M. S. Camera is 

worth more than its cost. Its steadiness is amazing and its 
continuous movement enables it to do wonderful things. 



Our next announcement will concern itself with color 
photography and projectors. Our illustrated folder will, 
within the next two weeks, be sent to all inquirers. 

MORENO -SNYDER CINE CORPORATION, Ltd. 

6250 Santa Monica Blvd. and 1 072 Vine St., Hollywood, California 
Phones - Office CR-0306 - Shops CR-5277 

Gabriel Garcia Moreno, Chief Engineer William G. Fairbank, President 

Silas Edgar Snyder, Vice-President, in charge of Sales Promotion 



(Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers) 

25 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 



Sound and Speech 

(Continued from Page 151 
all music-lovers. There is the force of rhythm, used so 
effectively in the incessant beating of tom-toms off-stage in 
Austin Strong's celebrated play, "The Drums of Oude," or 
even more closely knit into the plot of an early sound picture, 
"The Dangerous Woman," with Milton Sills and Baclanova, 
where the savage ceremonies of an African tribe stir the 
sensuous nature of a white woman till she becomes a vampire. 
But even music tries mostly to express more than sound. 
One composition is "The Awakening of Spring." Another is 
"The March of the Wooden Soldiers." Still another is "The 
Moonlight Sonata." Virtually all are interpretative of things 
other than what "delights the ear" alone. 

And yet even pure sound is not altogether new to the 
makers of titles. For many years they have been underscoring 
words for emphasis, or having the words appear successively 
upon the screen in imitation of staccato utterance, or having 
speeches run in criss-cross to approximate the chatter of gos- 
sips, or having significant words like "War" and "Murder" 
and "Help!" grow from nothing till they fill the field, or 
having the cry "Police!" or "Fire!" in quivering letters, or 
having dialects suggested with occasional misspellings. Bor- 
rowings from the fine practice of typography have long given 
biblical utterances in the ecclesiastical black letter or "Old 
English," and growing discernment has uncovered the force 
that lies in delicate faces of type for plays of fragile sentiment, 
and more vigorous forms for virile stories. There has come 
about, it must be added, an all-around but peculiar style of 
lettering for titles that the type-founders have done the 
reciprocal compliment of casting in fonts. It is a generally 
round, open-faced letter, with heavy ceriphs, easy to produce 
and to read and not seriously modified by varying laboratory 
developments of the film upon which it is used. 

Quite naturally it will be some time before the industry 
as a whole realizes the true affinity of motion picture titles 
and uttered speech — naturally because in any radical departure, 
in art as in politics, the first overwhelming tendency is to 
throw out everything old — pack and baggage. Nevertheless, 
and this should be clear by now, there are valuable benefits 
from the old to be cherished and enjoyed. So, before dis- 
pensing utterly with the long-serving title, its various forms 
should be scrutinized, each in complete detachment from the 
others, to see precisely what it has to give. 

The Playwright Speaks 

One common form of title, long accepted on the screen, 
will seem quite unadaptable, and that is the editorial title in 
which the maker of the picture makes observations in his 
own person, without the intervening medium of any char- 
acter. This title may say no more than "Dawn" or "Night" 
or "Home;" but it clearly is the injected comment of an out- 
sider who is assumed, by the author's own terms, to be absent. 

Here, once again, it is easy for the purist in art to be 
over-nice in his discrimination. The editorial title has too 
many valuable uses to be abandoned just because the body of 
the picture is literally spoken. The opportunity to whisper, 
in a manner of speaking, into the spectator's ear, supplying 
him with just the right expression with which to describe and 
remember his moment of ecstasy, is rich in possibilities and 
no more illegitimate than the strains of music out of nowhere 
that are injected occasionally to build up the emotion of the 
scene. But there is a more virile function of the editorial 
title; and that is its service between chapters or sequences of 
action, bridging intervals of time or saving the periods of rest 
between intense emotional experiences from being gaps so 
great that the flow of interest falls through. 

From time to time in the regular theatre the printed pro- 
gram has essayed this same last-named service, summarizing 
the preceding act and speculating, with rich promises of future 
pleasures, on the action to come; so there is an analogy. But 



the stage could never hope, in circumstances where the pro- 
gram is only occasionally read and then usually at inappropriate 
times, to attain the development of this device reached by 
the screen where everyone who attends the play must also, 
perforce, attend the title. 

Another proof is here of the truth that the possibilities of 
an art are realized best in the direction of its handicaps, and 
that its greatest weaknesses lie in what it finds easiest to do. 
When the printed program was first added to the facilities 
of the theatre, theatre folk frequently put into it important 
links in the plot not otherwise obtainable. In course of time, 
however, misuses were curbed; and today the theatre program 
is a mere list of players (found with difficulty in a farrago 
of advertising). For the fact is seen that, with a little in- 
genuity and patience, what the program gives so easily may 
be better given in the play itself. The time and place, the 
character names and identities and much more, are now "put 
across" by the action itself as it moves along. 

In this respect the talking pictures are following the stage 
example. They are tending to dispense utterly with printed 
descriptive matter once the play has started. The "iris out" 
and "iris in" shut off one scene and disclose another just 
the same, to all intents and purposes, as the stage curtain; 
and the characters in the second scene serve to tell how long 
the interval has been since the first and to what new place 
the audience has been transported. But however much better 
this practice may seem, the picture folk should not debar 
themselves wholly from advantages of the printed word. There 
indubitably are cases wherein a simple printed statement of 
the fact is far preferable to a strained expression of it by 
characters who would not reasonably do it, and the time for 
doing which throws the whole composition out of balance. 

Of course it all depends on the circumstances. The artist's 
good taste and fine discrimination must prevail. The great 
objection to the editorial title is that it is the utterance of 
a person outside the story and therefore tends to break the 
spell of the play. Well, if the artist is an artist, he will know 
when he may resort to this expedient and when he should not. 
He will know that even in moments of great dramatic stress 
it is sometimes not only possible but tremendously effective 
to put the reaction of the audience into words, or to help 
them to feel the reaction by articulating it for them. He will 
have less compunction about using the editorial title between 
"iris in" and "iris out" because at that time, as in the stage 
intermission, the spell of complete absorption has already been 
broken, the audience is once more aware that it is in a the- 
atre and grateful for the opportunity to recapitulate and reflect, 
and the editorial title may greatly assist their state of mind. 
Indeed, when intermissions between chapters, sequences, or 
acts are as brief as they are in screen practice, a predigested 
opinion of the case that has gone before, with the prospect 
of what is to come, may easily be essential to spectators who 
have had insufficient time in which to work out matters for 
themselves. 

It was found long ago that even films must have intermis- 
sions. The stage intermission, popularly supposed to be due 
to the necessity of changing scenes, is really for rest and 
thought; and when so-called "super-features" began playing 
for the then supposedly unattainable two-dollar price on Broad- 
way and appeared in about eighteen or twenty reels each to 
give money's worth, it was found necessary to full apprecia- 
tion to break performance in the middle and give the patrons 
a quarter-hour or so to move around. 

As said before, the important working habit of mind is to 
appreciate verbal and printed speech for what they really are, 
without prejudice, and to employ them freely where they 
serve best. Out of this attitude will come the new art of 
talking pictures. 

[This article, written by Mr. Krows of the Electrical Research Prod- 
ucts, Inc., is printed here through the courtesy of the S. M. P. E. 
Journal and Henry Holt & Co., publishers of "The Talkies," of which 
this is a chapter. — Editor's Note]. 



In the Realm cf Sound.. 



Noiseless Test Film Developed By Erpi 

by T. L. DOWEY 

Engineering Department, Electrical Research Products 

ELECTRICAL Research Products has always considered it a 
matter of prime importance that its installations should be 
so maintained that any noise accompanying sound reproduction 
was kept at a minimum, and certainly below the level at which 
such interference would become noticeable. With the intro- 
duction of Western Electric New Process Noiseless Recording, 
this requirement became more important than ever, as the 
benefit of the new recording is, of course, lost unless there 
is practically complete absence of noise from the theatre sound 
system. 

In order to make a dependable operating test on a sound 
reproducing equipment, it is necessary to have available, for 
Service Engineers and Inspectors, sound recordings which are 
known to be good and which are sufficiently varied in char- 
acter to test the capability of the equipment for properly re- 
producing various kinds of sound. For the purpose of testing 
film sound reproducing equipment in this way, Electrical Re- 
search Products has made a practice of using standard test 
films. These have, of course, been remade and improved from 
time to time to keep pace with the progress of the art. The 
type now being brought into use is made by noiseless recording, 
so that it can be used to test the fitness of a sound reproducing 
system to handle sound pictures made by the new method. 

This newest form of test film has no picture but has two 
sound tracks, one including voice and music selections, and 
the other including several constant frequency sections, rang- 
ing from 55 to 8,000 cycles, and a length of unmodulated, 
that is, blank track for ground noise measurements. 

The film serves a double purpose: first, it may be used to 
make a check of the general quality of reproduction by use 
of the track having the mixed voice and music recordings; 
second, it permits the frequency characteristics of a system to 
be determined by using the other track in conjunction with a 
volume indicator. 

The presence of "flutter" may be detected by listening tc 
the sustained notes of the singing and piano selections and 
to the constant frequency recordings. 

High frequency loss may be detected by listening to the 
high notes of the piano, violin and orchestral selections, and 
especially to the voice sibilance which should be present in 
the talking and singing selections. 

Low frequency reproduction may be checked by listening to 
the naturalness of the talking and singing selections and to 
the drum section of the orchestral selection. The bass notes 
of the piano selection will also sound unnatural if the lower 
frequencies are attenuated. 

The two sound tracks are recorded from opposite ends of 
the film, so that when one sound track has been played, the 
reel on which the film has been taken up can be simply placed 
in the upper magazine and the film run through in the opposite 
direction, eliminating the necessity for rewinding. 

It will be evident from the foregoing that a test film such 
as this must constitute a very valuable standard of comparison 
for determining whether any given installation is capable of 
affording sound reproduction of the high quality now essential. 



New W. E. Photoelectric Cell Shows 
Advances 

THE NEW 3-A photoelectric cell, recently announced by 
Electrical Research Products, offers another example of 
the constant improvement being made in Western Electric 
sound picture equipment. 

The first cell to be used in Western Electric Sound System 
was the 1 -A cell. This was replaced by the 2-A which em- 
bodied structural improvements over the 1 -A. The 2-A now 
is replaced by the 3-A which has a number of improvements 
over its predecessors both physically and electrically. 

The greatest difference lies in the use of caesium compound 
as the photo-active element instead of a preparation of potas- 
sium as used in the two earlier cells. The caesium oxide is 
coated on a half-cylindrical electrode and a small vertical rod 
forms the positive electrode. The former cells employed as 
the photo-active element a potassium preparation coated on 
the inside of the bulb, with a ring-shaped member forming 
the positive electrode. 

To appreciate the nature of the advantage gained by this 
change, it is necessary to consider the relation that exists 
between the characteristics of a photoelectric cell and the light 
used to operate it. 

In apparatus for reproduction from sound recorded on film, 
the most practical type of exciting lamp, or "sound lamp" as 
it is frequently called, is a metallic filament incandescent lamp. 
Most of the light produced by sources of this type consists 
of yeliow, red and infra-red radiations, there being com- 
paratively little blue or violet radiation. 

The sensitiveness of a photoelectric cell, that is the current 
it will pass for a given amount of illumination, usually varies 
with the color of the illumination. In other words, the cell 
is more sensitive to some parts of the spectrum than others. 
In the case of the potassium cell, the sensitiveness was great- 
est for blue and violet radiation. The greater part of the light 
produced by the exciting lamp was therefore not utilized. 
The caesium cell, however, is highly sensitive to radiation 
within the range produced most abundantly by the exciting 
lamp, namely yellow, red and infra-red. 

This results in the 3-A having much greater efficiency than 
the 1 -A or 2-A. This greater efficiency is such that the out- 
put averages more than 20 decibels higher. Individual cells, 
of course, may show a gain less or greater than the average. 

A highly important advantage gained from the greater 
efficiency is the reduction in system noise which accompanies 
its use. The response from the cell being greater, the ampli- 
fiers can be operated with reduced gain, thus reducing the 
volume of any noise producing element within the system. 
This makes the new cell an important factor in enabling sound 
reproducing equipments to do full justice to recordings made 
by the new noiseless process. 

Besides output efficiency, there are other improvements to 
be found in the new cell, such as its ability to produce a more 
faithful electrical copy or translation of the sound track; its 
ability to maintain its electrical and circuit characteristics un- 
changed and its immunity from rapid deterioration and loss of 
sensitiveness in storage or use. 

27 



Twenty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 




Dirigible 



Elmer C. Dyer, A. S. C. 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOGR AP H ER 



Twenty-nine 



Farewell, Depression! 

AGFA Ansco Corporation, formed in 1928 by Ansco Photo- 
V products, Inc., oldest manufacturer of photographic ma- 
terials in the United States, is employing twice as many 
workers today as at the beginning of 1929, according to 
President Horace W. Davis in his annual report mailed to 
stockholders last month. 

Earnings last year amounted to $47,380 or almost double 
the earnings of 1929. This is, of course, a small amount, but 
it is worthwhile mentioning that during a period of organiza- 
tion and development the corporation has been carrying on its 
new projects, research work and expansion entirely from its 
own earnings. Charges against earnings also include consid- 
erable amounts set aside for depreciation. 

Reserves increased from $139,858 in 1929 to $201,254 in 
1930 while Capital and Surplus showed a slight increase from 
$5,598,162 to $5,625,080. Current Liabilities decreased from 
$843,592 in 1929 to $464,411 last year and Current Assets 
from $4,407,287 to $4,088,337, thereby increasing the ratio 
of Current Assets to Current Liabilities from 5 to 1 in 1929 
to 9 to 1 in 1930. 

"Changes in standards in certain of our products, coupled 
with conditions generally applying to the past year somewhat 
retarded the projected normal operations of your company," 
Mr. Davis said. "It is pleasing to report that production and 
sales volume have been maintained on a satisfactory basis. 
The Company's advance during this year has been continuous 
both in its internal organization and with relation to the 
trade." 



S. M. P. E. Spring Meeting Plans 

AS THIS issue of the Cinematographer goes to press only a 
tentative program for the Spring meeting of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers, to be held in Hollywood, May 
25th to 29th, inclusive, is available. It follows: 

May 25th — American Legion Auditorium. 

9:00 to 10:00 A. M. Convention registration. 

Convention called to order at 10:00 A. M. 

Opening addresses and response by the President. 

Reports of Secretary, Treasurer, Progress Committee, Con- 
vention Committee and Papers Program. 

12:30 to 2:00 P. M. Luncheon, committee reports and 
papers program. 

8:00 P. M. Get-together gathering of members and guests, 
with showing of specially selected film program. 

May 26th, 9:00 to 10:00 A. M. Registration. 10:00 
A. M. Papers program. 12:30 to 1:30 P. M. Luncheon. 
In the afternoon studio visit, itinerary to be announced later. 

Tuesday evening, special papers program, now being planned. 

May 27th — American Legion Auditorium — 9:00 to 10:00 
A. M. Registration. 10:00 A. M. Papers program. 12:30 
to 1 :30 P. M. Luncheon. Afternoon, visit to Paramount 
studios. Evening — semi-annual banquet, Roosevelt Hotel, 
7:30 P. M. 

May 28th — American Legion Auditorium — 10:00 A. M. 
Papers program. 12:30 to 1:30 P. M. Luncheon. After- 
noon program of recreation being prepared. The papers com- 
mittee has a program under consideration for the evening. 

May 29th — American Legion Stadium — 10:00 A. M. Papers 
program followed by an open forum and discussion of plans 
for the Fall meeting. 

The Convention Committee is composed of the following: 
Chairman, W. C. Kunyman, W. C. Hubbard, M. W. Palmer. 
Papers committee, O. M. Glunt, chairman. The Hollywood 
local committee is composed of Peter Mole, chairman; D. Mac- 
Kenzie, C. W. Handley, K. F. Morgan and J. P. O'Donnell. 
The convention headquarters will be at the Roosevelt Hotel. 
All technical sessions will be at the American Legion Audi- 
torium. 



AUDIC-CAMEX 



SOUND-ON-FILM 

RECORDING 

SYSTEM 



The PRIZE WINNER 

Audio-Camex Bullet Type 
Microphone 



^lAMEPA Exchange 



Amateur Hcvie Making 



by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C. 



A FTER having been ill for so many months, I find it very 
/■A hard to adequately express my pleasure at being able 
/ \ once more to resume my activities in this department. 
Cinematography — amateur and professional — has always given 
me a vast deal of pleasure, and the opportunities for addi- 
tional contact with similarly minded souls, and, I hope, for 
giving them aid in the pursuit of their hobby, has increased 
that pleasure to a degree that I could scarcely appreciate 
until my illness suddenly robbed me of it. During my illness, 
however, it was most gratifying to observe the way in which 
Hal Hall, in addition to his manifold duties as Editor of this 
journal, stepped into the breach, and so capably conducted this 
department in my stead. The kindness of my friends among 
the A. S. C. and elsewhere, was also most heartwarming, and 
I wish to take this opportunity to thank them for it, and also 
to thank my various correspondents for their forbearance with 
the lack of consideration with which my illness forced me to 
treat them. 

Such an enforced vacation as mine, though less pleasant, is 
not too different from the annual respite which the winter 
months often give to amateur photographers, inasmuch as it 
afforded plenty of time for retrospective consideration of cine- 
matography. And such a temporary cessation of one's active 
participation in cinematography can frequently serve a very 
useful purpose. We are all too prone to carry on our hobby 
with too little study of our past performances — and accord- 
ingly with too little attempt to analyze and to correct our mis- 
takes. So if we are to progress — and progress we must — we 
should now and then take time for careful reflection. There are 
so many little things which we find, upon such study, that we 
do wrong in the excitement of making our scenes, which, 
though they may seem right enough at the moment, will be- 
come very inconvenient when our film reaches the cutting 
room. 

Getting the Meaning of Each Scene 

For instance, how often do we find that we have grasped 
merely the externals of a scene, and quite overlooked its real 
meaning? After all, there is only one reason for photographing 
anything: to tell a story. What that story is, is quite another 
matter: it may be a part of a little drama; it may be a record 
of some trip or holiday; it may be merely the story of some of 
Nature's beauties. But the story must be there, or there is no 
excuse for the scene. Every detail in the making of the scene 
must be carefully considered so that the whole will combine 
to tell the scene's story most efficiently, and so that the in- 
dividual scene will fit in perfectly with each of the other 
scenes that go to make up the completed picture. 

Of course, most amateur cinematographers who have gotten 
far enough along in their study of their hobby to appreciate 
the importance of these details have surely progressed far 
enough to guard against glaring errors in exposure, or such 
details in direction as allowing exits and entrances to become 
"crossed;" but there are many smaller details which they will 
persistently overlook. I think that these are most likely to 
occur in the simpler scenes which, from their very simplicity, 
we are all inclined to rush through. For instance, in those 
scenic films which we all make during our vacation travels, 
we manage to get along passably enough in the scenes where 
there are people, for we realize the importance of detail in 
such scenes; but when it comes to the strictly scenic shots 
■which we shoot separately, to be cut into the more intimate 

30 



action of our pictures, we find ourselves far more likely to 
grow careless. For instance, there is the matter of tonal 
quality: it is all very well to work for softness or nice color- 
rendition in these purely scenic shots — but it is something 
quite different when we find that these individually beautiful 
scenes must be placed next to wiry-sharp, unfiltered scenes 
of our action when the film is assembled. There they will 
stand out like the proverbial sore thumb, so we must re- 
member to either make our action-scenes correspondingly soft, 
or to make our landscapes sufficiently wiry to match the action. 

Then there is the matter of camera-movement. When we 
are working with actors, it is not so difficult to keep the general 
movement of the scene (that is, the movement of the action 
as well as the movement of the camera) flowing in the same 
direction, for we are consciously thinking of this particular 
detail. But when we come to making the scenic panoramas, 
etc., that are to be intercut with the action, we are too likely 
to concentrate on the individual shot and forget its relation 
to the rest of the picture. Therefore, it is wise to adopt some 
general direction for the flow of filmic and physical motion of 
a picture, and bear that in mind in every scene. Probably the 
best general direction is from left to right, for it is more posi- 
tive than the reverse; similarly, if your people are admiring 
some high objects, like skyscrapers, mountains, or waterfalls, 
the best direction to follow in both action and vertical panning 
is from the bottom up. In short, always keep your action 
moving into the picture — toward the object of interest — not 
away from it. 

Similarly, in such cases, it is well to make sure before start- 
ing to shoot, just what is the chief object of interest. I recall 
one film I have seen which was made in the Yosemite Valley, 
and in which the cinematographer quite completely overlooked 
this; he made a number of striking scenes of a beautiful fall 
in a towering ravine — and quite forgot that the object of 
paramount interest was the waterfall, and not the height of 
the canyon's rim above the fall. So, in the course of an ex- 
cellent series of vertical pans of the falls, he persistently con- 
tinued his pan far above the top of the falls, instead of merely 
panning upward until he could make an attractive composition 
of the crest of the falls, holding it for a few moments, and 
cutting or fading. The result was very irritating, and not en- 
tirely remediable by sharp cutting. 

Angle-Shots 

Another phase that should receive careful consideration is 
the use of unusual camera-angles. Without doubt, they add 
greatly to the semblance of originality in a picture; but they 
must not be allowed to detract from the free and natural prog- 
ress of the film's story. Their best use is to suddenly accentuate 
some more or less dramatic action or character. Used wisely 
for this purpose, they are of very great value; but used for 
their own sake, in the place of a plain, straightforward shot, 
which would express the same thought equally well, without 
breaking up the flow of filmic motion, they can be an equally 
great hindrance. 

But did you ever try to make one of these shots from an un- 
usually low viewpoint, and still use your tripod? Difficult, 
isn't it? Well, why not take a leaf from the professional camera- 
man's book, and use a baby tripod? Of course, there are no 
regular baby tripods on the market, but if you use one of the 
several wooden-legged tripods, with a detachable pan-and- 
( Continued on Page 441 



NO 

FILMO 

HAS EVER 

WORN 

OUT 



• Here is another veteran of the sea, air, and desert — one of two 
Fihnos which Air. H. Earl Hoover, vacuum cleaner manufacturer, 
keeps always at hand on his wide travels — one for color, one 
for monochrome. This camera, after nearly 1 years of steady use, 
runs as smoothly and efficiently as the day it left the factory. 

What yon itt, you get — with F'lmo 




Perfect your 

"still" exposures with the 

8. & H. Photometer 

Your "still"photo exposures may 
be as scientifically exact as though 
measured in a laboratory — if you 
use the new model B Photometer. 
The operation of the Photometer 
is based upon the best known 
method of measuring light inten- 
sity. Along with this scientific 
accuracy comes theability actually 
to see your object through the 
lens of the Photometer while 
takingthe exposure reading. The 
whole operation takes but ten 
seconds. Readings are given in 
terms of lens stops and shutter 
speeds, and may be modified for 
filter and emulsion factors. Price, 
$17.50 (with case $20). 

The model A Photometer for 
Filmo Cameras operates in ex- 
actly the same way and the price 
is the same. Write for literature. 




YV/ATCH a seasoned amateur in any 
** line — radio, mechanics, aviation, 
movie making. Invariably he selects with 
intelligence and discrimination. In movie 
equipment it is nearly always Filmo. The 
reason — if you have tried Filmo — is not 
far to seek. 

Filmo costs more — but very little more. 
And when you have used it for five, ten, 
or twenty years, its actual cost will have 
been a great deal less. In addition, you 
will have enjoyed photography of sur- 
passing excellence, and constantly de- 
pendable, trouble-free operation. There 
are models, you know, as low as $92. 

Filmo is a product of master craftsmen 
— the same men who for nearly a quarter 
of a century have been designing and 
manufacturing the professional movie 
cameras used by the majority of film pro- 
ducers of the world. This is your assur- 
ance of Filmo quality. 



Ask your dealer to show you the Filmo 
Personal Movie Cameras and Projectors, 
or write today for the interesting Booklet 
No. 35, describing the fascination of 
movie making. 

Bell & Howell Co., 1848 Larchmont Ave., 
Chicago, 111. New York, Hollywood. Lon- 
don (B.&H.Co.,Ltd.) Established 1907. 



B ELL & 
H OWELL 

FILMO 



PERSONAL MOVIE CAMERAS AND PROJECTORS 

Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 



31 






Thirty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP H ER 



May, 1931 









Upper left, Nuns preparing and decorating a "Reposoire" on the eve of the procession of "Fete Dieu." Upper center, just 
married and off to the Front in the morning. Upper right, th : Executioner's house, Lamballe. Left center, wash day at 
Lamballe. Right center, Bridge and Cathedral, Lamballe. Lower left, the artist's delight, wooden porch of St. Martin, Lam- 
balle. Lower center, St. Cenefor, Saint for children's ills. Lower right, Reredos, St. Martin. 



Babbling About Brittany 



by LAWRENCE GRANT 



This is the second article of an unusually interesting series which 
Mr. Grant has written for this magazine. The third will appear in 
the June issue — Editor's Note. 

SHOULD you ask a Breton what he is, he will not say with 
pride, "I am French." No, he will say quite simply: 
"Breton," then you will say: "Yes, but French?" He 
will reply: "Breton, yes; French? Perhaps." You will be sur- 
prised even today how many of the old people cannot speak 
French at all. At first I thought they could not understand 
my French, and who could? But the old ones cannot understand, 
and do not speak any French at all!! They only speak Breton, 
which is not at all unlike Erse, the native Irish; in fact being 
in Brittany is much like being in Ireland. The same facial 
characteristics, the same picturesqueness, (not quite the same. 
for never can there be quite the beauty of Cork or Ki Harney or 
the poetry of Kildare) ; the same charm, and again a likeness to 
Cornish and Welsh; a great similarity to the Welsh language, 
and why not, are we not all Celts, and proud of it? 

(Note: I am a Celt myself.) 

So we get right into Brittany at Lamballe, the home of the 
famous Duchesse de Lamballe, friend and confidante of the 
unfortunate Marie Antoinette, famous for Pottery, a gorgeous 
church of Roman, which out of France, we call Norman archi- 
tecture, and for St. Maclou, a son of Queen Clothilde of these 
parts. 

St. Maclou flourished about the 1 1th century. It was rather 
unfortunate because "long-hairs" were just as unpopular then 
as they are today, and while he and his Royal Mother doted 
on his long red hair, it was not "being done" by the most 
robust people, and all the flapper's favorites had to be shaved 
of head. So the Queen being, after all, just a "Mother" and 
Maclou being just "Mother's Boy and Joy" had only one thing 
left to do to protect his hair and him, she made him a monk. 
And he became very famous as a saintly person, and he could 
cure almost any disease of the head. In nature's time he died, 
and they canonized him, as St. Maclou. To be cured you come 
to his statue in the church, or what the rude revolutionists left 
of it, for being a royal Saint, they did their best to obliterate 
him, but, thank goodness, there is still the head left, and you 
extract a nail from your shoe, and you scratch his nose with 
it, and ask him to cure you. And he cures you of your head- 
ache, but you get a torn thumb dragging out the nail. 

At the other end of the town there is one for your child, 
in St. Martin's church, St. Cenefor. He is devoted to 
children, especially crippled ones. He was a Scotchman, 
and I never could find out why he came over to poor 
Brittany, but you bring your child to him and pray and then 
he is cured and you leave the little one's crutches, or what- 
ever he no longer needs and there is a small box for any 
offering you care to give, and there is "Merci" already printed 
thereon to thank you for your gift. 

And as I babble about all these things, and these curious 
Saints, and their powers, please let no one, not even the most 
ardent Catholic, take offence, I do not mean it so. When you 
go to Brittany you will understand the remarkable attitude of 
the Breton of today towards these primitive saints. They are 
not sure they are really as potent as old stories say, but they 
do not quite care to let them go, and under the feeling that 
if they do not do any good they cannot do any harm, they 
stick to them. 

This old church has a lovely wooden porch which has been 
the delight of architects, it is in good condition, and bears the 
inscription: 



"L'an mil cinq cent dix-neuf 
Jean I'aine me fit tout neuf." 

which says that John made the porch over "all new" at that 
time, but it only says "John," who, probably well-known 
then, is forgotten now. 

If you happen to be here at the time of "Fete Dieu" (which 
is equivalent to our "All Soul's Day" is it not?) you will find 
everyone very busy preparing for the procession; all along the 
route there will be side altars set up, some very ornate, some 
very simple, and at most of these the Priests will halt, say a 
short service, and then continue round the city. These waits at 
the "reposoires" as they are called, take time, making the 
procession a long and tedious affair. 

During the revolution there were so many supporters of the 
Princess de Lamballe and therefore partizans of the detested 
Royalty and Marie Antoinette in particular in this place that 
they brought in a special executioner, and as he was a very 
necessary person, they certainly saw him "well disposed" as 
Hamlet wanted his actors to be, for they set him up in a most 
delectable house, still called "The Executioner's House." Un- 
inhabited and falling into ruins when I last saw it, it is full of 
lovely carved oak, and all could have been bought for a song! 

French people are great persons for washing their dirty linen 
in public, and in all these little provincial places the river is 
the natural and proper place for this laundry work to be 
carried out, and very picturesque they manage to make it. 
Sometimes there may be a solitary laundress outside a cottage 
back door, or a neat old servant at the back of a larger house, 
but very frequently there is a public place, constructed con- 
veniently for the purpose, and here, in force, will be the village 
gossips, soaping and rubbing and paddling and smiting the 
linen with wooden instruments and scandalling, all making a 
very pleasant sight and sound, the river running, the smacking 
of the paddles, the swish of soapy clothes and the pleasant 
chatter and laughter. The Laundry place at Lamballe is very 
picturesque, though of course there are many more than this 
one in the town. 

Very rarely does one come on a "snap-shot" which tells a 
story and is good pictorial construction as well. Even when a 
Mayor lays a foundation stone, the press generally take a fake 
photo posed after the event, but coming round a corner one 
day in 1915 I snapped the group on the other page, 

Mother, Son, Bride. Soldier and girl were married that 
morning, and the next day he was off for the "front." 

"C'est la Guerre." 

At one of the Benediction services I attended here when the 
priest held up the monstrance, that is the large gold plated 
vessel in which he is supposed to put the Wafer, with which 
he blesses the people, he forgot to put it in, and it was very 
curious to see his eye peeping through the round hole in the 
centre of the sort of sun burst halo, where the Host should be. 

He was in the most awful state of mind when he discovered 
what he had done, and could hardly be consoled after the 
service. You pay spot cash for your seat. A penny (French), 
the plate going round as for a voluntary contribution. I watched 
an old woman one night, she, poor soul, had a large coin, but 
no change so she put the coin in, then took a firm hold of 
the plate lest it should escape her, and slowly and solemnly 
counted herself out the correct change. 

Nearly all the congregation in these places are peasants, 
though occasionally the "quality" will also be in the church. 
In the small villages all are peasants, but in Lamballe I hap- 

33 



Thirty-four 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP H ER 



May, 1931 



pened to know, and was entertained by, a very distinguished 
old English lady, married to a Frenchman, a Madame de Car- 
gouet, once lady in waiting to Empress Eugenie, and she was re- 
garded with great awe by the townspeople. 

Even the Priests, as in Ireland, very frequently come from 
the peasant class and though some people quote this against 
the Church, I do not see much force in the objection. Their 
religion started with a Peasant, he was followed by Peasants, 
a recent Pope was a peasant, and as it grew from poor peo- 
ple to its present high estate, perhaps there is not much wrong 
with it as long as peasants and the poor hang on to it, and 
find consolation in it. I suppose it does not require men of 
genius or people of fashion to have Faith. 

I like to look over some of my old hotel bills, (pre-war) 
and here I find my room was 3 francs, coffee sent up to 
bedroom, with "crescents" 12 cents (American) ; lunch with 
wine, 40 cents; dinner with wine, 50 cents; and I appear 
to have paid for three days' food and lodging, including wine, 
about $5.50 total. I wonder what it would be today? 

Things to see: In addition to the things mentioned, as 
well as driving out to the potteries, at a little place called 
"La Poterie." Ruins of a castle at Hundaye, about 9 miles 
away, on the same road as La Poterie, so done same day. 
Les Ponts-Neufs about 6 miles, at the sea. 

Here we are at Lannion, famous for St. Ivy, quite the most 
popular and powerful Saint in these northern parts, St. Ivy, 
or Saint Ervoan, of whom the song is written: 

"There is not a saint, there is not one, 
There is not a Saint, Like our St. Ervoan." 

He was a great scholar, an attorney by profession, (imagine 
an attorney becoming a Saint!) who charged no fees, but 
took up the cases of the poor against their rich oppressors for 
nothing, (imagine an attorney doing that! No wonder they 
made him a Saint) and afterward he became a Bishop. He is 
usually represented as a student, or as a Bishop, in the myriad 
statues of him that you will find everywhere hereabouts, on 
the ground, above the ground, and high up in the air, for they 
stick him up wherever they can find a corner to put him, even 
at the corner of the second story of a house in Lannion, as 
you will see on the other page. It is a lovely old timbered 
house, but this Saint in all its old bright colors greatly adds 
to the charm. 

But I am going to leave St. Ivy for a moment, who was 
famous years ago, and ministered to the spirit, and to the 
financial and property rights of the poor, and deal with a 
modern celebrity, who ministers to the inner works of man's 
anatomy. 

A man, not a man, an artist, M. Jules Prigent, proprietor and 
chef of the "Hotel au Grand Turc" at this lovely little town. 
To be the "patron" of the hotel, of any hotel, that is some- 
thing, because you own it, it is yours, you are someone in 
the community, you may be the president (or the local 
French equivalent, if so gay a people can have an equivalent 
for so serious a group) of the local Chamber of Commerce, 
or even worse, the song leader of the Rotarians, or you may 
even become M. le Maire and with the tricolor for a sash, and 
an old fashioned silk hat, marry the young people, and punish 
the evil doers in the community. All these things you may do 
because of your position as the "Patron" of the first local 
hotel, but if you are also the Chef, if you are also the gas- 
tronomical marvel that Jules was, and I most sincerely pray 
still is, if you are such a chef as may, without impudence or 
braggadocio, claim to walk the same path, the same road as 
the great, never to be forgotten Savarin, the prince of cooks, 
then, to be Mayor, to be president of the Lannion Rotary, the 
Lions, or the Kiwanis, nay, to be President of France, cannot 
add one cubit to your stature or your fame, for he who can 
cook, ("cook," the word is too coarse and commonplace for 
what Jules does to fish and fowl) he who can cook like Jules 
can have no greater honor than the loving admiration of those 



travellers, French, English, American, or any other nationality, 
who are still old fashioned enough to know the difference be- 
tween "gigot d'agneau roti, garni" and "roast lamb with 
trimmings," or who have a palate sufficiently trained, (and 
still unspoiled) to appreciate the more delicate qualities of 
"sole a la Colbert" compared with say, "swordfish a la 
Catalina." 

In this country of cooks, Jules, you are a marvel, and I have 
waited long to pay you this tribute. 

And in this little, out of the way place, if you select the 
Grand Turc, what a reception you will get. You will be shown 
to your room, you will find it perfect, you may wish a bath, 
or at least a wash of hands and face, and being fastidious you 
are travelling with your own soap. Unnecessary here. You will 
find by the side of your basin, untouched and fragrant, a cake of 
Roger and Gallet's Violette de Parme, you will find lovely linen 
towels; probably a bunch of flowers, and you will stroll down 
to dinner, and for Francs 2.50 (50 cents) you will, or did, get 
the kind of food indicated. And you will then probably meet 
your "host" and you will find him the gayest, cleanest person, 
coming fresh from his kitchen, yet smelling more of Roger 
and Gallett than of frying and food, a little "poudrc," per- 
haps a little "rouge" and perhaps a little, — well, anyhow 
I am not going to cavil as to where such a chef and host cares 
to look for relaxation. 

And the funny thing is he thinks he can paint. The place 
was littered with bad art, and full of good cooking. I can 
only urge him to stick to the palate instead of the palette. 

However, back to St. Ivy, who has a little village named 
after him and there you will find him ensconced in great 
power and held in marvelous esteem. There is a pool where 
he will tell you what will happen to your children should 
they be ill. He, or his likeness in stone, sticks out from the 
wall and below is a little pool. Should your child be sick you 
go to this pool and on its waters, after prayer, and offering, 
you place a pin on the surface. If the pin floats, your baby will 
recover ! ! 

Now, naturally, you want your baby to recover, and the 
tendancy of a pin is to sink; but, strange as it may sound, 
"believe it or not" as Ripley says, it is possible to place a pin 
on still water so gently that it will float. 

Another method of divining is to float a chemise belonging 
to the little one on the water, then if that sinks she will 
recover! After all a light little garment spread out has a dis- 
tinct tendency to float, so the little one is in a bad way which- 
ever method you try. 

Of course, the more unpropitious the augury, the more you 
naturally put in the "tronc" at the side in the little adjacent 
chapel. 

This is one of the districts and towns par excellence for 
old timbered houses, with lots of inside panelling. For in- 
stance look at the street illustrated here, and you see some 
splendid shops all along as far as the picture goes; perfect 
examples of timbered and carved houses; and the two houses 
of more pretentious sort standing in another street. Inside, in 
addition to the panels, you will probably find a mass of old 
furniture still left, though as the years pass by, tourists are 
gradually offering prices for all these things that cannot be re- 
sisted by a more modern generation, and the country side is 
losing its treasures, and in years to come will also lose the 
very atmosphere that has drawn the tourists with their money 
to the land. If they could only look ahead they would keep 
their treasures, capitalize them, and never let them go. 

Sabots are passing out, and untidy city made boots are 
coming in, but only slowly, for sabots are cheap and lasting, 
also fine for wet and mud. 

This father with two sons and two little girls live on the 
factory, which is the hut, home, store and factory all in one. 

(Continued on Page 39) 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



Thirty-five 




Upper left, St. Ivy, or St. Ervoan, attached to the top story corner of a house in Lannion. Upper right, St. Ivy presides over 
his fountain. Left center, a typical town house. Middle center, from Lannion churchyard, looking to Brelevenez. Right 
center, row of shops in Lannion. Lower left, a family of Sabotiers. Lower right, the whole works. Store of lumber at 
back. Big saw for trimming to size. Son with hatchet *hap>"<;. Father finishing with knife. Another son hollowing out 

interior. They live here, too. 



Wide-field Pictures on Narrow Gauge 

Film 



byFREDSCHMID 

Vice-President C. P. Coerz American Optical Co. 



IF WE compare the angle of view embraced by the lens of 
the usual view Camera with that obtained in motion pic- 
ture photography we find that the angular field of the 
motion picture is decidedly narrow. 

In a camera for still photography of 3 W'x4 W size the 
usual focal length of the lens is 5". The angular field on the long 
side embraces 48°. For 35mm. motion picture film with a 
picture aperture %"xl" which has about the same proportion 
as the 3 l /4x4!/4 size plate, a focal length of 2" is the stand- 
ard. This embraces an angle of only 28° on the long side of 
the picture. 

Now, it is a fact easily checked by visual observation, that 
most of the outdoor scenes and such events as sports, foot- 
ball, baseball, horse races, etc., which the cinematographer is 
likely to be called upon to take, have the direction of mo- 
tion and their principal points of interest mainly in a horizontal 
direction. The cinematographer will only too often find that 
he cannot embrace a sufficiently large horizontal field to 
cover enough of the action which makes the picture worth 
while taking. He has to resort to panning, an effect often 
detrimental to an ideal presentation of the picture on the 
screen. 

Furthermore, it will often be desirable to image the principal 
objects, such as the players in a game, or distant objects as 
large as possible on the film so as to present them and their 
actions in detail on the screen. This calls for lenses of still 
greater focal length than the standard 2" and the angular field 
of view is further restricted in inverse proportion to the in- 
crease in focal length. 

The professional cinematographer has been cognizant of 
this limitation of his camera for a long time but has accepted 
it as inherent in the making of motion pictures. 

With the advent of the "talkies" by the sound-on-film 
method it became further necessary to cut the already too 
narrow picture field by fully 1 / 1 of its width. The remaining 
picture became almost square and the unsuitability of such a 
narrow picture field for a great number of outdoor events was 
sharply brought to the attention of directors and cameramen, 
charged with the responsibility of creating motion pictures 
which would appeal to the artistic sense of their theatre 
patrons. 

The only solution of the problem seemed to be the use of a 
wider film than the standard 35mm. This made necessary 
the production of new equipment, not only in cameras and 
photographic lenses but in new projectors and laboratory 
machinery for processing this new size of film. The out- 
standing result is "Grandeur," a picture twice as wide as the 
standard 35mm. It created considerable interest, its effect 
was truly marvelous but — it was terribly costly to produce. 
There followed in the trail of this new development so many 
difficulties of a technical, optical and especially economic 
nature that for the present the idea of a general introduction 
of wide-film motion picture presentation on the professional 
screen seems to have been laid aside, if not entirely abandoned. 

In the field of 16mm. amateur motion pictures the same 
conditions as to relative proportion and size of the picture pre- 
vail. The amateur camera is more or less a smaller edition 

36 



of the professional camera, the relation of focal length to 
picture size is practically the same, the angular field of the 
screen picture is narrow. A wider field is decidedly desirable. 
The same objections to the introduction of a wider film than 
16mm. hold forth. The many thousands of amateur cameras, 
now in use, would have to be discarded and the higher cost 
of the wider film material would be detrimental to a further 
development in amateur motion picture activities. Fortunately 
for the amateur motion picture maker, an entirely new solu- 
tion of the problem of making wide-screen pictures on 16mm. 
film has been found. This new development lies in the field 
of optical science and as it is made available for the present 
for sub-standard cameras only, the amateur cinematographer, 
for the time being, has an opportunity to "score" over his 
professional brother in the presentation of wide-screen pic- 
tures. 

A very interesting and novel auxiliary lens system, based 
on the computations of Dr. Sidney H. Newcomer, a New York 
physicist and mathematician, has just been placed on the 
market by the C. P. Coerz American Optical Company of New 
York City. 

This new lens consists entirely of cylindrical lens elements 
instead of the spherical lenses of the regular photographic 
lens. It does not produce an image by itself, but has to be 
used in conjunction with the regular photographic lenses when 
taking wide-field pictures. In the same way the same lens 
must be used in front of the projection lens when projecting 
these films on the screen. 

The function of this new lens system which has been named 
the "Cine-Panor" is therefore twofold. When used on the 
camera, it compresses into the narrow film aperture of the 
16mm. camera an image which has a 50 percent greater 
horizontal field than what the photographic lens alone would 
embrace. This compression takes place in a horizontal di- 
rection only, that is, the height of objects remains the same 
as the photographic lens alone would produce them. The width 
of objects and with it the extent of the horizontal expanse of 
the scene appear in the film at only 2/3 their proper size. 
If this film were projected in the regular way, the result 
would be a screen picture of standard size with all horizontal 
dimensions compressed to 2/3 their normal width. To bring 
back the normal proportion of the scene, it is therefore neces- 
sary to add to the projection lens the Cine-Panor system by 
placing it in front of the former. On the screen the propor- 
tional size of objects will now be restored, at the same time 
the picture size will be spread horizontally by 50 percent, 
giving a picture which is twice as long as it is high, with all 
objects in effective panoramic perspective. The result is a 
"Grandeur" effect produced with standard 16mm. equipment 
and film material. While the Cine-Panor auxiliary system 
can be applied to photographic lenses of any focal length, 
some lens mounts possess structural limitations to its applica- 
tion. For instance, the wide-angle lenses of 1 5 and 20mm. 
which are now being used with 16mm. cameras, are set too 
deep in their mounts to allow the correct placement of the 
Cine-Panor. The same is true in some types of 1" lenses such 
as the f 1.9 Cine-Kodak lens of 1" focal length. Most of the 
standard 1" lenses such as are supplied with the Filmo, Victor, 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Thirty-seven 





Fig. 1 



Fig. 3 



Fig. 2 



Kinecam, Nizo and other similar types can be converted into 
panoramic lenses by the addition of the Goerz Cine-Panor. 

The horizontal angle embraced by this combination is about 
36°, or nearly the same as a 1 5mm. wide angle lens would take 
in alone. The advantage of a 1" lens, aided by the Cine- 
Panor, over the 1 5mm. lens alone is that, with practically the 
same extent of field, all objects are almost twice as large as 
if taken with the 15mm. lens. 

The same advantage of wider panoramic field with greater 
height of the objects is retained with all longer focal length 
lenses. The field of the 2" lens is increased from 12° to 18°, 
that of the 3" lens from 8° to 12° and that of the 4" lens 
from 6° to 9°. 

This is a most desirable feature for all long-distance shots 
and many of the close-ups, where the cinematographer may 
now select the largest possible focal length to depict his ob- 
jects within the vertical limits of his picture aperture, at the 
same time having the assurance of adding 50 percent of action 
in the horizontal direction to his screen picture. 

The fitting of the Cine-Panor to lenses and cameras can be 
done in various ways. The most desirable method for turret 
model cameras is to provide a universal bracket holder for the 
Cine-Panor, attached to the side of the camera. This holder 
carries at the same time a separate finder assembly, giving 
the panoramic field for a 1" lens, with demarkation lines for 
the field of a 2" and 3" lens. Such an attachment does not 
in any way interfere with the regular use of the camera. 
Standard size and panoramic pictures may be taken on the 
same film in any desired sequence. The process of taking 
panoramic views is in no way different from the usual pro- 
cedure except that it is recommended to allow for a slightly 
increased exposure which need not be more than from 10 
to 1 5 percent. This will probably be in most cases within the 
latitude of the emulsion. The processing of the film, being of 
standard 16mm. gauge, is done as usual. 

In the projection of this type of film it is, of course, neces- 
sary to add the Cine-Panor to the projection lens. The same 
lens which served on the camera is used on the projector. It 
is merely necessary to fit another bracket holder on the side 
of the projector and attach thereto the Cine-Panor lens by 
means of its bayonet lock. This holder has a spring-locked 
hinge which provides a quick means of swinging the Cine- 
Panor in front of the projection lens whenever the panoramic 
sections of the reel are to be shown. A larger screen, twice 
as long as it is high, will have to be provided however. It is 
also recommended to have a projection machine with the best 
possible illumination. If we assume a light source of a given 
intensity, it must, of course, be expected that the resulting 
screen illumination will be less if we spread the amount of light 
over an area which is 50 percent greater than the standard 
screen size. This is what really takes place when projecting 
Cine-Panor panoramic pictures. The screen illumination goes 
down about one-third. It is therefore an advantage if the 
projector has means of stepping up the intensity of the light 
source in case the density of the film positive should make it 



desirable to increase the illumination when panoramic pic- 
tures are being shown. 

While a real appreciation of this novel presentation of 
panoramic pictures can only be had by viewing the wide 
screen picture, the illustrations accompanying this article will 
help the reader to a clearer understanding of the working of 
this new lens. Fig. 1 represents a normal view as taken with 
the 16mm. camera. Fig. 2 shows how a wider horizontal view 
is compressed into the normal aperture proportion. A com- 
parison with fig. 1 will show that the height of objects is the 
same, while their width is compressed to two-thirds. Fig. 3 
illustrates the screen picture with all proportions correctly re- 
stored as in fig. 1, but with an increase of 50 percent in the 
horizontal field. 

This same principle of producing wide-field screen pictures 
with standard 35mm. cameras and projectors can be adopted 
for the professional screen as well by making the auxiliary 
lens system of suitable size. That it hasn't been done is most 
likely due to the uncertainty in the minds of motion picture 
producers whether, under present economic conditions in the 
motion picture industry, the time is opportune for introducing 
this new feature. 

It may, however, well be possible that results being obtained 
in the 16mm. field with this new auxiliary lens system will 
act as an incentive to producers in the professional field to 
take it up. It would be proof that a reciprocal interest in 
each other's achievements between the professional and 
amateur motion picture producer will be fruitful to both and 
work for an advancement of their art. 



Filmo Topics 



BELL £r HOWELL'S interesting monthly magazine, Filmo 
Topics, contains much of value to the amateur in the May 
issue. This magazine may be secured free by writing Bell 
& Howell at 1801 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, III. The contents 
for May follow: 

TAKING KODACOLOR MOVIES. 

TRY IT, ANYWAY — A plea for the discarding of cine- 
matographic mental hazards, with evidence of the results to 
be obtained by so doing. 

THE AMATEUR EMULATES THE PRO — A discussion of 
the uses of the new B & H Focusing Alignment Gauge. 

FILMING AS YOU FLY — Some notes on the correct tech- 
nique in taking movies from the air. 

FILMO NEWS PICTORIAL. 

TITLING YOUR FILMS — No. 8. More ideas on title mak- 
ing from Filmo owners. 

THE FILMO PROJECTOR "POWER PLANT" — Explaining 
what makes the wheels go 'round. 



The Last Word 

for Professionals 
or Amateurs.. the 



CI NEM ATOGR APHIC 

ANNUAL 



CINEMATOGRAPHIC 

ANNUAL 

1930 



A book valuable to everybody directly or indirectly interested in the 
Motion Picture Industry . . . Production, Photography, Exhibition, 
Sound Laboratory, Color Effects ... A wealth of facts and statistics 
such as can be found nowhere else . . . forcefully written by 
Master Technicians and recognized authorities . . . has a definite 
place in the Library of all Production and Distribution Executives, 
Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting Engineers, 
Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and Home Movie Makers. 



5 oo 



_ per copy 



Beautifully bound in Blue and Cold. 675 pages 
Postage prepaid anywhere in the World 



>uti.iSN(C sr 

IK AMERICAN SOCIETY 

or 

ON£MAlOC-RAPliERS 



Compiled and Published by 

The American Society of 
Cincmarographcrs 

Hollywood, California 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOCRAPHERS, 

1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five 

Dollars ($5.00) for which please send me prepaid, one copy of your 

Cinematographic Annual. 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



38 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



Making the Amateur Movie 

A British Amateur Gives Some Good Tips 
by J. P. LAWRIE 



IT ISN'T long after the possession of a home movie camera 
that the enthusiastic owner turns his mind to shots other 
than those of Alice running down (or up) the garden, and 
young Bill playing on the sands at Brighton! These, and kindred 
subjects have already cost a small fortune, and Oh, the dis- 
tressing sameness of these films! 

A feature film is obviously the next step and, whilst joining 
an amateur club for this purpose is undoubtedly the best thing 
for anyone to do, it is a regrettable fact that the great majority 
do not. Perhaps this is just as well — imagine a successful club 
of say 100 members, everyone determined to be the camera 
man! for of course, the camera owner, if he is a true en- 
thusiast, will be camera man or nothing! 

Well then, let us leave the club members alone and presume 
that they worry along without trouble. The non-member, de- 
prived of the facilities for meeting others of his kind, promptly 
ropes in all his friends of both sexes, and in a wave of in- 
tense excitement a story is fixed, the players cast and shooting 
ultimately commences. 

The result is that before the film is half taken, most of the 
band are half hearted, and by the time the thing is finished, 
quite half of the group will have drifted away. 

This is caused by the extraordinary fact that over half the 
number originally recruited have nothing to do! It is not 
within the province of this article to detail just how the film 
should be taken or produced — that is the task of the directing 
men, etc. The trouble is that when all such jobs as actors, di- 
rector, camera man, continuity, etc., are fixed, there inevitably 
remains a residue of very keen, but rather disappointed workers 
with no job save that of hangers on. The flagging and failing 
interest of this section will undoubtedly affect the others, and 
may spoil things quite a lot. 

It is possible to give everyone a job of some sort that will 
make them feel that they are really taking part in the pro- 
duction, and will keep their energy and interest going the 
whole time. A few such posts are enumerated below: 

1. Appoint some one to keep an eye on the exact position 
of props, etc., and keep a note of the actors' clothing. 

2. Musical Director, either pianist or gramophile. Let him 
browse over and study the story for his setting, and why not 
let him try his stuff out during rehearsal? 

3. A Liaison Officer. Select the most tactful of the party 
to interview folk to get permission for exterior shots. 

4. Appoint a Film Editor and 

5. a film Titler. (These two can work together.) 

6. Art Director. This is most important, even if only for 
title backgrounds. 

7. Appoint a Boundary man to see that other people and 
players not on the set keep off it. And during outdoor shots, 
keeps an eye on the background, giving a warning when stray 
cars and folk appear on the scene. 

One could keep on indefinitely with such a list and, although 
many of these jobs may not at first glance seem strictly es- 
sential to the success of your film, it will be found that the 
distribution of such tasks, whilst being really useful in that, as 
the filming proceeds, so do such necessaries as editing, titling 
and musical setting, thus speeding up the whole production 
but the interest of everyone concerned is maintained right up 
to the end. 



A final point, much celluloid will flow through the camera 
ere the film is finished, and a fair percentage of this will go 
into the waste film box. Is it not worth while to give every- 
one a brief mention in the preliminary titles? It only takes a 
few feet of film, and is exceedingly gratifying to the more 
humble workers in the cause — try it! 



Babbling Through Brittany 

(Continued from Page 34) 

First the huge pieces of wood, (I think elm) ; these they 
tackle with the very big saw, then they begin with a huge and 
very sharp knife to carve out the figure of the sabot. The 
Father does this and the knife is fastened to the block at the 
extremity so that tremendous leverage can be obtained, and 
he can cut off chunks, or the thinnest of shaving, so expert is 
he. Then when the form is there, the boy takes it over. He 
puts it in a vise, and with hand gouges and augers he carves 
out the inside. Now when you buy a pair they will cost you, 
or did then, about 50 cents!! And no salesman can tell you: 
"They will be easier in a day or so, Madam, when you have 
walked in them a little," because these will not stretch. They 
will be the same today and forever. But then suppose you go 
to buy a pair, and nature has cursed you with some abnormality 
of foot, well you point out this promontory to the boy, and 
there and then he will hollow out a little sort of cave to fit 
that projection neatly, and you will be better off than with 
leather, because doing this does not change the contour of 
the outside of the shoe. How many a dainty new shoe in a 
shoe shop becomes a thing of horror when after a day or so 
some person's ill-used, ill-shaped foot has "worked into it." 

The pin and shirt putting in St. Ivy's pool, is like workmen 
in a certain factory town in England, the day following the 
Easter holiday of two days, (Sunday and Monday). On Tues- 
day they all gather outside the factory at the correct time to 
start work, but then they pass through a ceremony called 
"throwing the brick." Someone says: "Let's toss up whether 
we go back today, or take another day holiday." So a man 
tosses up a brick, they having decided that if, when tossed, the 
brick stays up in the air they will resume work. 

This is what is called "safe and sane," but they all await 
the decision breathlessly in case the brick should by a miracle 
stay up, and work become a possibility. 



Latest- Television Test 

TELEVISION on a two-foot square screen, with close-ups 
almost as clear as motion picture scenes, was demon- 
strated in Chicago recently by Ulysses A. Sanabria, youthful 
inventor. Black and white pictures of near-by persons were 
reproduced across a room. Harold Hayes, Federal radio super- 
visor, described the images as the best he had seen in three 
years of watching television development. 

39 



Forty 



AMERICAN CINE MATOGRAP HER 



May, 1931 





attention 



The pictorial section of the next volume of 
the Cinematographic Annual is being com- 
piled. Anyone wishing to contribute prints 
for this section may send them in now 
for consideration. 




Amateur Club for Hollywood 

ALONG felt need of the Los Angeles and Hollywood dis- 
trict bids fair to be filled by the Amateur Cinema Asso- 
ciation of Hollywood, which is now being organized in the 
film capital. This new club is starting under the brightest of 
auspices, and is affiliated with the Amateur Cinema League. 
Its purposes, to quote from the by-laws which are now being 
drafted, are: "the furtherance of our combined interest in and 
study of the motion picture as a medium of art, education, and 
entertainment; to encourage experimentation and the study of 
the art of cinematography; to produce amateur films for ex- 
hibition; to propagate a film spirit in favour of a higher stand- 
ard of theme and artistic depiction." 

The following officers have been elected for the current 
year: President: Mr. H. Wellesley Devereux; Secretary: Miss 
Edna Helmerich; Treasurer Mr. W. J. Lander. 

Two additional officers have yet to be elected after the 
adoption of the by-laws. These five in all will compose the 
Board of Directors, in whom the government of the Associa- 
tion and the management of its affairs will be vested. The 
handling of the various branches of the Association's activities 
(such as Scenario writing, costume and set design, casting, 
location and property management, photography, etc.) will 
be relegated to various temporary or permanent sub-committees 
to be appointed by the Board of Directors and approved by the 
members. Pending the election of the remaining two directors, 
the work of the President, Secretary, and Treasurer in form- 
ing the Association and other initial plans is being supple- 
mented by a temporary Formation Committee. 

Though the Association is as yet only in the nucleus stage, 
it is receiving enthusiastic support from some thirty mem- 
bers, while new members are constantly enrolling. Stories 
written by several of the members are being considered as 
material for the Club's first production, and work on the con- 
tinuity and actual production are soon to follow. Screen tests 
for casting are already under way. 

The Association holds regular meetings each Tuesday night 
at the Hollywood Studio Club, when matters of business and 
production are discussed and arranged, lectures are given by 
various authorities on different branches of motion picture 
arts, and films — produced by the members, or borrowed from 
the Amateur Cinema League's library — are shown. Among 
the recent speakers and visitors at the Association's meetings 
have been Joseph A. DuBray, A. S. C, Director of Technical 
Service for the Bell & Howell Company, and William Stull, 
A. S. C, of the American Cinematographer. 

"The Association extends a cordial welcome to all individ- 
uals interested in any phase of amateur cinema production," 
states the President, Mr. Devereux. "Furthermore, we feel 
unusually fortunate in that, being located as we are in the 
heart of the professional film world, many of our members 
have had experience in different phases of professional pro- 
duction work in the studios. This should be of the greatest 
benefit to other members of the organization who are bona 
fide amateurs, and serve as well to give our productions a 
more finished quality than is generally found in the initial 
efforts of an amateur group." 



New Q. R. S.-De Vry Distributor 

THE Q. R. S.-De Vry Corporation has appointed as exclu- 
sive Western distributor — Phil Lasher Ltd. — with offices 
at 300 7th Street, San Francisco, Calilf. The new company 
will take charge May 1st and will specialize in motion picture 
equipment and photographic supplies, dealing in both 16mm. 
and 35mm. silent and sound with a special department on 
visual education. 

Phil Meisenzahl who has represented the parent Q. R. S. 
Co. for the past twelve years, will join the Phil Lasher com- 
pany May 1st. Mr. Meisenzahl will have charge of the 
southern district while Mr. Lasher will remain in the North. 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N EM ATOCR AP H ER 



Forty-one 



Focusing Alignment Gauge for Filmo 




New focusing alignment gauge in use 

ADVANCED amateur cinematographers and scientific research 
k workers, including surgeons and doctors, who require pre- 
cision results in their close-up motion picture work, will be 
particularly interested in the Focusing Alignment Gauge, just 
announced by Bell & Howell as an accessory for any Filmo 
70 or 70-DA camera, especially for the latter. Every Filmo 
owner interested in title making will welcome the added 
possibilities for obtaining professional results which are pro- 
vided by the new unit, which is an adaptation of a similar Bell 
& Howell device used with the professional cameras and is only 
six inches long by three wide. 

On the Filmo 70-DA, with which the new accessory will be 
found most useful, the spyglass viewfinder is set to one side 
of the photographic aperture. While the finder has been placed 
as close as possible to the aperture, still there is enough offset 
to hinder accurate framing in extremely critical close-up work. 
On the other side of the 70-DA turret head is a critical 
focuser which permits of hypercritical focusing on an area in 
the exact center of the total picture area. The focusing posi- 
tion is necessarily even farther removed from the lens photo- 
graphing position than is the viewfinder. 




1BH 

Showing camera in position for exact alignment with viewfinder 

The focusing Alignment Gauge takes care of the offset in 
each instance. It attaches to a standard thread small camera 
tripod by means of the regular screw. The Filmo 70-DA 



HUGO 
MEYER 




enses 



T„ 



I HE Cinematographer 
who discriminates in favor of the 
best, finds enduring satisfaction in 
Hugo Meyer Lenses, for he appreciates 
their careful calculation, precise con- 
struction and complete correction. We 
shall be pleased to send a booklet 
upon request. 



'\r 



HUGO MEYER & CO. 



245 W. 55th St., New York 



Works: Coerlitz, Germany 



camera then attaches to the gauge's sliding block by a thumb 
screw. The block on which the camera is mounted slides on 
a precisely machined tool steel track resembling a lathe bed. 
Three accurately placed holes in the bed cause automatic lock- 
ing in view finding, focusing, and photographing positions. 
Thus the viewfinder, and later the critical focuser, may be 
centered and used exactly where the lens will be when the 
picture is taken. One can therefore readily imagine the boon 
this will be to the title maker and to the man who does much 
close-up work. 

For trick title work involving double exposures the new 
accessory will be found particularly useful, due to its ability 
to line up different shots so that they will center perfectly 
and be focused accurately. As everyone will readily admit, 
nothing is more objectionable in this type of work than to 
have one of the exposures fuzzy and the other sharp or to 
have one of them a bit off register. 

For surgical and medical photography, for industrial 
photography particularly of small objects, in fact for all work 
where accuracy of alignment and focusing is desired on close 
subjects, this new device should be valuable. 



studios. 



New Levee Contract 

LEVEE has been presented by B. P. Schulberg with a 
ew contract as executive manager of the Paramount 



Forty-two 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



May, 1931 



TRUEBALL TRIPOD HEADS 




OF SPECIAL ALLOY 

LICHTER WEIGHT 

The same efficient head. 

For follow shots, known 
for their smoothness of 
operation and equal ten- 
sion on all movements. 

Unaffected by tem- 
perature. 



Model B Professional 

For Bell & Howell and 
Mitchell Cameras and 
their respective tripods. 

With the ORIGINAL 
instant release telescopic 
handle. 




Model A for Ama- 
teur motion picture cam- 
eras. Attaches to any 
standard STILL tripod. 



Trueball tripod heads 
are unexcelled for sim- 
plicity, accuracy and 
speed of operation. 



The Hoefner four-inch 
Iris and Sunshade com- 
bination is also a supe- 
rior product. 



FRED HOEFNER 



CLadstone 0243 



5319 SANTA MONICA BOULEVARD 



LOS ANCELES, CALIF. 



54 



MERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 

1222 CUARANTY BLDC. 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Gentlemen: 

Please find enclosed three dollars (foreign rates additional), 
for one year's subscription to the American Cinematographer, to 

begin with the issue of , 19 



Name 




CLUBBING RATES 



U.S. 



Canada 

$3.50 



American Cinematographer $3.00 

In Club with: 

Camera Craft 3.90 4.65 

Photo-Era 4.75 5.00 

The Camera 3.90 4.40 

Please make all remittances payable to 
THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Foreign 

$4.00 

5.40 
6.40 
5.40 



Of Interest to DeVry Owners 

THE FOLLOWING notification from the Q. R. S. -DeVry 
Corporation should prove of interest to all owners of their 
equipment. The notice follows: 

We are very pleased to advise that through our engineering 
resources and the ability to manufacture Portable Projectors, 
we are now entering the market with a Sound-on-Film Talk- 
ing Motion Picture Projector and, in the course of manufac- 
turing this new unit, we have provided features which will 
enable our engineering department to convert your present 
DeVry Silent Portable Projector into a Sound-on-Film. 

No doubt you are finding an urgent need for a sound-on- 
film portable projector with the same degree of portability, 
which will show both silent and sound pictures. We know 
you are interested and would be very pleased to give you full 
details on how your present silent portable projector can be 
converted if you will kindly return the enclosed business reply 
card with your name and address, giving details as to the model 
and number of the projector you are now using. 

We also wish to advise that our Portable Sound-on-Film 
is manufactured completely in our factory, each and every 
part being under the supervision of very capable engineers and 
it is not an assembled job. When we convert your present 
silent portable type into a sound-on-film you can be assured 
that each and every part going into this equipment will be 
supervised and manufactured in our plant. The highest degree 
of workmanship and best of material available are incorporated 
into our new sound-on-film unit. 



Portable Sound Equipment 

(Continued from Page 21 ) 

The bullet type microphone furnished with this outfit is 
two stage microphone and uses condenser transmitter. It is 
built with a swivel head which can be pointed in any direction 
and is made of the very best materials obtainable. It has a 
Cannon connector and the covering can be removed in a few 
seconds by loosening three screws and is very easily accessible 
to change the tubes. The microphone stand is collapsible and 
of sturdy construction as the microphone is the heart of the 
unit and the stand must be sturdy enough to protect this 
delicate instrument. 




The camera motor hangs under the tripod and drives the 
camera with a flexible shaft. It is quickly attached and the 
camera can be operated by hand or by motor. 

With this double system one is sure of always getting good 
sound track and it will more than pay itself, and be more 
practical for carrying the extra weight of a recorder and the 
recorder motor battery to be sure and have results, for after 
all it is the result that counts. 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOCR AP H ER 



Forty-three 



Form World Wide Theatre Equipment 
Corporation 

THE ANNOUNCEMENT of the forming of the World Wide" 
Theatre Equipment Corporation should be of unusual 
interest to all theatre owners. The following facts are included 
in the announcement: 

No. I. A Corporation comprising a nucleus of 1 5 or more 
manufacturers of theatre equipment, all of whom are to be 
manufacturers of non-competitive lines. 

No. 2. The Corporation offices to be established in a 
principal city of the United States. 

No. 3. The Corporation officers will consist of President, 
Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer and a Board of Di- 
rectors consisting of one representative from each manufac- 
turing organization admitted to membership, in addition to 
the active officers above mentioned. 

No. 4. The Corporation will conduct its business, corres- 
pondence, literature in the form of catalogues, loose leaf trade 
and price lists, promotion work pertaining thereto, in the lan- 
guage of the country with which it does business. 

No. 5. The Corporation will cause to be printed on all 
its stationery and literature, with the exception of envelopes, 
the name of each associate manufacturer. 

No. 6. The Corporation will undertake four campaigns — 
(a) Direct to the theatre campaign, (b) Dealers educational 
campaign, (c) Newspaper and magazine advertising, (d) A 
campaign through the U. S. Department of Commerce and 
its foreign field offices. 

No. 7. The Corporation will establish a bureau of in- 
formation. This bureau to work in cooperation with the U. S. 
Department of Commerce in so far as is practical and possible. 
Its purpose will be to act as a medium between this organiza- 
tion, the U. S. Department of Commerce and any and all 
commercial organizations now in existence, or hereafter to be 
formed, relating to our particular lines of endeavor, thereby 
bringing all members of our Corporation into closer contact 
with the dealers and the purchasers. 

No. 8. The Corporation will maintain a showroom, dis- 
playing a full line of samples which are to be supplied by 
the manufacturer. 

No. 9. The Corporation will, as soon as possible and 
practical, place before 40,000 foreign theatres the knowledge, 
use and advantages of the manufacturers product. 

No. 10. Each manufacturer will become a part of this 
Corporation in the form of stock holdings, said stock will be 
the VOTING STOCK. 

No. 11. Each manufacturer will have a voice in the man- 
agement of the Corporation through its representative on the 
Board of Directors, in addition to participating in the profits 
of the Corporation. 

No. 12. Each manufacturer will give the Corporation the 
exclusive rights of distribution and sale of his non-competitive 
products for the entire world with the exception of the United 
States. 

No. 13. Each manufacturer will deliver to the Corpora- 
tion all inquiries from prospective purchasers or otherwise, as 
and when received from foreign countries or from foreign 
representatives located in the United States. 

No. 14. Each manufacturer will have, through this Corpora- 
tion, a wider introduction and distribution for his products 
through the world than is now at his command at a cost much 
less than it takes to introduce his product in one specific 
country. 

No. 1 5. Each manufacturer's prospective customer for 
his product will know that they are dealing with a reliable 
organization made up of dependable manufacturers of the 
highest standing and not "BOOTLEGGERS." 

No. 16. The efforts and full cooperation of all manu- 
facturers in the Corporation will be co-ordinated into one unit 
thereby producing far greater benefits than through individual 
effort. 




CINE-PANOR 

FOR 16MM MOVIES 

Takes and Projects 



a 50% wider picture 

The Cine-Panor does not function like 
the ordinary wide angle lens. The 
wide angle amateur movie lens is 
panoramic to the extent that it in- 
creases the field of view but com- 
presses it to the limitations of the 
standard 16mm picture proportion. 
The Cine-Panor is a panoramic lens 
which gives you true wide angle 
perspective on the screen by increas- 
ing, in a horizontal direction, the size 
of the screen throw by 50%. 

SEND FOR BOOKLET A C 4 



CRGOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. 



317 EAST 34™ ST. 



NEW YORK CITY 



Forty-four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



May, 1931 



WILLIAMS' 
SHOTS 



Will give you the results you need. We have 
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 

Cinematography in Hollywood. 
Any background, either real scenes or minia- 
ture, may be used. Scenes may be corrected 

without retakes. 

Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 

dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 

Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 

for a sequence or one scene. 

Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 

Composite Laboratories 

8111 Santa Monica Blvd. Tel. OXford 161 1 



WILLIAMS' SHOTS 



When you need engraving 
you need the BEST 

O • You GET it at the 

Superior 

ENGRAVING 

♦COMPANY 

Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half-Tones 

Color Work Designing 

Electrotypes 

Mats, Etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Have you ordered your Cinematographic 
Annual? 



Cround Noise Reduction 

(Continued from Page I3l 
UX-250 tubes in parallel, fed by a l 80-volt storage battery. 
A small meter control box containing two 0-to-500 milliam- 
meters is used with a switch for breaking plate current and 
aiding battery current to the voice coils. 

Each voice coil has connected in series with it a milliammeter 
indicating the variations of current in each circuit. A variable 
resistance is also used in series with the battery to adjust its 
value so as to make the voice coils balance electrically, that 
is to say, when one is at maximum current, the other is at 
zero, and vice-versa. These meters, therefore, represent the 
movement of the shutter. 

Work on the system described was first started in November, 

1929. Practical results were obtained in February, 1 930, 
and the device put into production on Radio Pictures, "Dix- 
iana," in March, 1930. "Dixiana" was released in August, 

1930. After further development, the system was again used 
on Radio Pictures' production "Half Shot at Sunrise," released 
in September, 1 930. Since this time, development has con- 
tinued with the aim of simplifying and reducing the amount 
of apparatus necessary and to procure simpler adjustments in 
operation. The device will continue in use on forthcoming 
R-K-0 productions. 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 30) 
tilt head (such as the Thalhammer, for instance) , it is easy 
enough to get an exact set of legs, cut them off to the proper 
length — a foot or perhaps 18 inches — and then shift your 
complete tilt-head onto the baby whenever you need it. Try it! 

The Latest A. C. L. Bulletin 

One of the most interesting little booklets which has come 
my way for some time is "Exposure in Essence," by Russell C. 
Holslag, the Technical Consultant of the Amateur Cinema 
League. Officially this monograph is Bulletin No. 4 of the 
League's Technical Service for its members, and it is, despite 
its brevity, one of the most complete reviews of the exposure 
problem yet printed. Volumes could be written upon this im- 
portant subject, and Mr. Holslag is to be congratulated upon 
the excellent way he has condensed the vital facts of exposure 
into this neat, 32-page booklet. Beside treating both the 
theory of exposure, and the principles of the more common 
types of exposure-meters, the author gives considerable at- 
tention to practical examples of exposure. Furthermore, he 
emphasizes a fact which is all too seldom stressed: that the 
proper exposure for any given scene is not necessarily that 
which would be technically correct for the scene as a whole, 
but that which is best for the object of chief interest in that 
scene. If any criticism were to be made of the book, it would 
be that too little attention was apparently paid to securing 
illustrations which would give visual demonstration of this, 
and similar points, and thereby increase the effectiveness of 
the excellent text. 



Talking Movies Aid Sales 

GEORGE W. STOUT, Advertising Manager of the Perfect 
Circle Company, makers of piston rings, declares that 
talking motion pictures have proven one of the greatest sales 
promotional efforts ever made by his organization. He pre- 
dicts that such pictures will become one of the major selling 
forces within the next two years. 

Mr. Stout's organization uses the Bell & Howell Filmophone, 
and says that in January of this year their pictures were shown 
to 1 1,549 people; February to 10,269. He declares that they 
can put over things more forcefully with the pictures than 
in any other way. 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



Forty-five 



FOREIGN NOTE/ 



First India Sound Studio Opened by 
Madan Company 

THE first studio in India for the production of sound pic- 
tures has been opened at Tollygunge, suburb of this city, 
by Madan Theatres, leading circuit operators. The new 
studio is built on a site comprising seven acres of land and the 
building itself is 100 feet long and 30 feet wide. Recording 
equipment used is RCA Photophone, mounted on two five- 
ton trucks, one of which carries the power unit and the other 
the actual apparatus. It was decided to make the equipment 
portable in order that it might also be used for newsreel work. 

European Sound Picture Theatres Show 
Striking Cain 

THAT EUROPE has gone "talkie" in no uncertain manner 
is evidenced by the striking increase in the number of 
theatres wired for sound reproduction during the past few 
months, according to advices received in the Commerce De- 
partment Motion Picture Division from Trade Commissioner 
George R. Canty at Paris. 

According to the report the number of sound theatres in 
Europe increased from 5,400 on October 1, 1930, to 7,720 
on January 1, 1931, a gain of 1,320 within three months. 

New Diet Film 

AN INTERESTING and instructive film, "Food Makes a 
/\ Difference," has been made by the Motion Picture De- 
partment of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, sponsored by 
the Bureau of Home Economics. The film is in two reels and 
shows the defects resulting from poor feeding, and also shows 
very well how these defects may be overcome by proper food. 
It is a picture that is of vital interest to all parents. It may 
be secured for showing by Parents Associations, womens' 
clubs, etc., free, by writing the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, D. C. 

French Firm to Market New Wide 
Screen Device 

PARIS — A new company, the French Societe Technique 
d'Optique et de Photographie, has been formed to market 
the Hypergonar, a device invented by Professor Henri Chretien, 
which is claimed to make possible the projection from ordinary 
film to wide screen without revamping of apparatus. The 
Hypergonar is described as an optical system, which is placed 
in front of the camera when scenes are shot, and compresses 
the images optically. 

Sydney Device Company Chartered 

SYDNEY — Sound Re-Productions, Ltd., a new equipment 
company, has been chartered here with a capital of $30,000, 
to take over an improved apparatus for reproducing sound from 
sound recorded films and all improvements in such apparatus. 
Incorporators are L. Rowson, H. G. Guinness and G. Crick. 



• UNION MADE • 

TRUNKS ~» CASES 

FOR CAMERAMEN 

REPAIRING OUR SPECIALTY 

Melrose Trunk Factory 

646 N. Western LOS ANGELES GLadstone 1872 



ELMER G. DYER 

AKELEY SPECIALIST 

Aerial Photography Since 1918 

Phone HE. 8116 



Phone GL. 7507 



Hours 9 to 5 
Also by Appointment 



Dr. G. Floyd Jackman 

DENTIST 

706 Hollywood First National Building 
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave. 



HARRY PERRY, A. S. C. 

MULTICOLOR FILMS 



OXford 1908 



HEmpstead 1128 



ROY DAVIDGE 
FILM LABORATORIES 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 

exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 

GRanite 3108 



VERNON L. WALKER, A. S. C 

First Cinemarographer Specializing in Process Work 

ADDRESS 

601 West Fairmont, Glendale, California 
Telephone: Doug. 5032R or HE-1 1 28 



. - 



Mr. Advertiser: 



Are you paying for unproductive circulation? 

Do you know how many readers of your advertisements are 

Potential Buyers? 

Do you buy advertising space on the basis of numbers of readers, without 
considering their buying power — or do you prefer placing your advertise- 
ment in publications noted for their 

Selective Circulation? 



For more than ten years, in every country in the world 

The American Ciiiematographer 

has been a buying guide for a large group of readers whose buying power 

is unsurpassed. 



If you wish to reach professional, amateur or "still" photographers — 
laboratory, studio or sound executives — in other words, if you have anything 
worth-while to offer for cameramen, studios, theatres, laboratories or to 
the users of 16 mm. home movie equipment — you will find that an attrac- 
tive, intelligent advertisement in 

The American Cinematographer 

will bring you splendid results. Our readers represent buying power. No 

waste circulation. 

IF YOU WANT INCREASED SALES 

Write today for advertising rates 

THE AMIKH \\ < I M >l Y I <M,lt \ I'll I It 

1222 Guaranty Building Hollywood, California 



46 



May, 1931 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



Forty-seven 



Government- Sound Pictures 

PRODUCTION of sound pictures has been initiated by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture in its own studio in 
Washington A complete sound-on-film recording system has 
been installed by the department's Office of Motion Pictures 
and the work of scoring lecture pictures is going forward. 

The recorder has been installed to run synchronously with 
projectors equipped for the projection of sound-on-film, so 
that it can be utilized for scoring existing silent pictures with 
sound effects or lectures, as well as for recording speech in 
synchrony with cinematography made by a camera interlocked 
with the recorder. The old projection room of the Office of 
Motion Pictures has been converted into a sound studio for 
scoring. 

One of the films scheduled for conversion into "talkies" is, 
"Forests or Wasteland?" — a Forest film completed last fall as 
a silent film. Another is the Indian Sign Language film that 
the Office of Motion Pictures is making for the Department of 
the Interior, under a special appropriation. Maj. Gen. Hugh L. 
Scott, retired, will deliver the lecture that is to accompany this 
film, which is designed to constitute a permanent record of 
the Indian sign language. 

The Department of Agriculture now has in circulation more 
than 200 of the nearly 400 films made since its motion pic- 
ture work was inaugurated, about 20 years ago, but it is likely 
that relatively few of these will be made over as "talkies." 
Department officials say that the rapidity with which produc- 
tion of new talking pictures develops will depend largely on 
the demand from the extension field, and that there is reason 
to believe that this demand will be greatly stimulated in the 
near future by the appearance on the market of cheaper and 
more portable sound-on-film equipment than has been avail- 
able to field workers. 



Jones Lab Markets Portable Projector 

ANEW portable projector, known as the Jones Ace and 
designed especially for use in sales instruction, sales pro- 
motion, and for use in institutions, theatres, auditoriums or 
homes where the projection of a bright, clear, steady picture 
is desired up to 15 feet in size over a distance of from 10 to 
120 feet, has been developed and is being marketed by the 
Earle W. Jones Research Laboratories of New York. 

Equipped with a sound head, which the company claims 
from an engineering standpoint is absolutely foolproof, the 
Jones Ace, while sturdy in construction and designed to stand 
the strain of heavy duty work, is light in weight. Castings 
are of the highest grade aluminum and the total weight of the 
projector is only about 35 pounds, the company states. 



Glenn R. Kershner 



a. s. c. 



First Cinematographer 



c o A. S. C. 
CR. 4274 



Classified Advertising 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar per insertion. 



WANTED— MOTION PICTURE CAMERAS 



WANTED — For cash, DeBrie, Pathe, Bell & Howell Standard cameras. 
Send full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison 
Street, Chicago. 

FOR SALE — CAMERAS 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera No. 230, Tripod with Mitchell legs, baby- 
tripod, high hat, adjustable shutter, 6 magazines; 2-2 in. F 2.7, 4 
in. F 2.3, 6 in. F 2.7, 12 in. F 5.6 lenses with finder lenses. 
Motor attachment, carrying cases, first class condition. J. P. 
Muller, 2629 Calhoun St., New Orleans, La. 

FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3500.00 each. 
Special price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of 
CINEMATOGRAPHER. 

FOR SALE OR RENT— First Class Akeley Outfit complete. Phone 
CR-4274, or write Dan B. Clark, A. S. C. office. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. 
Reasonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or CR. 4274. 

FOR SALE — Akeley Camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, equipped up to 
6-inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. CRanite 1185. 

FOR SALE— Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes. Phone HE. 1841. 

FOR SALE — MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR SALE OR RENT— Mitchell camera equipped for Sound. Al Cilks. 
HE- 1490 or A. S. C. Office CR-4274. 

FOR RENT — CAMERAS 

FOR RENT — Mitchell camera fully equipped for sound. Harry Perry, 
Phone OX- 1908. 

FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders, 
Mitchell tripods. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit, Mitchell tripod, 6 magazines, 
equipped up to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga 
Ave. CRanite 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don 
B. Keyes, HE- 1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed camera with latest 40, 50 and 75 
mm. Pan- Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod. 
Pliny Home, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or HO-9431. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40, 
50 and 75 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol, 
6507 Drexel Ave. ORegon 7492. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell and Bell & Howell, Akeley Cameras. Lenses, 
accessories of all kinds, new and used — Bargains. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange. 1511 Cahuenga Blvd. 

FOR RENT— MISCELLANEOUS 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell 
and Bell & Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park 
]. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga. CR-1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor; 
1000 ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes. HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Pliny Home, 
1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or HO-9431. 



The TRAIL AHEAD ! 

Don't Miss the June issue of the 

American Cinematographer! Better 

than ever! More Big Features! Be sure 

you 

Get Your Copy! 



Forty-eight 



AMERICAN C I N E M ATOC R A P H ER 



May, 1931 




OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD - 
VICTOR MILNER 
JOHN W. BOYLE - 
ALFRED GILKS 
GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN 
WILLIAM STULL 



President 

- First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 

- Third Vice-President 

Treasurer 
Secretary 



John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Chas. C. Clarke 
Elmer Dyer 
Alfred Cilks 



Fred Jackman 
Ray June 
Victor Milner 



Hal Mohr 

George Schneiderman 

John F. Seitz 



William Stull 
Ned Van Buren 
Gilbert Warrenton 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen Gaetano Gaudio James Van Trees John W. Boyle 

Fred W. Jackman Hal Mohr Homer Scott John F. Seitz Daniel B. Clark 

Arthur Webb, General Counsel 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Dr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease, Dr. L. M. Dieterich 



Abel, David — Paramount. 
Allen, Paul H. — 
Arnold, John — M-G-M. 
Archer, Fred — 
August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 

St. Paul. 
Benoit, Georges — Paris. 
Boyle, John W. — Sigma Films, 

Ltd. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C. — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 
Clark, Daniel B. — Fox. 
Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 
Cowling, H. T.' — -Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 
tone. 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 

DeVol, Norman — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell. Hollywood 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners' Vita- 
phone. 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A. 
Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 
Fildew, William — 



Fisher, Ross G. — Multicolor. 

Flora, Roll* — Fox. 

Folsey, Geo. J., Jr.- — New York. 

Gaudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros. 
Cilks, Alfred — M-G-M. 
Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros. 
Gray, King D. — 
Greenhalgh, Jack — F-B-O. 
Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 
England. 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 
Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 
Hilburn, Percy — Universal 
Home, Pliny — 
Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 

Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 
Jackman, Fred — Technical 

Director, Warner Bros. 
June, Ray — United Artists. 

Kershner, Glenn — Metropolitan. 
Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Artists. 
Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner 

Bros. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 
Lock wood, J. R. — 
Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 
Metropolitan. 

MacWilliams, Glen — Fox. 
Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M. 



Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 
McDonell, Claude — London, 

England. 
Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 
Milner, Victor — Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Rogers. 
Morgan, Ira H. — M-G-M. 

O'Connell, L. Wm.- — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 
Parrish, Fred — Colorado 

Springs, Colo. 
Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Polito, Sol — First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — ■ 
Powers, Len — 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 

Vitaphone. 
Ries, Park J. — 
Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 

Lasky. 
Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 

Universal. 
Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 

Movietone. 
Schoenbaum, Chas. — James 

Cruz. 
Scott, Homer A. — 
Seitz. John F. — Fox 
Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 

Doug. Fairbanks. 



Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich, Harold — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J. — Metro- 
politan. 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 
Studios. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 

Stumar, Charles — Universal. 



Tappenbeck, Hatto- — Fox. 
Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-C-M. 



Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 

Kodak Co., Hollywood. 
Van Trees, James — 
Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 

Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox. 
Walker, Joseph — Columbia. 
Walker. Vernon L. — R-K-O. 
Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal. 
Wenstrom, Harold — 
Westerberg. Fred 
Whitman, Phil H. — 
Wilky, L. Cuy — 
Wrigley. Dewey — Pathe. 
Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 



Zucker, Frank C. — Warner 
Bros., New York. 



"ONE PICTURE 

Is Worth Ten Thousand Words . . . " 



Thirty -Three Pictures 

Produced in Hollywood . . . 

exclusively 

EASTMAN 

SUPER-SENSITIVE 
PANCHROMATIC 

[TYPE TWO} 

NEGATIVE 






J. E. BRULATOUR, Inc. 

NEW YORK HOLLYWOOD CHICAGO 



& 



it ( 



lit 



Mb- 



m fl if 






"*\ 



\<w 



"Mm- 

m 



NO SIR eeJ-TiMinYl-O-' i. 
I WOIADNT 5CL.U "THIS ' 
WTCHEU- CAMERA fQl\ , 
UOVE Oft SOLD, S/NCE— 
MiTCHE-LU FIXED '£ft UP VVlTH 

The. Quicn release. PAESsuitej 

BRACKET- IT ONLY TAKE-* ' 
/I I heT fifteen SECONDS To 
liM CHANGE- FflOKl 8WCK AND WHlTfeJ 
5HP IN THEIR FOUR ROkUtIS 

Pressure plate. And THib. 

SHIfl INFRONT QF-TH&. 6R#UND 

GkRss— sup on Trie ^ . 

HBGfVUNE. AND yVE-OF-l JHCJEj^" 
BEAuTiFfu pisft ces IN 

COkOPs 



^ 



Sb" 



7 



% 



iJti 



\ 



1 



JS 



W^ 



x. 



feJ 



JfHftl\S WISDOM 1h 
MfHW\ WORDS ALY/N 
7 AND WE'VE FOUNO 
roof THBt THElrV. N&W 
I, 6UCKI.E TRIP HAS 
SEEN ABOUT OU*. 
0EST INSURANCG- 
ESPECifiLLV "THRT 
ATTACHMENT T© 

TfiiP The wiud 
noTof\ 



^ ^ 



; -^ 



If 



i^V/ 



■^ 



^J?' 






J 



> 






x\ 



UK 



O 






^*3 up 



*hj. 



/tfNN ID l/ERSHNEf^ 



Advertisement 











irm 



JJ5 Centos a Copy 



'•i-YWOOp 




MAIN T A I N I N G t/tc same relation of 

color balance 

as its Regular Product 




ESTABLISHED 1802 



SPECIAL PANCHROMATIC 
NEGATIVE 

requires no change in 

Make-up, Costuming, Painting 

and Dressing of Sets 



SMITH & ALLER, Ltd. 

6656 Santa Monica Blvd. • Hollywood 5147 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 



Pacific Coast Distributors for 



DU PONT PATHE FILM MFG. CORP. 

35 West 45th Street Ne^ York City 





Lieut. Geo. W. Goddard, U. S. Air Force, uses 
the Eyemo for official aerial cinematography 



Mr. and Mrs. Martin Johnson use 
Eyemos in Africa 





Eyemo in news reel service — filming Andre 
Tardieu, French statesman and former Premier 



yemo 

55 mm. automatic liana cam 



era 



Three Lens Turret . . . Seven Film Speeds 



The greatest movie in the world has always yet to be made 
— and it may be made with a Bell & Howell Eyemo by 
someone's right hand. For the new 71-C Eyemo 35 mm. 
hand camera provides the versatility and flexibility of the 
standard camera with the portability of a 16 mm. machine. 

The Eyemo's three-lens turret accommodates all lenses 
ordinarily used on any Eyemo model, from the 47 mm. lens, 
which is standard equipment, up to the 6 inch telephoto. 
Still longer lenses may be interchanged with the shorter 
ones. An optional, less compact turret accommodates wide 
angle and longer telephoto lenses without interference. 
Remounting lenses used on former models to fit the 71-C 
turret is a simple factory operation and costs but little. 

The new Eyemo has a built-in hand-crank which may be 
used instead of the spring motor if desired. The rotation of 
the crank is governed by the regular speed indicator. No 



need to count revolutions. The film speeds are 4, 6, 8, 12, 
16, 24, and 32 frames a second. A speed conversion table is 
conveniently mounted on the side of the camera, giving 
correct lens stop openings for any speed. 

The variable spy-glass viewfinder enables the instant 
framing of the correct lens field by the turn of a dial, which 
switches into view six different fields from the 40 mm. lens 
to the 12 inch. 

The Bell & Howell Standard Camera 

Another achievement! In one major mechanism, with 
quickly interchangeable parts, the Bell & Howell Standard 
Camera now combines a regular, color, and ultra-speed, or 
regular, color, and sound camera into one. 

Write for the Eyemo catalog and full details about the 
interchangeable Standard Camera. 



BELL & HOWELL 



Bell & Howell Company, 1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. . . . New York, 11 West 42nd Street 

6324 Santa Monica Blvd London (B & H Co., Ltd.) 320 Regent Street .... 

Please mention the American Gnematographer when writing advertisers. 



. . Hollywood, 
Established 1907 



Superiority... 




American made motion 

pictures dominate the 
entertainment field throughout 
the world because of superi- 
ority . . . superior stories,- 
superior sound, superior cine- 
matography, superior film, 
superior laboratory equipment 
and superior lighting . . . 



TYPE 324 INTEGRAL INKIE 



K y\OLE-RICHARDSON, INC., take pride in the fact that 
they have played such a big part in this achievement. 

SUPERIORITY and M-R EQUIPMENT are SYNONYMOUS 

in the motion picture industry because superiority is the watch- 
word of our entire organization. When you buy a Mole- 
Richardson Lamp you get superiority. 



IF IT ISN'T AN 




IT IS.VT AN INKIE 



MOLE - RICHARDSON, I\r. 

Studio Lighting Equipment 

941 N. SYCAMORE AVENUE 
HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



• AMERICAN ■ 

CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 

HAL HALL 
JOHN ARNOLD Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C EMERY HUSE 

President, A. S.C. BOARD OF EDITORS: Cilbert Warrenton William Stull H. T. Cowling Ned Van Buren, Technical Editor, A. S. C 

Joseph Dubray, George Schneiderman, Hatto Tappenbeck. 

Volume XII JUNE, 1931 Number 2 



CONTENTS 

Page 

SUPERSENSITIVE FILM AND THE STILL MAN, by Emmett Schoenbaum 9 

S. M. P. E. HOLLYWOOD SPRING MEETING, by Hal Hall 10 

A NON-INTERMITTENT CAMERA, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 12 

NEW ANGLES ON FAST FILM, by Clyde de Vinna, A. S. C 13 

SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich.... 14 

THE NEW EASTMAN SENSITOMETER, by Emery Huse, A. S. C 15 

TELEVISION IN COLOR FROM MOTION PICTURE FILM, 

by Herbert E. Ives 16 

HAL HALL SAYS 18 

A. S. C. CONDUCTS FAST FILM TESTS 19 

LABORATORY DEPARTMENT 20 

AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING, by William Stull, A. S. C 30 

BABBLING ABOUT BRITTANY, by Lawrence Grant 33 

WHAT PROJECTION LAMP SHOULD I USE?, by R. Fawn Mitchell 37 



FOREICN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d'Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY of C INEMATOCRAPHERS, INC., HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
SUITE 1222 GUARANTY BUILDING, HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 
Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1931, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 

3 



FREE TO 



J 




Dr. Tanar Preparing to Open a New Case 



• Dr. Tanar, who has been instrumental in relieving many serious 
cases of bad business, now offers his advice free to sufferers. 
The letters reproduced on the opposite page are typical of the 
many queries the doctor receives daily. Write the Doctor about 
your troubles — His advice is free! 

TANAR CORPORATION, Ltd. 

.1- •-.-■, » Originators of Portable Sound-on-Film Recorders 

General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Boulevard Laboratories: 1100-12 North Serrano Avenue 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A. 



Telephone 

HE-3939 and HE-3362 

Cable Address: TANARLICHT 

Postal Telegraph Private Wire 



New York Office: 729 Seventh Avenue 

Sole Agents for India: M. L. Mistry & Co. 

46 Church Gate Street, Fort, Bombay 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



UFFER ER S 



Q. Dear, Dear Doctor: 

I am 26 years of age, weigh 180 lbs. and am 6 feet 
1 inch tall in my negligee. I have a Debrie camera and baby 
tripod. I am hesitating about purchasing Sound Equipment 
as I suffer terribly carrying my present outfit. I do com- 
mercial work, mostly of flower shows and cat exhibitions. 
Please give me your opinion. 

/. (Pansy) Pett, 
Crushed Narcissus Film Laboratory. 

Ans. The Doctor is forwarding his opinion under separate 
cover by express. 



Q. Dear Doc: 

I am 23 years old and 5 feet 4 inches tall and weigh 
120 lbs. in my overcoat. I bought a sound outfit which 
consists of about 12 cases and weighs less than 1000 lbs. 
I don't mind packing the stuff around. The only trouble 
is that by the time I get the stuff on the job and every- 
thing unpacked and set up to work it is either night time 
or the story is over. What do you suggest. 
Ralph Ruff, 
Big Timber Film Service 

Ans. by Dr. Tanar: The Tanar Single System weighs 120 
lbs. and is complete in two cases. It can be set up in 
two minutes even if you loaf on the job. No stories missed 
with this equipment and it is made to stand abuse. 



I haven't missed a single recording or picture. I am putting 
up a new twenty-story laboratory and am going in for 
color. How can I use my Tanar outfit on this work? 

). C. Dough 

Ans. by Dr. Tanar: A Tanar Double Recording Head will 
work with your present Tanar Amplifier and equipment. A 
catalogue is being forwarded showing photographs of this 
system. The Tanar Double System carries the same broad 
guarantee as the Single System. 



Q. Dear Dr: 

I took your treatment for bad business and am getting 
along great. My Tanar Single System is working fine and 



Q. Dear Doctor: 

I am suffering from loss of business. My competitor 
has a Tanar Outfit and has taken all my customers. He 
has a Rolls-Royce and a big house on the hill and a swell 
book of phone numbers. He wants to buy my camera and 
printer. Should I sell it to him? Please answer this right 
away. Something has got to be done. Jesse! 
I. M. Lowe 

Ans. by Dr. Tanar: Keep your camera and printer and get 
a Tanar Single or Double System at once and get to work. 
You should be able in a few weeks to buy a larger and 
later Rolls-Royce than your competitor has. Try to get me 
a copy of your competitor's book of phone numbers. 



TEAR OUT AND FILL IN THIS COUPON— PLACE IT IN AN ENVELOPE— RIVET A STAMP 
ON THE UPPER RICHT HAND CORNER AND MAIL TO 

Dr. Tanar, 

co Tanar Corporation, Ltd., 
5357 Santa Monica Blvd., 
Hollywood, California. 

Dear Doctor: 

TO HELL WITH ANY MORE SUFFERING! SEND ME YOUR ILLUSTRATED BROCHURE . 
MY SYMPTOMS ARE - 

SUFFERERS NAME 

SUFFERERS ADDRESS 

"Class name for catalogue Copyright 1931. T. C, Ltd. 



Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



The LATEST Thing in Sound 

SOUND RECORDING UNITS FOR THE INDEPENDENT AND FOREIGN MOTION PIC- 
TURE PRODUCER, INCORPORATING THE NEW METHOD OF 

NOISELESS RECORDING 

ON FILM 

The RICO Studio Recording Unit is especially designed for opera- 
tion under all climatic conditions, the amplifier assembly being 
impregnated in a catacomb as a protection against moisture. 

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE "RICO" DOUBLE SYSTEM UNIT FOLLOW: 

High Cain Recording Amplifier Portable Extended Mixer 

Latest Noise Reduction Amplifier Mitchell Sound Recording Camera 

Three 2-Stage Condenser Microphones One Microphone Boom 

Two Synchronous Camera Drive Motors Power Supply Generator Set 

Two Camera Silencing Covers Twelve Tested Recording Lights 

All Cables for Microphones, Extended Mixer and Camera Motors. 

Spare Recording Camera Magazine, Spare Tubes for Entire Unit. 

A Complete 35- Item List of Small Spare Parts, Tools and 

Testing Meter and Engineering and Recording Instructions. 

"RICO" equipment is complete in every detail. The design of studio engineers for produc- 
ing studios, incorporating the very latest features with the finest equipment available. Our 
organization will procure at cost additional laboratory and lighting equipment — new or used. 

If desired, the RADIO INSTALLATION CO. is prepared to extend the payments for 
equipment over a period of from six months to one year, that they may be made from 
income, allowing the most modern expansion of your studio with the least burden. 

CABLE IMMEDIATELY FOR INFORMATION 

CTiirsiO ( ^ e Wi " Credit Your Cable Costs) PORTABLE 

UNITS MOBILE TRUCK UNITS UNITS 

FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES WANTED 
Inquire about our instruction plan, giving you the services of an expert engineer for one month 



SOUND RECORDING DIVISION 

THE RADIO INSTALLATION COMPANY 

Engineers Since 1923 

1404 Magnolia Ave. Los Angeles, California, U. S. A. Cable Address 

Phone: Exposition 0012 "DEMING Los Angeles' 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 



The Answer to the Motion Picture Color Problem ! 






MAG^ACpLOR 

A Product of 

Consolidated Film Industries, Inc. 
MAGNACOLOR 

For Perfect Reproduction of Color and Sound 
on Film — surpasses all other processes. 

Reproduces the grandeur and beauty of nature 
exactly as your eyes see it. 

Gives perfect definition. No fringe. Every 
detail sharp and clear as black and white. 

Practical, simple and economical. Uses stand- 
ard photographing and projection equipment. 
No extra lighting. 

Assures perfect reproduction of sound on color 
film. 

Perfected after years of experimentation. 
Special plant ready for quantity production. 

The Industry has learned by experience and 
the expenditure of millions of dollars that 
color of poor quality has no value. 

MAGNACOLOR presents superlative quality 
at low cosh It is the ideal color film combina- 
tion the Industry has been waiting for. 




|iK.;:^.:n,.Mni3fT?rrii:;.niij.!U3E3 



Z?*Z 



959 Seward St., MAGNACOLOR Hollywood, Cal. 

DIVISfON 



Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo al annunziarcs. 



Eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



June, 1931 




Lower left, Fig. I, made on old-type stock. Exposure 1 second at F:8. Lower right, Fig. 2, same lighting, super sensitive 
stock. Exposure 1/5 second at F:8. Upper right, Fig. 3, old-type film. Two 1000-watt flood lights with two silks on each, 
and one 400-watt back light, with one oiled frost. Exposure, 2 seconds at F:8. Upper left, Fig. 4, same lighting, but super 

sensitive film. Exposure 1/5 second at F:8. 



Super-Sensitive Film and the Still Man 



by EMMETT SCHOENBAUM 



THE STILL cameraman's job has never been a bed of roses, 
but since the introduction of super-sensitive motion pic- 
ture film it has become considerably less so, for when you 
are using a still film which is something like sixty per cent 
slower than the motion picture film for which the set is 
lighted, you begin to encounter many new troubles in addi- 
tion to all the old ones to which you've become more or less 
accustomed. In the first place, since your film is so vastly 
less sensitive than that which the cinematographers are using, 
and for which the set is lighted, you find yourself compelled 
to double or treble your normal exposure — which, heaven 
knows, is already quite long enough to give you trouble with 
movement by nervous stars, or when you are working with a 
large company. But then, even with this increased exposure, 
the difference in the sensitivity characteristics of the two 
emulsions is such that you will not get the same lighting effects 
and contrasts that the cinematographer does in his picture. 
Obviously, you can't relight the set just for a still! 

Then, too, there is the equally important matter of color 
rendition. If a set is designed for the new super-sensitive mo- 
tion picture film, you cannot get the same color values in your 
stills with the old type of still film, even though you use filters 
which, while improving your picture, will also force you to 
increase your already over-long exposure by some four or five 
times. And, with such glaring differences in color-rendition, 
your stills are almost valueless as reference materials for the 
art, costume, and makeup experts, or for the players, them- 
selves. 

Another thing which the still man has to bear in mind in 
his work is that the majority of it, in addition to being of high 
photographic and artistic quality strictly as photographs and 
records, must be made for reproduction in all the countless 
newspapers and magazines which the Publicity Department 
supplies with material. This means (except in the case of a 
few of the very best maga- 
zines) that the still will 
suffer greatly in reproduc- 
tion. It is somewhat as if 
the cinematographer had to 
shoot his picture with the 
consciousness that all but 
two or three of his release- 
prints were to be "dupes," 
and ranging in quality from 
merely poor ones to ex- 
tremely bad ones. There- 
fore the still man has to see 
that his pictures are not 
only of the same tonal 
gradation and quality as is 
the film, but that they 
maintain a certain boldness 
of outline (for the news- 
papers and poorer maga- 
zines) without loss of the 
detail gradations and quality 
which the better magazines 
and studio use demand. 

This was a considerable 
problem before, when the 
still and the motion picture 
could be shot on emulsions 




Hal Mohr and Mr. Schoenbaum comparing old and new film results. 

This picture was made with one 1000- watt light. Lens stopped to 

F:16, exposure 1/5 second. 



of practically identical characteristics, but now that the Super- 
sensitive motion picture film has come into use, it is even more 
difficult. 

But the introduction of Super-sensitive still "film has not 
only eliminated these new difficulties, but actually reduced 
some of the old ones. Now you can shoot your stills, not on 
a film which is approximately like the one the cinematographer 
has in his camera, but on one which is identically the same as 
his film. You can use his fast film lightings unchanged, and 
match his effects to a hair. You can shoot reference stills of 
sets, costumes, and makeups which will perfectly match the 
color rendition and tonal gradations of his moving picture. 
And you can make your stills with the requisite boldness for 
reproduction work, and at the same time get such fine detail 
contrasts, and luminous shadows as never before. 

I have just finished shooting the stills for Pathe's produc- 
tion of "The Common Law," starring Constance Bennett, di- 
rected by Paul L. Stein, and photographed by Hal Mohr, A. S. C. 
Mr. Mohr used super-sensitive film for this production, while 
I started it with ordinary Panchromatic cut film. But I soon 
enough found that the only way to match Mr. Mohr's cine- 
matographic results with my stills was to change over to 
Super Sensitive still film! During the first three days of the 
production, the tremendous differences between the fast film 
which Mr. Mohr was using and the slow film that I was 
using gave me an endless amount of trouble — and the fourth 
morning found me with Super Sensitive cut film in my plate- 
holders. From then on, I was not only able to hold up my 
end of things properly, but to produce stills of a better quality 
than anything I had ever done on the older stocks. And the 
immensely shortened exposures, and equally improved quality 
were quite as welcome to both director and star as they were 
to Mr. Mohr and myself. 

Perhaps the most significant quality which I found in the 

new film — aside from its 
speed — was the improve- 
ment in color rendition. It 
reproduces colors in almost 
the exact scale of relative 
brilliancy with which they 
appear to the eye. This has 
a really startling effect up- 
on the perspective; it gives 
a far greater illusion of 
depth and roundness. This 
is highly important in still 
work, for a still, probably 
because of its lack of mo- 
tion, almost invariably seems 
flatter than its correspond- 
ing motion picture. Thus, 
working with the new film 
in both the motion picture 
and still cameras, we can be 
sure of making full use of 
all the visual aids to secur- 
ing proper depth and per- 
spective which the set-de- 
signers have given us, by 
means of the coloring of the 
sets and backings. 

(Continued on page 29) 



Society of Motion Picture f 

Spring Convention One of Most Interesting in History of Ei 

byhL 



AFTER listening to the reading of sixty-eight papers pre- 
pared by some of the most outstanding minds of the 
^ technical field of motion pictures, this writer hesitates to 
even attempt to report the Spring Meeting of the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, held in Hollywood the last week of 
May — May 25th to 29th, inclusive, to be exact. 

It is too much to expect one small mind to grasp so much 
technical data and digest it well enough to more than touch 
upon what took place. At the outset, we do wish to say 
that a meeting such as this gives us the reason why America 
leads in the motion picture production of the entire world. 
These men live and breathe the problems of the technical side 
of the industry and most of them are devoting their lives to 
the advancement of the science of picture making along lines 
which seldom come to the attention of the millions of theatre 
patrons who rarely, if ever, give a thought to the mechanical 
wonders that make pictures possible. 

But, to get back to the meeting. It was held in the beauti- 
ful building of the Hollywood Legion; very adequate quarters 
for the purpose. Buron Fitts, District Attorney of Los An- 
geles County; Clinton Wunder, Executive Manager of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; and Commander 
Stephen Hall of the Hollywood Post 43, American Legion, gave 
addresses of welcome to which President J. I. Crabtree 
responded. Following the usual organization details, the meet- 
ing swung into the business of the presentation of the papers. 
The first was a paper on "Detail in Television" by D. K. Gan- 
nett of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. This 
was followed by the showing of the famous "Baron Shiba 
Films." These films created much interest. They were made 
in Japan at very high speed, and were projected so as to show 
in slow motion certain very high speed phenomena. One of 
the most interesting features of the meeting. 

Frank P. Brackett, Director of Brackett Observatory, 
Pomona College, then presented a paper on "Sound Pictures in 
the Solution of Eclipse Problems," which was of unusual inter- 
est. This was followed by a paper on "Reversing the Form 
and Inclination of the Motion Picture Theatre Floor for Im- 
provement in Vision," by Ben Schlanger of New York. Mr. 
Schlanger advocated that theatres be constructed so that the 
back of the theatre floor would be lower than the front. He 
declared that more ease of vision could be secured if we look 
up at the screen instead of down as the present design of the 
theatres forces us to do. C. J. North and N. D. Golden of the 
Motion Picture Division, Bureau of Commerce, Washington, 
D. O, then gave a paper on "The Latin-American Audience 
Viewpoint to American Films," which brought out the fact 
that these countries want our box office personalities, even 
though they may be speaking English — providing titles in 
Spanish make the action clear. It was pointed out that Span- 
ish versions with unknown players are not so popular. 

In the afternoon of the first day Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Director 
of the Research Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Company, 
presided at a symposium on Color Photography. At this 
symposium J. A. Ball gave a paper on "Technicolor"; R. M. 
Otis read one on "Multicolor Process"; Bruce Burns presented 
another on the Multicolor Laboratory; W. V. D. Kelley talked 
for fifteen minutes on the "Handschiegl Color Process"; and 

10 



Custav Brock presented a paper on "Hand Coloring of Motion 
Picture Film" in which he dealt with the advantages of selective 
hand coloring, and gave a description of the equipment used. 

Following the color discussion, G. S. Mitchell gave a paper 
on "Making Motion Pictures in Asiatic Jungles," which was 
of unusual merit and interest. H. E. Edgerton of the Mass- 
achusetts Institute of Technology read a paper on "The 
Mercury Arc as a Source of Intermittent Light." Mr. Edger- 
ton pointed out the possibility of the use of intense intermit- 
tent light for moving pictures and special photography and 
reviewed the limitations of sources of intermittent light. He 
showed that the characteristics of mercury-arc thyratron that 
are advantageous for flashing intermittent light are namely: 
1, The light is photographically actinic. 2, The duration of 
a light flash can be made less than ten microseconds. 3, The 
light intensity is high. 4, The frequency of flash is easily and 
accurately controlled by means of a grid. 

On Tuesday, May 26, the morning session was devoted to a 
symposium on Sound Recording, presided over by Colonel Nu- 
gent Slaughter, Chief Engineer of Warner Brothers Studios. 
E. W. Kellogg and C. N. Batsel of R-C-A Victor Company, 
gave a paper on "A Shutter for Ground Noise Reduction." 
This was followed by a paper by Barton Kreuzer of R-C-A 
Photophone on "Noise Reduction with Variable Area Record- 
ing," which dealt with the methods of accomplishing noise 
reduction, together with the factors influencing equipment 
design. An analysis of circuit operation was also provided. 
"Time Constants" of the apparatus were covered and a com- 
plete description given. 

J. J. Kuhn next followed with a paper on "A Sound Re- 
recording Machine" described as a machine suitable for studios 
using either variable area or variable density methods of record- 
ing. It employs a novel type of film aperture and a new 
method of focusing the sound lamp. Carl Dreher, always 
interesting, read a paper next on "Recording, Re-recording 
and Editing Sound Film." Mr. Dreher is chief of sound at the 
R-K-0 studios, Hollywood. Next came a paper on "Record- 
ing Sound for Split Mat Photography," by L. E. Clark of the 
Pathe Studios. He dealt with the problems which arose at 
one studio as a result of the use of double exposure 
photography, and the methods, more practical than scientific, 
which were developed to meet the needs. 

L. D. Grignon of the Paramount Studios, then read a paper 
on "Operating Problems of Recording Equipment," in which 
he treated briefly the organization of a sound department, and 
followed with much information gained from experience rela- 
tive to the maintenance of the studio sound equipment. It 
was highly enlightening. "Recording on Sound Stages with 
Portable Units," by Charles Felstead, of Universal, was the 
next paper. Merritt Crawford closed the morning session with 
a paper on "Pioneer Experiments of Eugene Lauste in Record- 
ing Sound," which was one of the most interesting papers of 
the morning. 

Dr. L. A. Jones of the Eastman Kodak Company, opened the 
afternoon session with Part 1 of a three-part paper on 
"Sensitometry," which was one of the most exhaustive and 
ambitious papers presented at the meeting, and which was 
handled as only Dr. Jones can do it. D. R. White of the 



igineers Hollywood Meeting 

tering Organization. Sixty-Eight Technical Papers Presented. 
HALL 



DuPont-Pathe Film Manufacturing Company, next presented 
a paper on "Characteristics of DuPont Panchromatic Negative 
Film" which was of general interest and ably handled. Emery 
Huse of the Hollywood Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany, then read a paper on "Characteristics of the New East- 
man Negative Film." Mr. Huse's paper was followed by Fred 
Westerberg, A. S. C, of Hollywood, who presented a paper 
on "Standardization of the Picture Aperture and the Camera 
Motor — a Needed Development." A very comprehensive 
paper from a practical cameraman. Friend Baker, of Holly- 
wood, then read a paper on "A New Auxiliary Finder." This 
was followed by a paper from Ira Hoke, another Hollywood 
Cinematographer, on "The Camera of Tomorrow." L. W. 
Physioc, also a Hollywood Cinematographer, then presented a 
paper on "Problems of the Cameraman," which was of much 
interest. 

Wednesday morning was devoted to a symposium on Studio 
Practises. Hans Drier of Paramount gave a paper on "Min- 
iature Models of Sets" which was both instructive and inter- 
esting and well prepared. "Use of Dialogue in Sound," by 
Colonel joy of the Producers Association, was next. This was 
followed by an extremely interesting and somewhat technical 
paper on "The Depth of Field of Camera Lenses," by A. C. 
Hardy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Mak- 
ing a Motion Picture," by W. C. Harcus of Paramount, followed. 
This, together with informal discussions comprised the activi- 
ties of the day. 

In the evening, the semi-annual banquet was held at the 
Hotel Roosevelt, with one of the biggest gatherings in years 
on hand, including many of the outstanding players and di- 
rectors and executives of the picture world. 

Thursday morning session was devoted to a symposium on 
Laboratory Practises, presided over by Dr. V. B. Sease, Director 
of the Redpath Laboratory, DuPont-Pathe Film Manufacturing 
Company. Dr. Jones read the final part of his paper on 
"Sensitometry." This was followed by a paper on "The Ef- 
fect of Exposure and Development on the Quality of Variable 
Area Photographic Sound Recording," by Donald Foster of the 
Bell Telephone Laboratories; a paper of extreme merit and 
highly technical. This was followed by a paper from C. L. 
Dimmick of R-C-A Victor Company, on "The Study of Ex- 
posure and Film Processing for Variable Area Recording." 

W. P. Bielicke of R-K-0 Studios, then read a paper on "The 
Processing of Variable Area Sound Records in the Film Labora- 
tory." This paper discussed from a practical standpoint the 
commercial methods of developing and printing variable area 
sound film. An effective method of processing sound film 
must produce the optimum values that have been determined 
in theory, according to the paper, the problem being to obtain 
these values in commercial laboratory practise where larger 
quantities of film are processed. 

Roy Hunter of Universal then presented a paper on "Uni- 
versal Developing Machines," describing them and their work 
in detail. The next paper was by J. I. Crabtree and L. E. 
Muehler of the Eastman Kodak Company. It was on "Reduc- 
ing and Intensifying Solutions for Motion Picture Film." The 
authors pointed out that it is possible to correct for errors of 
exposure and development with incorrectly processed images on 
motion picture negative and positive film by either adding 



an opaque substance to the image which is known as "intensi- 
fication," or by removing silver therefrom which is known as 
"reduction," or by a combination of the two processes. 

The properties of a large number of known intensifying 
and reducing solutions have been studied in detail to determine 
formulas suitable for use with motion picture film. 

For intensification, the chromium, Monckhoven (mercury), 
and silver intensifiers were the most satisfactory. The Monck- 
hoven intensifier is useful for extreme intensification where 
permanence is not essential and the chromium intensifier is 
suitable for negatives where a medium increase in contrast is 
desirable. The degree of intensification may be controlled 
within limits by a variation of the time of redevelopment. For 




Pros. J. I. Crabtree 

negatives and projection prints, intensification with silver has 
been found to give strictly neutral images and the process 
permits of easy control of the degree of intensification. So 
far as is known both the chromium and the silver intensified 
images are stable. 

For subtractive reduction such as in the case of over- 
exposures or fogged images, the use of either (I ) a two-bath 
formula comprising separate solutions of potassium ferricyanide 
and sodium thiosulfate, or (2) a modification of the Belitzski 
reducer is suitable. Where proportional reduction is required, 
a solution containing ferric ammonium sulfate with sulfuric 
acid is recommended. 

It has been found that the above methods of intensification 
and reduction are applicable to sound film with the possible 
exception of subtractive reduction which, by virtue of the 
lowering of resolving power, causes a loss of high frequencies. 

A paper on "Improvements in Motion Picture Laboratory 
Apparatus," by C. E. Ives, A. J. Miller and J. I. Crabtree of the 
Eastman Kodak Company, was next presented. This paper 
pointed out that the increased entertainment value of the 
modern motion picture is due in a considerable degree to the 
elimination of spots, scratches, and unevenness in the film. This 
achievement is a result of continuous effort on the part of the 
laboratories to improve their methods and equipment. One 
problem which the laboratory supervisor has always to face is 
that of securing a definite degree of development and a uni- 
form exposure control in printing. 

(Continued on page 26) 

11 



A Non- Intermittent Camera 



by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C. 



IT IS no longer safe for anyone who would be considered 
an expert on motion picture technology to brand any- 
thing as "utterly impossible," for if he does he is very 
likely to wake up one morning and find that some enter- 
prising engineer has made his impossibility an accomplished 
f^ct. Color, sound, silent camera-movements, machine de- 
velopment, and may other equally difficult engineering accom- 
plishments have so recently blossomed into fact as to convince 
one that the life of a cinema engineer must be dedicated to 
the assault of the highly improbable. But one last fortress 
has remained to the skeptic: the non-intermittent camera. 
That, at least, was and would always remain an impossibility 1 
From the very inception of the cinematograph, the intermittent 
movement of the film past the aperture has been held to be 
one of the basic principles of the moving picture. It was, in 
fact, one of the cornerstones of the power of the once 
mighty "Film Trust" — the great Motion Picture Patents 
Company; and, although necessity is reputedly the mother of 
invention, neither this necessity nor the efforts of scores of 
earnest workers brought forth a practical, non-intermittent 
camera. Therefore, said the wise ones, such a camera is an 
absolute impossibility! 

Of course, it must be admitted, more than a few physicists 
have evolved means of making cinematographic records of 
ultra-high-frequency electrical discharges, using the discharge 
for both subject, illuminant, and shutter, but none of these 
were more than laboratory experiments, and totally incapable 
of photographing normal action on a set. Therefore, in truth, 
the non-intermittent camera must be an impossibility! 

But is it? 

At a recent meeting of the American Society of Cinema- 
tographers, very conclusive evidence to the contrary — in the 
form of a practical, non-intermittent camera, and successful 
films made therewith — was presented. 

And another theory was exploded! 

The inventor of this new camera is Senor Gabriel Garcia 
Moreno, lately a successful banker of Mexico City, Mexico, 
but for the past two years a member of Hollywood's cine- 
technical colony. Although Senor Moreno's vocation was 
banking, his lifelong avocation has been the design and con- 
struction of optical and cinematographic machinery, and when 
once he had, in his Mexican laboratory, evolved the principles 
upon which his new camera is constructed, he came to Holly- 
wood to perfect and manufacture the camera itself. With him 
in his firm he has had the good fortune to associate Mr. Silas 
E. Snyder, long and favorably known to cinematographers as 
the Editor first of The American Cinematographer, and, more 
recently, of the International Photographer, and Mr. William 
G. Fairbank, a capitalist and organizer of great ability. And 
under the combined efforts of these three, the new Moreno- 
Snyder Continuous Camera has become a fact. 

It is vastly surprising that so considerable a degree of 
success as has been theirs has come in so short a time, for, 
beyond the single, basic fact that the camera makes a motion 
picture upon conventional film by means of a conventional 
lens, everything about the camera is new, not only in design, 
but in principle. There have been, and still are, difficulties 
encountered in minor details, but the demonstration given the 
A. S. C. was sufficient to prove that, whatever minor defects 
may exist (and, incidentally, many of these have since been 
overcome), the principle is correct, and non-intermittent 
cinematography is within the range of commercial probability. 
That, as Mr. Coolidge is wont to remark, is progress! 

12 



Surprisingly enough, the camera is not, externally, greatly 
unlike the conventional studio apparatus. The same general 
layout of essential units is noticeable. But within, the camera 
is unlike any piece of cinemachinery extant. Perhaps the 
first point that is noticed is that the film apparently travels 
backwards. It passes from the righthand, or rear magazine, 
through an astonishing series of loops in the camera-mecha- 
nism, and feeds into the left-hand, or front magazine, where 
it is spooled with the emulsion side turned in, quite reversing 
normal practice. 

But a second glance reveals a surprising simplicity in the 
film-motivating apparatus: there are but four moving parts! 
The film passes over a conventional master-sprocket, past a 
small, continuously-revolving feed-sprocket, upwards through 
a roller-tensioned aperture-plate (which is so proportioned 
that black-and-white, bi-pack or even tri-pack color-processes 
may be used interchangeably), over another small, continu- 
ously-revolving take-up sprocket, and into the magazine. 
These three sprockets and an ingenious, revolving lens-wheel, 
which rotates about them, and is on the same shaft as the 
master-sprocket, are the sole moving parts of the camera. 
This lens-wheel, or optical shutter, is the heart of the camera. 
It consists of an octagonal, steel plate rigidly affixed upon the 
main-shaft of the camera, and bearing on its outer edge — 
and at right angles thereto — eight rectangular, plano-concave 
lenses, which supplement the regular lens of the camera, and, 
moving with the film, rectify the continuous movement there- 
of, and effect a steady, motionless image upon each frame. 
These lenses, or prisms, are specially ground to Senor Moreno's 
formula, are perfectly matched, and are immoveably set in their 
places by both mechanical clamps and cement. It is possible to 
break one of these prism-units, but not to get it out of align- 
ment. And in case of breakage, the damaged unit can be removed 
from the wheel, and replaced, with perfect assurance that the 
accuracy of the camera will be unaffected, as the lens-wheels 
are assembled upon a single optical machine of Senor Moreno's 
design, which, it is stated, sets these lenses in place with an 
accuracy of less than .00001". 

However, since this camera has no true shutter, the cine- 
matographer may well begin to ask, about this time, how is 
the exposure to be controlled? There are times when one 
can neither reduce the lens-stop nor use neutral-density filters: 
how, in such cases can you then reduce your exposure, with 
no shutter to manipulate? Senor Moreno's answer has been 
by fitting his aperture with a variable slit, not unlike those 
used on certain continuous printers, and which is controlled 
from without. The dial upon which the controller for this slit 
operates is graduated to read in equivalent shutter-openings, 
from 360° to 0°; therefore this device need cause the user no 
concern. Furthermore, it is geared so that it may be used 
to produce camera dissolves, quite as conveniently and effect- 
ively as the familiar dissolving shutter of a conventional 
camera. From the unusually large extreme aperture indicated 
— 360° — it may be imagined that a tremendous range of 
exposure is possible, but this only tells half the story, for the 
continuous movement of the film and the absence of any 
shutter increase this amazingly. At the standard recording- 
speed of 90 feet per minute, and a shutter-aperture of 170°, 
the conventional camera gives an equivalent exposure of 1/48 
second; while, at the same film-speed, but with its maximum 
"shutter-opening," this camera gives an exposure of 1/24 
second. 

(Continued on page 21 ) 



New Angles on Fast Fii 

by CLYDE DE VINNA, A. S. C. 



m 



THERE was a time, not so long ago, when a cinematog- 
rapher felt himself bound to look askance at new tech- 
nical developments in his craft for fear that they might 
in some way lead to expensive photographic failures and the 
dreaded retakes. Fortunately, that day is past; the progres- 
sive cinematographer of today has confidence both in the 
research laboratories of the manufacturers from whence come 
these innovations, and in his own ability to successfully adapt 
his technique to the requirements of any improved process or 
equipment which may come his way. 

So it is, then, that instead of being beset by fears and 
doubts of the newly introduced Super Sensitive Films, most 
cinematographers thought only of finding out just how and 
where their work and methods of work could be bettered by 
the use of the new products. This is quite as it should be, for 
unless a cinematographer has this confidence in a product, 
he should not use it; and unless he has the same complete 
confidence in his own ability, he should never undertake 
the photographic direction of a picture. 

Therefore, the question in our minds today is not "Will 
fast film hurt our work?" but, "Where will the use of fast 
film help our work?" 

From my own experience with this new film, both in ex- 
haustive tests of every type, and in actual production, it seems 
to me that it is almost impossible to say just where the new 
film will not be beneficial, for its possibilities seem all but 
unlimited. I believe that, in one way or another, everyone 
in the company from the Supervisor down, is benefited by 
its use. This is no idle statement, for during the production 
of my present picture, "Politics," I have asked the opinions 
of many representative members of the troupe, and all are 
agreed that the new film does, in many ways, directly benefit 
them. 

The first person to whom I addressed my query was the 
Supervisor, Paul Bern. He replied very positively that it was 
a great help to him. "It is not so much," he said, "the mone- 
tary saving resulting from the lower electrical consumption 
on the set which interests me. That is important enough, of 
course, but no producer will quibble over a few hundred, or 
even a few thousand amperes more or less if he knows that 
the artistry of his cinematographer is going to suffer because 
of it. But, as I have watched the 'rushes' of this picture I 
have constantly noted the new artistic opportunities that the 
new film has given you, Clyde, in your photography. The 
picture is a comedy-drama, and as such it presents an entirely 
different artistic problem from such of your recent films as 
'White Shadows' and 'Trader Horn'; but I have noticed — 
and marvelled at — the way this new film has enabled you to 
use dramatic lighting-effects without sacrificing the perfect 
overall definition that a comedy requires. I don't believe that 
the old film could have done it, for the older film, a picture 
was photographically, either a drama or a comedy; but you and 
the new film have combined to make this film a real comedy- 
drama — a comedy with dramatic cinematography — and the 
first of its kind. And to my mind, this artistic achievement 
is far more important than the saving in lighting which the 
cost sheets tell me you've also made." 

The next persons to whom I addressed this inquiry were 
the two stars of the piece, Marie Dressier and Polly Moran. 
They, too, were equally enthusiastic. Miss Dressler's verdict 
was characteristically positive: "Of course, I'm not a photog- 



rapher, Clyde, so I can't judge the photography as you would, 
though I've noticed that the photography you've gotten with 
this new film is much clearer than ever before, and at the 
same time softer and more natural. But what has impressed 
me most is a detail that you people who work on the other 
side of the cameras never think about: that it is tremendously 
more comfortable to act for this new film than it was for the 
old. You people across the camera-lines never have to go 
through the discomfort we actors do, in rehearsing, rehears- 
ing, and again rehearsing under those hot lights, and then of 
making take after take of each scene, still broiling away 
under your big lights. But now that you've started using 
this new film, you don't have to use nearly so many lights, 
I notice, and, since the few you do use are much smaller, 
it makes a tremendous difference in our comfort. And since 
we actors are more comfortable on the set now, we can 
give our best thought and energy to our work, rather than 
to the problem of trying to keep half-way comfortable under 
those darned lights. That way, we can do more work with 
less fatigue; perhaps the best way I can demonstrate that is 
through my own experience. You know that under the big 
lights we had to use for the old film, I tired very easily, in 
spite of all that every member of the troupe did to make 
things easy for me — and by the middle of the afternoon I 
was always fagged out, and had to quit and go home to rest. 
But, with the fewer, smaller lights you use for this new film, 
there's nothing except the actual work itself (which I like!), 
to tire me. I don't mind rehearsing under the lights, and 
I'm good for as long a day's work as any of the rest of you." 

Miss Moran was equally enthusiastic. "You know more 
about the photography of it than I do, Clyde," she said, 
"but Marie and I know more about the comfort of working 
with this new film than any cameraman ever could! Work- 
ing under those hot lights, we had a thousand unpleasant 
thing always distracting our minds from what we were doing 
— wondering what the heat would do to our makeup, if it 
would make it run, if the perspiration would show through, 
and a lot of other things all centering around the big ques- 
tion of 'when will that darned cameraman let us out of this 
oven for a breath of air?' But now it's different: we can 
feel like human beings no matter how long you and the 
director keep us under the lights. We're cool and comfortable, 
and don't have to worry about anything except what we're 
doing with our parts. Believe me, if anyone is looking for a 
real, old fashioned fight, just let him try and switch back 
to the old film for my next picture!" 

Soon after that, I asked the director, "Chuck" Reisner, 
what he thought of the new film. He, too, liked it, but for 
still another reason. "I'm not afraid that you'll fall down on 
photography, Clyde," he told me, "no matter what sort of 
film you use. Photography is your business, just as direction 
is mine — and neither of us would be here if he didn't know 
how to deliver the goods. But, after all, we're here simply 
to make it possible for the actors to tell their story to the 
audiences. In the final analysis, that's why everyone on the 
lot, from Mr. Mayer down to the gateman, is here. So it's 
up to us to make it possible for our players to do their work, 
to tell their story, just as easily and perfectly as possible. 
That's what I'm aiming for in my direction, and what you're 
aiming for in your photography. And everything that will 
help us to do this is just so much to the good. This new 
(Continued on page 22) 

13 



Screen Definition 



by DR. L. M. DIETERICH 



Consulting Engineer 



Part VII. 



IN THE issue of September 1930 of the "International Pho- 
tographer" the author analyzed in Part II of the article 
"Screen Characteristics and Natural Vision" screen-depth 
effects from the scientific-artistic and psychological points of 
view relating especially to mono-lens and bi-lens photographic 
results and to monocular and binocular vision as well as their 
correlated screen effect possibilities. 

It is the object of this article to analyze the optical possi- 
bilities in lens design to more closely approach with standard 
lens performance the effects of nature upon the human optical 
organs. 

The author desires to emphasize again that the term 
"stereoscopic", especially as far as motion pictures are con- 
cerned, is in this industry almost universally misunderstood, 
not only as far as describing an optical problem of practical 
possibilities, but also as a problem which it would be desir- 
able to solve. 

It must be fundamentally understood that there is an ele- 
mentary difference between the perceptible record or visual 
impression upon the retina of the human eye and the actinic 
record upon a light sensitive, usually piano-surface. 

In both monocular and binocular vision and photographic 
records produced by stationary single or multiple lenses only 
such objects coincide or register a single picture which are 
of a given distance from both human or artificial optical 
systems. 

This distance, usually called the plane of sharpness, is 
actually a spherical surface, the center of which is the optical 
center of either eye or lens and the radius of which corres- 
ponds to the momentary focal value of either of them. 

Any objects lying closer or farther away produce in both 
cases double images. 

This can be easily demonstrated for the human optical 
system by holding for example two pencils, say 6" and 12" 
away from the eyes, parallel and upright. Looking at the 
nearer one sharply, the farther one will clearly show double 
and vice versa. 

Taking any photographic lens on the other hand and cover- 
ing same with the exception of two horizontally and diamet- 
rically opposed circular holes (double aperture), objects "in 
focus" will appear as well defined "single" picture records 
whereas all objects nearer or farther away will appear double 

In natural vision the focus of the eye, however, changes 
continually as we scan the field before us and by the effects 
of persistence of vision, the sharp single picture impressions 
predominate, whereas the fleeting, unsharp, blurred double 
images are psychologically suppressed with the result of a 
mental perception of all objects in view in even, though not 
needlesharp, but soft definition. 

In lens records produced with a double aperture lens, 
however, only object points "in focus" appear as a sharp and 
single record, whereas all other object points produce double 
indelible records, the duplex effect increasing with the dis- 
tance of these points from the so-called plane of sharpness. 

These demonstrative proofs have only been related to hori- 
zontal separation of images, as the human eye ranges pre- 
dominantly horizontally and as the double aperture has been 
considered in horizontal direction only. As we, however, 

14 



progress in this analysis we find that the single human eye 
as well as the uncovered single photographic lens have these 
image separation or double image effects not only in a hori- 
zontal but also in a vertical or any angular direction. For 
human vision this can be proved by tilting the two pencils 
from vertical to horizontal or intermediate position and for 
a photographic lens by rotating the two aperture mats before 
the lens into any angular position before taking a record. 

If we now take a photograph with an uncovered lens the 
result is similar to that by taking a photograph with a mat 
with a diagonal slit and rotating such mat for 180° during 
one exposure. A picture is produced with objects "in focus" 
sharp and with each object point "out of focus" composed of 
double images in all directions, thereby forming for each such 
point a circle, commonly called a circle of confusion, which 
increases with the distance of such point from the "plane of 
sharpness" and with an increasing unsharpness thereby pro- 
ducing the well known out of focus effect. 

The same result impresses itself in natural vision momen- 
tarily upon the retina of the eye, but as above explained, the 
momentary out of focus effects are during the continuous 
and instantaneous changes of focus suppressed and replaced 
by the sharp single impressions of all the points in the field. 
By the action of the persistence of vision, however, the sharp 
and unsharp impressions result in the "soft" picture we see 
and which cameramen continually try to approach by use of 
filters, diffusion discs, gauzes, special light control, etc. 

In binocular vision a circle of confusion is produced by each 
eye and blended by the human optical system into an ap- 
proximately elliptical image with the long axis in line with 
the parallax of the human eyes, usually in a horizontal direc- 
tion. The nerve reaction produces a final perception of the 
object as if perceived from the two foci of this ellipse blended 
together into "one" soft image. 

By using a double lens camera with a horizontal lens separa- 
tion, the indelible circles of confusion enlarge and separate 
in a horizontal direction, the doubling or blurring effect in- 
creases and is not suppressed by any "in focus" images. 

An increasing lack of registration results and if such an 
image is looked upon, the human optical system cannot cor- 
rect this duplication by change of focus and correlated sup- 
pression, because the distorted picture lies in one plane (the 
surface of the photograph). 

This distinctly double impression of the same object point 
on one surface can only be blended into one nerve picture by 
additional optical means so as to prevent the left lens picture 
to be seen by the right eye and vice versa. 

By taking a separate photograph with each lens as a basis, 
a number of methods or means have been developed for the 
above purpose. 

All of these so-called stereoscopic photographs, when 
viewed through and by specific optical means produce an 
approach to natural vision but only for a specific predeter- 
mined focal distance and of a so far visually and practically 
unsatisfactory degree of satisfaction as far as motion pictures 
are concerned. 

In the next installment some of these endeavors shall be 
explained and analyzed. 



The New Eastman Sensitometer 

by EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 

West Coast Division Motion Picture Film Department, Eastman Kodak Company 



THE TECHNICAL branch of the motion picture industry 
has needed, particularly since the inception of sound 
photography, a standardized method of sensitometry. That 
phase of sensitometry which needs the most attention from 
the standpoint of standardization, is the instrument on which 
the initial exposures are made, namely, the sensitometer itself. 
Up to the present time there has been no instrument available 
on the open market which could by any means be considered 
a standard. The Eastman Kodak Company has in its various 
branches sensitometers which to them are standards and whose 
operation and setup is based on technical facts. Recently the 
Kodak Company has completed an instrument designed par- 
ticularly for motion picture control work and it is this instru- 
ment which will be described in this article. 

The new Eastman Sensitometer is designed especially to 
meet the needs of the modern motion picture film laboratory 
and sound department. It provides a precise and rapid means 
of making routine sensitometric tests for the control of de- 
velopment processes and for other purposes bearing on the 
production of picture and sound prints of the highest quality. 

The particular advantage of the instrument, aside from its 
operating simplicity and ruggedness of construction, lies in its 
precision. It impresses on the film under test an accurately 
predetermined scale of exposures which may be maintained 
constant from test to test over long periods of time. This ex- 
posure scale consists of twenty-one steps produced by expos- 
ures equal in illumination and ranging from 1 to 1024 in 
relative times, each exposure being 1.414 (square root of 2) 
times as long as the next shorter. This constant factorial dif- 
ference between steps permits the density readings to be 
spaced at equal intervals along the log E axis, in constructing 
a density-log exposure curve. 



The instrument is shown in detail in the accompanying 
figure. This shows a partial vertical section through the optical 
axis of the instrument. "L" represents the standard lamp 
which is the source of illumination. A selectively absorbing 
filter, F, is placed in the path of the light coming from the 
lamp, L, in order to modify its spectral composition to the 
desired quality. A plane mirror, M, reflects the light at right 
angles thus illuminating the exposure plane, EP, in which 
the photographic material is placed during exposure. The 
rotating cylindrical shutter or drum, D, having 21 exposure 
slots increasing in length by logarithmic steps from the short- 
est to the longest, controls the time factor of the exposure 
incident upon the adjacent steps of the exposure scale. The 
exposure plane is equipped with suitable guides so that two 
strips of 35 mm. motion picture film may be placed in posi- 
tion and exposed simultaneously. The platen, PL, when pulled 
down, serves to hold these strips accurately in the exposure 
plane during exposure. The drum, D, is driven at a constant 
angular velocity by a synchronous motor, SM. This motor runs 
at 1800 rpm when operated on a 60 cycle alternating current 
supply line and at 1 500 rpm if operated on a 59 cycle alter- 
nating current supply line. The drum is connected to the 
synchronous motor through the reduction gear, C, consisting 
of a worm and worm wheel having 1 50 teeth, thus driving 
the drum at 12 rpm when operating on a 60 cycle line and 
at 10 rpm on a 50 cycle line. When the machine is started 
by throwing the master switch, MS, the motor drives the 
drum continuously at a very uniform angular velocity, the 
desired exposure being made by the operating of the selector 
shutter, S, which opens while the photographic material is 
protected from the exposing radiation by the opaque portion 
of the drum, D, and closes immediately after the series of 
(Continued on page 21 ) 




The Sensitometer 



15 



Television in Color from Motion 

Picture Film 



by HERBERT E. IVES 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York. 



IN SPECULATIONS on the possible uses for television, one 
project which receives considerable attention, partly because 
of its relative ease of accomplishment, is the transmission of 
images from motion picture film. It is true that the practical 
simultaneity of event and viewing, which is the unique offer- 
ing of television, is lost when the time necessary for photo- 
graphic development of the film intervenes. Nevertheless it is 
conceivable that if this delay is small, television from film may 
still possess such an advantage over the material transportation 
of film as to give it a real field. A further possibility, more 
remote, but within the range of legitimate speculation, is that 
television apparatus may sometime be used to receive, in the 
home, motion pictures of the sort now offered in the theatres 
or in home projection outfits. However distant these mergings 
of the two arts may be, the technical problems presented are 
pretty clearly defined, and offer interesting features for study. 

Among these problems is the transmission of images in color 
from colored motion picture film. This paper describes a 
method of accomplishing this, using the receiving apparatus 
for television in color recently described, and special sending 
apparatus which utilizes the latest form of colored moving 
pictures — the ridged film now marketed under the name of 
Kodacolor. 

As an introduction to the method of telecinematography in 
color using ridged film, it is profitable to outline how the prob- 
lem could be solved with film in which the colors are incor- 
porated by dyes (e. g., Technicolor) , and the three-color trans- 
mitting and receiving system recently developed in the Bell 
Laboratories. 1 This may be done most easily by considering 
Fig. 1, where the three-color transmitting apparatus is shown 
in section, with the addition of film handling means. The 




Fig. 1 



photoelectric cell cabinet, containing three sets of color-sensi- 
tive cells with appropriate filters, is indicated at C, from which 
three communication channels, R, C, and B, carry the red, 
green, and blue signals to the receiving end. At A is the arc 
lamp, whose light is condensed upon the perforated disk D, 
which is driven by the synchronous motor M. The lens L pro- 
jects an image of the disk upon the matte white screen S, from 
which light is reflected back into the photoelectric cells. The 
film F, as it unwinds from the reel Ri onto the reel R- passes 



in front of the disk D, and as closely as is practicable to it so 
that the film and the disk holes are in focus together on S. 

If, with the apparatus as just described, the film stands still, 
with a picture frame exactly filling the field aperture in front 
of the disk, and the disk rotates at its normal speed for tele- 
vision, the screen S shows a projected image of the film, col- 
ored if the film is colored, and capable of being picked up by 
the photoelectric cells and transmitted, to be received like the 
image of a colored object by the single disk, three-lamp receiv- 
ing apparatus, as ordinarily used for this purpose. When the 
film is moved in order to give a motion picture, there are two 
alternative forms of scanning disk available, depending on 
whether the motion of the film is intermittent, as in most 
cameras and projectors, or continuous. In the first case, a 
scanning disk must be used with a blank sector corresponding 
to the period occupied by the shift of the film between frames, 
as shown in Di, Fig. 2, and a similar disk must be used at the 





Fig. 2 



receiving end also. The use of intermittent exposures is, how- 
ever, not only inefficient, because of the waste of line-time 
during the blank period, but is quite unnecessary when the 
image is analyzed by successive passages of a scanning aper- 
ture across the field. Instead of a disk provided with a spiral 
of holes it is simpler and better to use a disk with the scan- 
ning holes arranged in a circle, as shown at D 2 , Fig. 2, and to 
give the film a uniform and continuous motion along the ver- 
tical diameter of the disk. When this is done the screen S 
shows merely a horizontal strip of light (indicated in Fig. 1 by 
the solid line) but the usual spirally-perforated disk at the 
receiving end spreads this out into a complete picture. 

This method of transmitting colored images from motion pic- 
ture film, while completely practical, suffers under the disad- 
vantage that it requires an original colored film of a sort which 
is both expensive and time-consuming to produce. Should 
television transmission from film become popular it is probable 
that the chief demand would be for films which would be 
shown but once, and for showings within a few hours, at most, 
of the event. Some form of colored film would then be called 
for which could be prepared quickly and cheaply, and the film 
process need not be one adapted for making numerous copies. 

A form of colored motion picture which very completely 
meets these requirements is produced by the Kodacolor proc- 
ess." In this the image is black and white, but is distributed 
into a triple linear mosaic by lenticular ridges on the film. Ex- 
posure is made through a lens with three apertures, and pro- 



16 



June, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Seventeen 



jection is accomplished through a lens similarly equipped with 
three apertures, covered with red, green, and blue filters. The 
original negative, made into a positive by a process of photo- 
graphic reversal, is used for projection. There is but one film 
available, but this is all that is necessary for the use in tele- 
vision which we are considering. The film is cheap as com- 
pared to a film in which the color is added by a dyeing proc- 
ess, and the time required to prepare it for projection is a mat- 
ter of hours instead of days. 



T P ' p - 






Fig. 3 



The method of using Kodacolor film may be most compre- 
hensively described by saying that the film is to be projected 
as though for display upon a screen, but that the three beams 
of light issuing from the projection lens are directed each into 
a separate photoelectric cell for television transmission. With 
the details of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 in mind, the Koda- 
color film arrangement is readily grasped from Fig. 3, where 
the upper view (a) shows the elevation, the middle view (b) 
the plan, and (c) shows a detail of the scanning disk and film. 
Starting with the light source A, the light is condensed by the 
condenser system C on the film F which moves continuously 
past the slot S and directly behind the disk D. The disk is 
shown as provided with radial slots R, these together with the 
fixed slot S forming the scanning holes. After passing through 
the film and disk the light is projected as if to a screen by the 
lens L, in front of which is placed, in the regular projector, the 
set of red, green, and blue filters T. For our purpose both the 
screen and the filters are dispensed with. After passing through 
the lens, the light is diverted into three photoelectric cells, 
Pi, P2, and P3, by the mirrors M. These cells are all similar, 
and need not be color-sensitive. The filters are omitted as 
obviously unnecessary — color is not needed until the signals 
are received and recombined at the receiving disk where the 
same apparatus is used as for the reception of signals from 
original colored projects. 

The arrangement of apparatus shown in Fig. 3 calls for the 
slot, film, and disk being practically in contact. This condi- 
tion, which must be met if color fringes are to be avoided, is 
likely to offer some difficulty, since both are moving at high 
speed. An alternative arrangement, by which the disk and 
film are separated, is shown in Fig. 4. Here the symbols are 
as in Fig. 3, and the apparatus is the same from the lamp A 
to the film F. The disk is, however, removed to a new position 
beyond the projection lens U, which is supplemented by a short- 
focus lens Lj so that an image of the film F, where it lies over 
slot S, is projected onto the disk. A third lens U, close to the 
disk, images the three apertures T onto mirrors M and photo- 
electric cells P as before. By this means the film image may 
be placed accurately in the plane of the disk and color fringes 



avoided. 1 Additional advantages are that the disk may be made 
of any convenient size, and that the radial slots to which one 
is practically driven by constructional difficulties in the very 
small disk may be replaced by holes as shown at (c) . 

In describing the apparatus for achieving television in colors 
by a beam-scanning method' emphasis was placed on the fact 




Fig. 4 



that the same single scanning disk was used at each end as for 
monochrome work. A similar characteristic holds for the film 
apparatus here described. Either color or monochrome film can 
be used interchangeably, the latter requiring but one transmis- 
sion channel. If monochrome receiving apparatus only is avail- 
able when multichrome film is used, it may be received as 
monochrome, preferably selecting the green channel as giving 
nearly orthochromatic effects. If three-color receiving appa- 
ratus is available of the form previously described 1 , images from 
monochrome film may be received on all three (red, green, and 
blue) lamps together, adjusting their relative intensities to give 
white or any other desired color for the resulting monochrome 
image. 

References 

1 Ives, H. E.: "Television in Color by a Beam-Scanning Method," 
lour. Opt. Soc. of America, 20 (January, 1930), No. 1, p. 11. 

- Photographic Journal (September, 1929), p. 402. 

3 The disk and film could be similarly separated in the form of 
apparatus shown in Fig. 1 although the necessity is not so apparent. 

(The above article appears here through the courtesy of The Journal 
of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers — Editor.) 



New Natural Color Idea Discovered in 
England 

ANEW process for the production of motion pictures in natural 
colors and printed on non-inflammable film has been dis- 
covered, according to the producers, who have shown samples 
of the film to the Royal Society, premier scientific body of 
England. It is claimed that the natural color is produced on a 
film base printed with a foundation, or matrix, consisting of 
a half-million minute red, green and blue squares to every inch 
of film. Over this foundation, is a coat of highly sensitive 
emulsion. 



Consolidation 

CONSOLIDATION of the Warner Bros, and First National 
production department, with Darryl Zanuck as executive 
in charge of both companies, is announced by Jack L. Warner. 
Hal Wallis and Lucien Hubbard will be associate executives, 
while C. Graham Baker heads the scenario department. 



Thanks Mr. Carroll 

MORE and more notice is being taken of the Cine- 
tographer by those who write for the public press; 
which is as it should be. The latest film writer to 
really give the cameraman a break is Harrison Carroll, whose 
very able work appears in The Los Angeles Evening Herald 
and many other papers using the Premier Syndicate service. 
We reprint herewith Mr. Carroll's remarks. 

"More recognition is given these days to cameramen, but 
they still are comparatively unsung heroes. 

"With the development of the amateur movie cameras, 
the public is taking the initial step towards correcting this 
injustice. Some of the best known cameramen are receiving 
as many as 100 fan letters a week, asking technical questions. 
If an unusual effect appears in a picture, it is the signal for 
a barrage of inquiries. 

"These range from the simplest to the most complicated 
matters of technique. Double-exposures, fade-ins, cloud ef- 
fects and backlighting are favorites. Another baffling effect 
to amateurs is what the industry knows as the 'moving dolly 
shot.' Many amateurs walk in towards the photographic sub- 
ject and cannot understand why their pictures are bumpy. In 
the studio, of course, evenness is obtained by the camera 
being bolted to a moving dolly. 

"John Arnold, president of the American Cinematographers' 
Society, is a leading figure in the cameramen's battle for 
recognition. 'Why shouldn't we get a credit?' he asks. 'Who 
makes it possible for stars to build reputations for beauty 
and ability. A star can give a rattling good performance, but 
if she is badly photographed it becomes mediocre in the eyes 
of the public'." 



Service 

WHILE listening to some of the very interesting papers 
being read at the S. M. P. E. meeting the other week the 
thought struck me very forcibly that mighty few people who 
receive the greatest benefit therefrom appreciate the vast 
amount of work these engineers do, from an entirely unselfish 
motive. Some of those papers required months of research and 
preparation. But the authors toiled steadily at their work, 
always with the aim to improve the picture industry. Too 
little credit is given the technical men as a whole. This ap- 
plies to all branches of the technical division. Volumes are 
written about the stars, even about the wardrobe workers — 
but oh, so little is said about the cameramen, sound engineers, 
laboratory workers, electrical geniuses and that vast army of 
men who toil ceaselessly in the research laboratories on ex- 
perimental work. Some may say that the public does not want 
to read about the technical or scientific. But that is not so — 
witness the fact that the editors of the greatest daily papers 
place new scientific discoveries on the front page. 

18 



This and That 

A DELIGHTFUL note was sounded the other day by Jack L. 
Warner when he made it known that plans of the Warner 
Brothers-First National Studios call for continuous production 
during twelve months of the year. No layoffs or enforced va- 
cations there in immediate future. Sweet music to many ears 
. . . One of the most dignified gentlemen we have met is John 
Crabtree, genial president of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers ... It is really an inspiration to see how calm he 
remains under the most exciting conditions . . . Hope the 
Society of Motion Picture Engineers makes a regular feature 
of the exhibit of motion picture equipment . . . Only — someone 
should see to it that attractive booths are provided for the 
exhibitors and that the exhibit does not make one think that 
a moving van just dropped off a load of apparatus . . . This 
exhibit could, and should, be one of the big features of the 
conventions . . . Where else would you expect to find such an 
exhibit . . . we ask you . . . More recognition for cameramen, 
is the slogan of President John Arnold of the American Society 
of Cinematographers . . . with a man like Arnold leading the 
way, the cinematographers will get it, too . . . watch him . . . 
Wonder what kind of people crowd into houses that show two 
features at one sitting . . . Even Harold Franklin says now that 
he believes they tire of them . . . He ought to know, for he 
gives them to them . . . Wonder what studio gatemen think 
about . . . they always seem to be buried in thought — and self 
importance. 



w: 



Figure It Out Yourself! 

'E REPRINT herewith a news item sent out by the Asso- 
ciated Press. This story speaks for itself and should an- 
swer the questions of the vast army of men and women who 
are afflicted with the yen to come to Hollywood and take a 
chance at getting into the picture game: 

WASHINGTON, May 13. (A.P.) — The changed status of 
the Hollywood extra as a result of the talking films was the 
subject of a warning today from the Woman's Bureau of the 
Department of Labor. In a news letter to labor union officials 
and women's organizations in all the States, the Woman's 
Bureau laid stress on the present plight of those who once 
made up the mob scene of the pretalkie "superspectacle." 

Of 17,541 extras registered in Hollywood in 1930, the let- 
ter says, only 833 averaged one day's work a week or more. 
Of these, ninety-five averaged two and one-half days a week 
None could claim the record of having daily work. 

Their pay is quoted as follows: "13.5 per cent worked for 
$5 a day; 36.56 per cent for $7.50 a day; 43.23 per cent for 
$10 a day, and approximately 5.5 per cent in excess of $10 a 
day. The average daily placement of men for 1930 was 545, 
of women, 243, of children 19. 

"Those who dream dreams about the financial returns from 
residence in the motion-picture city are invited to ponder the 
official figures," the Woman's Bureau quotes from a report of 
the California State Department of Industrial Relations. "These 
totals, gleaned from experiences, sad and otherwise, should 
give pause to the fond mother whose ambition is to train her 
child for a place in the Hollywood sun." 






A. S. C. Conducts Fast Film Tests 



by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C. 



SINCE the introduction of the new Super Sensitive Pan- 
chromatic Negative emulsions by the two outstanding 
manufacturers of motion picture film, the subject of "Fast 
Film" has been one of paramount interest and importance to 
the cinematographic world. Accordingly, the American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers has undertaken a programme of 
exhaustive research into the practical applications of the new 
product. A series of exhaustive tests are now under way, 
treating every phase of the problem, and leading toward a 
definite series of recommendations from the Society dealing 
with every phase of fast film practice. They will embody the 
experience of the Industry's leading cinematographers, as 
gained both from photographic and laboratory tests and from 
actual production experience, and, as such, will form the final 
word from the Industry's photographic experts upon this new 
photographic problem. In making and presenting these tests, 
the Society has enjoyed the fullest cooperation from the 
authorities of all studios, the film manufacturers, and from 
the Technicians' Branch of the Academy of Motion Picture 
Arts and Sciences. 

The Fast Film Test programme, when completed, will in- 
clude complete sensitometric data concerning the films, and 
photographic tests embracing every problem encountered in 
production. Among the subjects of these special tests are: 
Color Rendition; Filtering; Interior Lighting; Special Effects; 
Lighting Equipment; Makeup; Laboratory Practice; Working 
Conditions on the Set, with both old and new films (with 
particular attention paid to the temperature of the set) ; and 
many other problems. These tests will be accompanied by 
representative scenes from current productions which have 
been photographed on the new films. Accompanying these 



will be a series of definite recommendations concerning these 
various matters. 

Many of these tests have, at this writing, already been 
completed. Those that have thus far reached completion have 
been exhibited before the membership of the American Society 
of Cinematographers at a series of special meetings which 
have been held for the purpose, and at which the whole 
membership participated in informal discussions of the pro- 
jects, and of the use of Fast Film in general. A preliminary 
programme of these tests and production scenes, to the extent 
of more than ten reels, was exhibited at the last meeting of 
the Technicians' Branch of the Academy, on May 21. An 
abridged programme has also been exhibited before the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers at their recent convention in 
Hollywood. 

The making of these tests was supervised by President 
John Arnold, and was carried out by various members of 
the Board of Covernors, of the Society's Research Committee, 
and of the membership at large. Among the cinematographers 
whose work, either in the form of special tests, or in actual 
production scenes, has appeared in these programmes so far, 
have been: Clyde de Vinna; L. William O'Connell; Elmer C. 
Dyer; Hatto Tappenbeck; Charles Rosher; Merritt B. Cersted; 
Hal Rosson; Cordon Avil; John F. Seitz; Dan B. Clark; Victor 
Milner; Virgil Miller; Karl Struss; Lee Carmes; Roy Hunt; 
Edward Cronjager; Ernest Palmer; Hal Mohr, and many others. 
The sensitometric data was compiled by Emery Huse, A.S.C., 
Cordon Chambers, and others. 

A complete report of the findings and recommendations 
arising from these tests will be published in an early issue of 
the "American Cinematographer." 



Work of R-K-0 Technicians Makes Hit in 
England 

//£> ALLY in Our Alley," first picture turned out by Asso- 
3 ciated Talking Pictures, Ltd., British unit headed by 
Basil Dean, for R-K-0 release, has been completed and the 
technical work by three Radio Pictures technicians sent over 
here has received much praise. The trio includes Bob Martin, 
chief cameraman; Otto Ludwig, cutter, and Raymond Friedgen, 
co-director. "Footsteps in the Night" is the second production 
being made. 

• 

Secret Processing Device Being Launched 
in England 

A COMPANY has been formed in England under the title 
of Armoured Films Manufacturing Co., Ltd., with the 
declared object of "acquiring an exclusive license to armour 
or strengthen cinematographic films within the British Isles 
under patents owned by Armoured Films, Ltd. Directors are 
M. R. Proudlock, F. L. Crilly, I. S. Miller and W. L. Shepherd. 
The company is closely guarding the nature of the process. 



To Record African Dialects 

AN EXPEDITION, headed by Marcel Grauel, noted scientist, 
^and backed by the Rockefeller Foundation, has left Paris 
for the African jungle for the purpose of recording on phono- 
graph discs native dialects and music. 



Boyle to Sweden 

JOHN W. BOYLE, second vice-president of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, and one of Hollywood's best 
known cinematographers, left for Sweden on May 24. He 
will be gone until late next Autumn or early Winter. Mr. 
Boyle will make a series of scenic pictures covering Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, Finland and Lapland. He took with him 
Ray Fernstrom, whose exploits as one of the ace cameramen 
of the Paramount Newsreel have made him famous. 



Round the World 

TO GATHER material for a new Technicolor shorts series, 
known as "Color Magazine of the Screen," Welshay Pictures, 
Inc., headed by Robert E. Welsh and J. Frank Shea, will 
shortly send a unit, headed by Duke Green, cameraman, on a 
'round-the-world trip. Welsh and Shea are now producing 
"Beauty Secrets of Hollywood," Technicolor shorts, for Para- 
mount release. 



New Studio Sound Outfit 

OF UNUSUAL interest is the new studio sound recording out- 
fit which is announced in this issue of the Cinematographer 
by the Radio Installation Company. This outfit is said to pro- 
vide excellent sound for small independent producers at a 
figure within the reach of all. The next issue of the Cinema- 
tographer will contain a complete story dealing with the details 
of the new equipment. 

19 



Labcratcry Department 

Conducted by EMERY HUSE, A. S. C. 



Principles of Sensitometry and Their 
Practical Application 

[This is the second installment of the instructive article on practical 
application of sensitometry which has been written by Mr. Huse, Tech- 
nical Editor of this Journal. The first part appeared in the May issue. 
— H. H.] 

IT WOULD be well at this point to give some consideration to 
the processes of film manufacture. In the preceding article 
mere mention of the discovery of film base was made, but it 
is of major interest to know those things which go into the 
manufacture of film base. The base of all film is a cellulose 
product and the most necessary and important ingredient in it 
is cotton. One of the first steps in preparing film base is the 
washing and drying of the raw cotton, which process takes 
weeks. 

Following this washing process the cotton is treated with a 
mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, which process renders 
the cotton soluble in alcohol. This treatment gives us what is 
technically known as "cellulose nitrate." This treatment with 
the two acids, although it does not alter the physical appear- 
ance of the original cotton, does, however, change it chemic- 
ally so that it will be soluble in the various mixtures which 
would have no effect upon the unnitrated product. Wood 
alcohol is the chief solvent used in this process. This action 
again covers a rather long period and the solution which finally 
results is a relatively clear one having the consistency of honey. 
This solution, often referred to as "dope," is then poured on 
the surface of great polished wheels which run consistently 
night and day. These are the dope casting machines and give 
film base in sheets which are approximately 40 inches wide 
and 2000 feet in length. The standard thickness of film base 
is from .005 to .00525 of an inch, and the degree of accuracy 
obtained is such that the variation does not exceed .00025. 
This base is handled in large rolls in a manner similar to which 
rolls of printing paper are handled, and in this condition is 
sent to be coated with the light sensitive emulsion. 

The photographic emulsion is that light sensitive surface 
which reacts to the action of light. This emulsion, of course, 
can be varied in its chemical setup to give the various types of 
film available on the market — positive, negative, duplicating, 
and sundry others. The chief element in the emulsion is sil- 
ver. The bars of silver are dissolved in nitric acid in porcelain 
dishes and after crystallization pure crystals of silver nitrate 
are obtained. Other ingredients of the emulsion are potassium 
iodide, potassium bromide, and gelatin. Celatin is the sub- 
stance in which the ingredients of the emulsion are prepared so 
that this emulsion may be subsequently coated onto the film 
base. Photographic gelatin is usually prepared from calf skin 
by soaking the skins in lime water and subsequently extracting 
with hot water. The gelatin is dissolved in water and the 
bromide and iodide solutions carefully mixed with it. This mix- 
ture, heated to the correct temperature, has added to it the 
silver nitrate solution. The precipitate of the sensitive silver 
salt is held in suspension by the gelatin, and because of this 
the term "emulsion" is derived. 

The foregoing has been discussed for the prime purpose of 
giving the reader some idea of how photographic emulsions are 
made. 

An Historical Review of Sensitometry 

Sensitometry literally means a measure of sensitivity. As 
early as 1848 Claudet devised an instrument for determining 



the speed of the daguerreotype plate, which instrument was 
termed a "photograph meter.'" By the aid of this meter one 
was able to determine the exposure necessary to produce a 
visible impression on the sensitive material. This method was 
extremely crude and was not very reliable, but it no doubt laid 
the foundations for the work which was carried on some years 
later by two men in England, Hurter and Driffield, who were 
amateur photographers, but whose prime interest in photog- 
raphy was the production of images which were true to nature. 
In January, 1891, Ferdinand Hurter states in the opening sen- 
tence of his paper, "The Action of Light On the Sensitive 
Film," that "the function of photography is the production of 
permanent images of material objects as true to nature as pos- 
sible." Hurter's use of the words "sensitive film" must not 
be taken literally, as he used the word film to represent that 
layer of sensitive material which was coated on a glass plate. 

Ferdinand Hurter was a Swiss who began the study of chem- 
istry at an early age, which later led him to be apprenticed to 
a dyer, in which practical field of chemistry he achieved notable 
success. He went to England some years later where he even- 
tually became chief chemist and technical adviser of the United 
Alkali Company. 

Vero C. Driffield, an Englishman, though intending to be- 
come an engineer, became interested in the practice of photog- 
raphy. His engineering studies, however, led him eventually 
to join the same firm with which Hurter was connected, and 
the two men became great friends. Hurter acquired his inter- 
est in photography due to Driffield's continual experiments in 
this general field, and for several years these two men worked 
together in an attempt to study the underlying principles of 
the action of light on a light sensitive material. It must be 
remembered that at this time the collodion plate was practically 
the only sensitive material at the disposal of the photographer. 
It was known generally that the photographer had to expose 
his plate to suit the light, and great difficulty was experienced 
in the early stages of photography in the estimation of the cor- 
rect exposure. Naturally, there was much guess work con- 
nected with photography of that day. Hurter and Driffield's 
first problem, as they saw it, was to devise some means of 
accurately measuring the actinic power of daylight. This work 
led to the discovery of their actinometer, data on which is in- 
corporated in a specification drawn up by Hurter on the 23rd 
of April, 1881. For several years the attention of these two 
men was absorbed by the general subject of actinometers. 

In May, 1890, the first joint work of Hurter and Driffield 
was published under the title "Photochemical Investigations 
and a New Method of Determination of the Sensitiveness of 
Photographic Plates." This paper led to a discussion of nega- 
tive density, opacity, and transparency; means of measuring 
densities; study of development; gradation, which was re- 
ferred to by these men as the "ratio of the densities," intensi- 
fication, and reduction; ending finally with speed determina- 
tion of sensitive plates. 

It was Hurter and Driffield who devised the means of graph- 
ically showing the action of light on a photographic emulsion 
by plotting density produced on a negative against the ex- 
posure causing these densities. This constitutes the origin of 
the so-called H and D curve, which letters refer specifically, 
of course, to Hurter and Driffield. 



20 



June, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-one 



New Eastman Sensitometer 

(Continued from page 15) 
slots in the drum have passed the exposing apertures. This 
selector shutter is connected to a one turn mechanism which 
is driven by a shaft directly connected by a pair of spur gears 
to the shaft carrying the rotating drum, D. The one turn 
mechanism is actuated by the bottom, B, thus opening the 
aperture O at the proper instant and closing it again after the 
desired exposures have been made. 

Supplied with this instrument are two calibrated lamps, 
one for use in exposing positive film and one for negative 
film. The effect current in amperes, the voltage tolerance, 
and the distance at which the lamp must be set to produce 
the standard illumination on the exposure plane, are furnished 
with each lamp. 

The current flowing through the filament of the standard 
lamp is controlled by the rheostat and its value is indicated 
by the ammeter. A volt meter is also provided in order to 
detect any lamp deterioration which might affect the con- 
stancy of results in precision work. 

The lamp for positive film is standardized for candlepower 
when operating at a color temperature of 2600° K. Since 
this quality of illumination is probably somewhat yellower 
than that used on the average in the practical exposure of 
positive film, a selectively absorbing filter is provided which 
raises the color temperature and the radiation incident on 
the exposure plane to approximately 3000°K. The lamp for 
exposing negative film is standardized for candlepower at 
2360°K. and with this lamp is used another filter which 
raises the color temperature of the radiation incident on the 
exposure plane to approximately 5400°K. (mean daylight). 

The exposure drum which controls the time factor of the 
exposure, to which the various areas of the photographic 
material is subjected, consists of a thin sheet of metal cylin- 
drical in form, one end of which is mounted on and sup- 
ported by a heavy cast iron wheel fixed directly upon the 
shaft of the reducing gears. In this cylinder are cut a series 
of 21 openings, each 10 mm. wide, the narrowest of which 
has a length as measured upon the circumference of the 
cylinder of 1 mm., while the longest has a length of 1024 
mm. The length of these openings form a logarithmic series, 
each one being the square root of two times as long as the 
adjacent shorter one. 

The sensitometer is designed for operation on an alter- 
nating current line of approximately 110 volts, either 50 
or 60 cycles. If the line voltage is unsteady, it is desirable 
to use some form of voltage regulator, which addition can be 
obtained at relatively little increased cost. 

The actual operation of the instrument consists first of in- 
serting and connecting the proper lamp. The lamp switch 
is then thrown on after having made proper precaution that 
the proper filter for that lamp is inserted in the filter holder. 

The main switch of the instrument is then turned to the 
ON position. 

The lamp current is set at the calibrated value by adjust- 
ment of the rheostat knob. 

After the lamp has reached a steady value of current and 
no further adjustment is necessary, the film is inserted into 
the exposure slot and the platen is pressed down on the 
film until it locks. The release button is then pressed. 

The completion of the exposure is indicated by a bell signal. 

The foregoing has given a rather brief description of this 
instrument, but as there is one of these instruments in the 
local Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Company, it is available 
for inspection at any time. It will undoubtedly be of interest 
to state that the price of this instrument complete is $750. 
f. o. b. Rochester. 

Every instrument of this type placed in the motion picture 
field will be kept thoroughly standardized at all times by the 
local Kodak Laboratory. In this way a photographic standard 
can be arrived at in the motion picture industry. 



A Non- Intermittent Camera 

(Continued from page 12) 

The optical system of this camera — aside from its unique 
optical shutter — is noteworthy, in that no important part of 
the camera is moved at all in focusing, and that it is abso- 
lutely impossible to photograph a scene with the camera in the 
focusing position. As may be inferred from the foregoing 
description of the optical shutter-wheel, the aperture is later- 
ally offset from the primary path of film-travel from the 
magazines. This space is utilized in the focusing system, which 
consists of a prism which slips into place just in front of the 
aperture, and reflects the image onto a ground-glass focusing 
screen, from which it is again reflected through a conventional 
magnifying focusing-tube system to an eyepiece at the rear 
of the camera. This focusing prism is slipped into place by 
depressing a small button at the side of the camera, and it is 
automatically thrown clear of the aperture whenever the 
camera is started. 

Combined with this unusual focusing arrangement is an 
absolutely unique device known as the "Exposometer." This 
is simply a very practical exposure-meter built as an integral 
part of the camera. It consists of a small photo-electric cell 
into which the light-beam from the lens is reflected, and 
which actuates a needle upon a dial at the rear of the 
camera: when the lens and shutter are so adjusted as to keep 
this needle within certain marks upon the dial, the overall 
exposure of the scene will be approximately correct. This 
device should be invaluable when working on location, and 
amid unfamiliar light-conditions, though it cannot, and does 
not, of course, attempt to dispense with the expert cine- 
matographer's judgment of highlight and shadow balances, 
etc. 

A peculiarity of this type of camera is that, lacking either 
an intermittent movement of film past the aperture, or a true 
shutter, it cannot, of itself, produce the effect of a frame- 
line in its pictures. Were its films always to be projected 
upon similarly constructed, non-intermittent projectors, this 
would be of no consequence, but as its product must be suited 
to all types of projection apparatus, an artificial frame-line 
must be produced. This is done by an ingenious masking 
device incorporated in the matte-box, which is set after focus- 
ing and lens-aperture setting has been done, and which brings 
a pair of horizontal flaps in the matte-box into the proper 
position to mask off sufficient of the top and bottom of the 
frame to provide a fair frame-line. Incidentally, this arrange- 
ment should also be very valuable when working in extreme 
back-lights out of doors, as a sun-shade. 

A further interesting feature of this camera is the film- 
magazine. For while it may be used with conventional Mitchell 
and Multicolor magazines, its own magazine is of a type that 
though it has not for some time been in use in this country, 
has many practical advantages. The Moreno-Snyder magazines 
are, at first sight, of the conventional double type, with separ- 
ate retorts for exposed and unexposed film. But, while these 
retorts are used in the double unit, each retort is removable, 
and both are interchangeable, making it possible to greatly 
reduce the equipment carried on long location trips, and like- 
wise making for great convenience in trick work, multiple- 
exposures, and camera lap-dissolves. 

Inasmuch as there is no intermittent movement in this 
camera, and since the few moving parts are all in continuous 
motion, the camera is almost perfectly noiseless at normal 
operating speeds. Its range of practical operating speeds, inci- 
dentally, is enormous, ranging from a minimum of 8 frames 
per second to a maximum of more than 300 frames per 
second (over 1 ,000 feet per minute) , with a possibility of 
even higher speeds being attainable if adequate driving-motors 
are used. This is, naturally, a considerable advantage for both 
high-speed and sound photography, while the continuous move- 
ment of the film offers obvious advantages to portable, single- 
film recording systems. (Continued on page 44) 



Twenty- two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



June, 1931 



New Angles on Fast Film 

(Continued from page 13) 

film helps us to do it. First, of course, it enables us to 
deliver a better photographed picture; but that isn't the 
only thing: it enables you to use fewer and smaller lights, 
and let the actors work more comfortably. And since you are 
using fewer lights, it enables you to work faster. You know 
what that means. It minimizes the mechanical element; it 
means that if you have two successive shots to make, with 
two different set-ups, but with the same actor, you can shift 
your set-up quicker, and get those two scenes closer together, 
while the actor is in the same mood; before his train of thought 
is broken. That's the important thing — to so minimize the 
mechanical element that we can enable the actor to work 
quickly and consecutively, and to give the best interpretation 
of his part of the story. You've done wonders already with 
this in your first picture on the new film, but I don't believe 
that we'll reap the full benefit of it for several months — 
until the handling of it becomes as completely second nature 
to you as has been the handling of the old film to which you 
are accustomed. Once that stage is reached, I don't know 
what new heights we can't reach!" 

And so it went, all along the line. Last of all, I asked 
myself just how and where this new film aided me in my 
work. The reactions of the various other members of the 
company had opened up a new line of thought to me, for I 
had not previously realized how much the incidental benefits 
of improved working conditions — which, in comparison to 
the improved photographic results, seemed minor, to me — 
might mean to the other members of the company. To the 
cameraman, if you can work faster and more comfortably, so 
much the better; but if you can secure better photographic 
results — there is improvement! 

And in addition to working faster and with more comfort 
and therefore greater efficiency for all concerned, this new 
film makes possible a tremendous increase in photographic 
quality. The first purely photographic quality which we think 
of in connection with this so-called "Fast Film" is its speed; 
but, properly considered, this is probably the least of its 
advantages. Unusual overall sensitivity is of little real im- 
portance in studio use, except as it enables a reduction in the 
amount of lighting equipment used, and thus improves the 
working conditions on the set. But there can be no substitute 
for improved color-sensitivity. The color sensitivity of this 
new emulsion is truly a great improvement over that of the 
old. It is much more uniform, and closer to the sensitivity 
of the human eye. In other words, colors now photograph 
more nearly as we see them. Furthermore, this new film has 
inherently a color correction which approximates somewhat 
the correction obtained on the old type of film with a K-3 
filter. This, however, is a rather haphazard way of putting it; 
but it gives us an approximate index as to what we can expect. 
From it we can at least get an idea of where we start: that 
is, with a film which has the same general chromatic ad- 
vantages as the older film with the filter stated, but without 
the overcorrection frequently noticeable. From it we can also 
at once determine that the K series of filters will be useless 
on the new emulsion, but that the Aero filters, the various 
orange, red, and neutral-density filters will be useful, but in 
degrees, considerably different from what we were accustomed 
to with the old film. This means that we must make special 
tests if we are going to work out of doors with the new film. 
Naturally, there are going to be conservative souls who will 
prefer to use the old type of film for exteriors, and the new 
type for interiors, where its advantages in regard to speed, etc., 
make it almost indispensable. I have no quarrel with such 
methods, but it seems to me that in temporizing this way 
they are putting themselves to a vast deal of unnecessary 
trouble. It seems to me like buying a sixteen-cylinder car, and 



then cutting out half the motor for city driving, on the 
grounds that the full power of the sixteen is not needed while 
driving about town. You are not saving yourself, or your 
company anything, but, rather, making yourself a great deal 
of extra trouble in the matter of matching up your photo- 
graphic quality, your actors' makeups, etc., between the two 
films. 

Besides, to my mind, the greatest advantages of the new 
film come in exterior work. In the long series of tests which 
I have made on exteriors with it, I have not yet found any 
way to make this film give an unpleasantly harsh, contrasty 
picture. You can over-correct upon it, but you cannot make 
it go contrasty. And even under the most absurdly impossible 
filter and exposure combinations, and for night-effects, it 
will still give a naturally soft picture, with surprisingly lumi- 
nous shadows, and soft (not chalkyl , highlights. Its latitude 
is a constant source of surprise to me. 

Even without filters, it is surprising what the film will 
do in the way of cutting through the haze of distant land- 
scapes It will pierce haze that the naked eye will not, yet 
at the same time keep a nice atmospheric balance. With filters, 
it is sometimes embarrassing, however, for with these aids it will 
ruthlessly rip its way into the distance and reveal more than 
you have bargained for. 

Super sensitive film is a most amazing aid to the user of 
long focus lenses, too. Such lenses have, as most cinema- 
tographers know, a disconcerting habit of giving a flat picture 
at times, unless the exposure and lighting are very accurately 
managed. But this new film goes a great way to eliminate 
this trouble. I have made tests with extreme telephoto lenses 
and this film, panning my camera so that the light through 
the shot changed from a straight cross light to a perfect 
back-light: and at all times the shot stood out as crisply 
and nicely as though it had been done with a normal lens. 

The benefits of Super-sensitive film for interior use have 
been too fully written of to require even a brief mention here: 
so, to sum up my answer to my own question of the benefits 
that super-sensitive film can bring the cameraman, I find 
myself agreeing with Mr. Reisner in his opinion that it is a 
long time before we cameramen can know the full answer 
to this question, for the possibilities of the new film are so 
vast that, for many a long month — or, more likely, year — 
we will all of us be experimenting to find just what the limits 
of them are. When we at last do find them, we shall have 
made tremendous strides both artistically and technically in 
cinematography, and, until then, the new film will give us 
an added interest in our work, for we shall be learning some- 
thing about it and about cinematography every day. And, 
after all, that is what makes our work most interesting, is it 
not? 



Aiding the Deaf 

TWENTY-TWO additional theatres have had Western Elec- 
tric Audiphones installed for the hard-of-hearing by Elec- 
trical Research Products. They are: 

The Jefferson, Beaumont, Texas; the Babcock, Billings, 
Montana; the Capitol, Dover, Delaware; the Granada, Duluth, 
Minnesota; the Strand, Fairmont, Minnesota; the Texan, 
Houston, Texas; the Fox Watson, Salina, Kansas; the Rivoli, 
La Crosse, Wisconsin; the Knickerbocker, Nashville, Tennessee; 
the Rivoli, San Benito, Texas; the Texas, Seguin, Texas; the 
Orpheum, Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Ritz, Tulsa, Oklahoma; the 
Alcyon, Highland Park, Illinois; the Redondo, Long Beach, 
California; the Wilshire, Santa Monica, California; the Miller, 
Wichita, Kansas; the National, Louisville, Kentucky; the 
Arkansas, Little Rock, Arkansas; the Elks, New Iberia, Louis- 
iana; the Stamford, Stamford, Connecticut; and the Grand 
Opera House, Dubuque, Iowa. 



UNMATCHED/ 

llASTMAN Super-Sensitive Panchro- 
matic Negative, Type 2, possesses the 
greatest speed ever offered the camera 
man in any emulsion — wider exposure 
and developing latitude — as well as all 
the advantages of previous Eastman 
emulsions. And this whole combina- 
tion comes to you at the same price as 
regular panchromatic. It's a negative 
film unmatched anywhere, with advan- 
tages so obvious, and so pronounced, 
that you will certainly want to use it 
in your next picture. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, New York. 
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, 
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 

Eastman Super-Sensitive 

Panchromatic Negative, Type 2 



Veuillez faire mention de I'American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 23 




JOHN BOLES, LOIS WILSON and GENEVIEVE TOBIN 

in 

** SEED " 

A Universal Picture 

Jackson J. Rose, A. S. C, Cinematographer 
Jack Pierce, Make-up Artist Harry Osborne, Stills 



Max Factor's Make-up 

Used Exclusively 



Tel. HO-6191 



Max Factor's 

Panchromatic 

and 

Technicolor 

Make-up 

for the 

Screen 



MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS 

Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 
HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA 

Chicago Office — 444 West Grand Ave. Cable Address "Facto" 

Other Foreign Branches 



London, England 

lOD'Arblay St. 
Sydney, Australia 

No. 4-C Her Majesty's Arcade 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Paseo de la Reforma 36 Vi 
Havana, Cuba 

H-130, Vedado 
Lima, Peru 

Edificia Mineria 



Johannesburg, So. Africa 
Cor. Joubert Or Kerk Sts. 

Manila, Philippine Islands 
No. 39 Escolta St. 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 
500 Sarmiento 

Honolulu, T. H. 
720 South St. 



Max Factor** 

Theatrical 

Make-up 

for the 

Stage 



Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 
24 



MORENO - SNYDER CINE CORPORATION, LTD 



( /AKES this occasion to thank the SOCIETY OF MOTION 

PICTURE ENGINEERS for their kind invitation to exhibit 

the Moreno-Snyder Continuous camera at the Spring Convention 

of the S. M. P. E., in Hollywood, and for the courtesies extended 

during the Convention « « « « « « 



Moreno-Snyder Cine Corporation, Ltd. 

Manufacturers of Moreno-Snyder Continuous 
Motion Picture Cameras and Projectors 

6250 Santa Monica Blvd., and 1072 Vine St., Hollywood, California 

Phones — Office CR-0306 Shops CR-5277 

WILLIAM C. FAIRBANK. President CABRIEL GARCIA MORENO, Chief Engineer 

SILAS EDCAR SNYDER, Vice-President, in charge of Sales Promotion 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



2S 



Twenty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



June, 1931 



Lester Cowan Appointed Academy 
Executive Secretary 





THE DESIGNATION of Lester Cowan as Executive Secretary 
of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was 
announced last month. This action was taken by the Academy 
Board of Directors at their last meeting. 

Mr. Cowan has served as Assistant Secretary of the Academy 
since he became associated with the motion picture industry 
in 1928 after previous experience in the field of business 
research. Increased responsibilities devolved upon him follow- 
ing the recent resignation of former Secretary Frank Woods 
to accept a studio position. 

For the past two months Mr. Cowan has been assisting 
in the negotiations between screen writers and producers lead- 
ing toward the establishment of standard contracts similar 
to the Minimum Contract for actors successfully administered 
by the Academy. 

When the coming of sound revolutionized the technical 
aspects of motion picture production, Mr. Cowan was active 
in the program through which basic research was undertaken 
on behalf of all the studios under the Producers-Technicians 
Committee of the Academy. The aim of this work is to use 
scientific methods and economic management to increase 
efficiency and reduce waste in the technical processes of pro- 
duction. Through the Academy the various studios cooperate 
on problems common to all. 

An educational development last year was the organization 
of courses in the studios for the education of 900 selected 
employees of the different departments in the new technique 
required for sound pictures. An authoritative reference volume 
"Recording Sound for Motion Pictures" is now being published 
as a continuation of this educational program. 

The establishment of a Standard Release Print is a recent 
technical accomplishment of the Bureau. Resulting in a 
smoother show in the theatres and making possible the 
abandonment of cue sheets and reduction in film mutilation, it 
represents an annual saving of several hundred thousand dollars 
to the industry. 

Studies are also being carried on to secure greater efficiency 
in film processing, studio lighting, and the solution of other 
immediate studio problems. 



S. M. P. E. Convention 

(Continued from page 1 1 ) 
A number of improvements are described which assist in 
giving the desired conditions. Among them are a cooling coil 
for adjusting the temperature of a developer, a new type of 
rack guide for a developer tank, a compact light lock, a water- 
proof and corrosion-resisting portable darkroom lamp, and some 
auxiliaries for the prevention of spots and contamination on 
film. 

Improvements in printing room equipment include the addi- 
tion of a flywheel to a continuous printer to eliminate uneven- 
ness in exposure due to variation in the motion of the film 
during exposure. Also, a light change has been equipped to 
control either of two lamps of different wattage giving in each 
case exposure values which have exactly equal relationships. 

Some modifications have been made in rewinding equipment 
which have for their object the prevention of ground noise and 
damage to the picture and which result from cinching of 
badly wound film rolls. 

A film storage cabinet has been designed for laboratory use 
which gives an increased degree of protection from fire and 
water at the same time assisting in the convenient and orderly 
arrangement of the film. 

The laboratory symposium continued throughout the after- 
noon with the following papers in order: "A Directional Ef- 
fect in Film Processing," by J. Crabtree, Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories. "Straight Line and Toe Records with the Light Valve," 
by D. MacKenzie of ERPI. "A Motion Picture Laboratory 
Sensitometer," by Dr. L. A. Jones of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany. "Two Special Sensitometers," by D. R. White of the 
DuPont-Pathe Film Manufacturing Company. "Electrolytic Re- 
generation of Motion Picture Fixing Baths," by K. Hickman, 
C. R. Sanford and W. Weyerts of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany. "Automatic Control of Electrolytic Recovery Ap- 
paratus," by K. Hickman of the Eastman Kodak Company. 
C. H. Dunning of Hollywood, then gave a paper on "The 
Dunning Process and Process Backgrounds." 

Friday again saw numerous papers presented. They follow: 

"An Apertureless Optical System for Reproducing Sound on 
Film," by R. C. Burt, R. C. Burt Scientific Laboratories, Pasa- 
dena, Calif. 

"Continuous Non-Intermittent Projectors," by A. J. Holman, 
East Orange, N. J. 

"Properties of Low-Intensity Reflecting Arc-Projector Car- 
bons," by D. B. Joy and A. C. Downes, National Carbon Com- 
pany, Cleveland, Ohio. 

"An AC-Operated Sound Motion Picture Reproducing 
Equipment," by T. D. Cunningham, R-C-A Victor Company 
Camden, N. J. 

"Motion Picture Screens," by F. M. Falge, Beaded Screen 
Corp., New York, N. Y. 

"Noise Measurement," by 
Products, Inc., New York, N. 



Electrical Research 



S. K. Wolf, 
Y. 

"Measurements with a Reverberation Meter," by V. L. Chris- 
ler and W. F. Snyder, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 

"The Rapid-Record Oscillograph in Motion Picture Studies," 
by A. M. Curtis, C. H. Rumpel, and T. E. Shea, Bell Telephone 
Laboratories, New York, N. Y. 

"Application of Optical Instruments in the Motion Picture 
Industry," by I. L. Nixon, Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

"The Ribbon Microphone," by H. F. Olson, R-C-A Photo- 
phone, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

"A Moving-Coil Microphone for High-Quality Sound Re- 
production," by W. C. Jones and L. W. Giles, Bell Telephone 
Laboratories, New York, N. Y. 

(Continued on page 45) 



In the I calm cff $cund 



New W. E. Microphone 

ANEW Western Electric microphone operating on a prin- 
ciple similar to that of the first telephone transmitter 
used by Alexander Graham Bell is announced by Electrical 
Research Products for use in recording talking pictures. The 
microphone, already in use in a number of studios and known 
as the Western Electric Electrodynamic transmitter, possesses 
many improvements over the condenser type microphone gen- 
erally used in recording until now. The new transmitter is 
a development of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. 

Its use eliminates several recording problems; one of which 
has been the difficulty in hiding the microphone from the view 
of the camera. The new microphone is smaller and its associ- 
ated amplifier may be located as far as two hundred feet from 
the microphone making it much easier to hide from the view 
of the camera. The amplifier for the condenser microphone 
was built as an integral part of the microphone housing and 
made it extremely difficult to camouflage in many sets. 

Other advantages of the new transmitter are that it is less 
affected by dust and moisture and need not be kept in a 
desiccator. It is unaffected by changes in temperature and 
barometric pressure. It is a further contribution in noiseless 
recording since its associated amplifier is quieter in operation. 
The transmission characteristics of the transmitter are superior 
and distortion caused by cavity resonance has been practically 
eliminated thus increasing quality and reality in recording. 
Increased volume is obtained since the transmitter and asso- 
ciated amplifier give from 10 to 15 decibels more overall 
gain than the condenser transmitter and amplifier. 

The principle on which the transmitter operates is the in- 
verse of that employed in the well known Western Electric 
555-W receiver used in the Western Electric Sound System. 
In this receiver or any dynamic loud speaker the magnet 
system is so constructed as to produce a circular air gap, across 
which extends a radial magnetic field, between the inner pole 
and the surrounding outer pole. In this air gap is situated a 
thin circular coil which is attached to the diaphragm. If a 
sound current is passed through this coil, the electrodynamic 
reaction between the current and the field will cause the coil 
to execute axial vibrations corresponding to the modulations 
of the sound current. 

Through the medium of the diaphragm and horn, or baffle, 
these vibrations reproduce the original sound. This action can 
be readily reversed; if a sound falls on the diaphragm 
causing the diaphragm and coil to vibrate, there will be gen- 
erated in the coil a small alternating voltage which corresponds 
to the impinging sound waves. This is the way in which the 
electro-dynamic transmitter operates and indicates the origin 
of its name. 

The construction of the new transmitter is very similar to 
that of the 555-W receiver, except that instead of an electro- 
magnet a permanent magnet of cobalt steel is used. There 
is, of course, no horn or baffle. The diaphragm is of thin 
duralumin. The coil is of edge-worn aluminum ribbon. 
The diaphragm is protected by means of a disc of perforated 
sheet metal mounted in front of it and this in turn is covered 
by a thin piece of black silk. 

It is noteworthy that so far as is known this is the first 
time that the electro-dynamic principle has been used com- 
mercially in a transmitter, although in the first years of tele- 
phony Alexander Graham Bell employed a closely related prin- 
ciple by using one structure of the ordinary electromagnetic 
telephone receiver for transmitting. 



Sound Being Installed in Chinese Theatres 

SEVERAL installations of motion picture sound equipment 
are in course of erection at present in China. At Harbin, 
Manchuria, and the Portuguese Colony of Macoa the first 
theatres to be equipped with sound apparatus are now in 
process. Other installations are being made at Canton, Amoy 
and Peiping. 

It is estimated that there are at present a total of 50 
theatres throughout China equipped with sound apparatus. Of 
this number, 35 are American equipment. The remaining 10 
or 15 installations are reported to be of the French disc type 
(Pathe-Orient) , being utilized by the cheaper Chinese thea- 
tres in and about the Shanghai area. 

The new King's theatre at Hong Kong was opened recently, 
making a most favorable addition to the cinema houses in that 
city. 

• 

AC-Operated Equipment Put Out by 
Masterphone 

ANEW and completely alternating current operated equip- 
ment, requiring no motor generator, "A" or "B" batteries, 
battery charger or pre-amplifier, has been announced as now- 
ready for distribution by the Masterphone Sound Corp., of 
Seattle. 

The new Masterphone AC-operated sound reproducing 
sound equipment, it is said, will entirely eliminate the causes 
of pre-amplification troubles, distortion, microphonic and 
rushing noises. 

A completely centralized control panel simplifies operation, 
the company claims. 



New Baby Spot Offered by Cinema 
Equipment Co. 

INTRODUCTION of a new baby spot which may be used 
for headlighting, lighting novelties, statuary, lobby display, 
spotting an orchestra, etc., has been announced by the Chicago 
Cinema Equipment Co., manufacturers of projection apparatus, 
orchestra equipment and stage lighting. 

The new spot is of the round type construction, mounted 
on a rectangular base, 5 inches by 1 Vi inches, and may be 
set on any flat object in any position or it may be screwed 
to the wall. It is fitted with an Edison base receptacle for 
250-400 watt Mazda lamp, 4!/2-inch condenser, and is fur- 
nished complete with four metal color frames and color. 

• 

Voltage Control Unit 

A MANUALLY operated line voltage control unit designed to 
illuminate fluctuations in the input power to the amplifier, 
for use on 50/60 cycle circuits and consisting of an adjustable 
auto, has been placed on the market by the American Trans- 
former Co. of Newark. 

Voltage may be maintained, it is said, at 1 1 or 115 volts 
and the unit can be used where the existing supply is between 
90 and 130 volts. The device, known as the AmerTran Power 
control, Type T-750, is housed in a sheet metal box designed 
for wall mounting. Overall depth is 9 inches and requires 
wall space of 6 'A x 11 ] A inches. A 3-inch diameter flush 
meter and a 2 '/4 -inch knob are used to control the unit. 






27 



Twenty-eight 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



June, 1931 



Quick and Reliable 
Sales and Rental Service 

DIETZ 

Panchromatic Lamps 

For all studio purposes 
and exterior flood lighting 

510 

West Knoll Drive 
OXford 

3841 



Bell & Howell Announce Chicago 
Building Expansion 

THE IMMEDIATE addition of a third story to the Bell & 
Howell Company's engineering building in Chicago is 
announced by J. H. McNabb, president of the company. This 
building was erected only about two years ago but is already 
outgrown. 

The engineering building is devoted exclusively to experi- 
mental and development work, and the additional space, total- 
ing 17,000 square feet, will be given over to experimentation 
on talking picture apparatus. Outstanding features will be a 
completely equipped sound laboratory and a sound projection 
studio with stage. 

The construction of the new addition will be reinforced 
concrete flat slab with exterior walls of face brick with stone 
trim and steel sash, to match the present building. The roof 
will be insulated. Interior partitions will be mainly of glazed 
tile. The addition will be 153x112 feet and will be thirteen 
feet high. 

The engineering building is separate and distinct from the 
company's main offices and factory which are likewise located 
in Chicago. 

Work has been begun on the company's new two-story 
branch sales, service, and engineering building in Hollywood, 
and the expansion program of the Bell & Howell Company is 
surely convincing proof of its confidence in the business 
future of the country in general and of the motion picture 
industry in particular. 

16 Will Be Made in East 

OUT of the 65 or 70 features to be produced by Para- 
mount for the 1931-32 season, 16 will be made at the 
New York studio. This is the same number scheduled by the 
plant for the current year. 




SUPPLYING A 
DEFINITE DEMAND 



I 



"N RESPONSE to a definite economic need 
— a substantial reduction in operating 
costs — ^Z &ce incandescent lighting products 
merit a thorough investigation. 

Having won a reputation for leadership, 
it is obligatory that .^gge ^j maintain it .... . that is the 
basis upon which we invite you to compare them with competi- 
tive lighting products. 

"1/ it's not a J^ccr it's not silent!'' 

LAKIN CORPORATION 

1707 Naud Street LOS ANGELES CApital 14118 



June, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Twenty-nine 



Super Sensitive Film and the Still Man 

(Continued from page 9) 

Another feature of the new film, too, which aids in this 
improvement in perspective, is the uncanny way in which it 
seems to reach into the shadows, without burning up the high- 
lights. This gives us natural shadows, such as our eyes see: 
shadows which are definitely recognizable as shadows, but 
which are not on that account mere pools of black. Except 
in the most unusual cases, our eyes see shadows as areas of 
lesser luminosity, but still perceive the detail in them; so does 
the new film. 

This makes it vastly easier to work in extreme low-key 
lightings, particularly for still photographs, as we can get our 
natural low-key effects without sacrificing either shadow- 
detail or highlights. 

I have found these same qualities to be equally advantageous 
in portraiture. The speed and color correction are, of course, 
obviously beneficial; and this same extreme latitude proves an 
even greater benefit, as it gives a greater degree of roundness, 
and a snap and sparkle that were heretofore missing, par- 
ticularly where a moderately soft, flatfish lighting was em- 
ployed. 

But pictures speak louder than words, and the accompany- 
ing pictures can tell the story much better themselves. The 
one thing that they cannot tell is the technical facts of their 
making. Figure I was made on the old-type stock, with the 
set lit for the Super Sensitive film which Mr. Mohr was using. 
The exposure was 1 second, at F:8. Figure 2 was made 
from a slightly different angle, but with the same lighting 
set-up; Super Sensitive cut film was used, and the exposure was 
1/5 second at F:8. Figure 3, a portrait of Marion Schilling, 
was made on the old-type Panchromatic stock; the lighting 
was from two 1 ,000 Watt floodlights, with two silks on each, 
and one 400 Watt back light, with one oiled frost on it; the 
exposure was 2 seconds at F:8. Figure 4 was made on the 
new Super Sensitive Panchromatic stock, with the same sub- 
ject and lighting set-up: the exposure was 1 /5 second at F:8. 
The fifth illustration, that of Mr. Mohr and myself, was made 
on the new Super Sensitive stock with only one 1 ,000 Watt 
light, the lens closed down to F : 1 6, and an exposure of 
1/5 second. Both of the pictures on the old type film were 
forced, both in development of the negative and in printing, 
in order to get the best possible prints from negatives which 
were none too good. 



No Widies For Germany 

GERMAN producers will have no color nor wide film in their 
coming season product, according to Dr. H. L. Boehm, 
the only man to come from Germany to Hollywood for the 
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Dr. Boehm, who represents the German Society of Photo- 
graphic Research, International Educational Film Institute of 
the League of Nations, and the Association of German Educa- 
tional Film Producers, says that the German producers have 
enough troubles, including sound, without adding either color 
or wide film. He did say that UFA is experimenting with a 
color process. 



New British Sound Firm Enters Production 

Field 

BRITONE SOUND STUDIOS, Ltd., England, a new registered 
company with a new variable area system of sound record- 
ing, has started studio operations under the general manage- 
ment of Kessler Howes. Both features and shorts will be 
made, with the feature output amounting to about six pictures 
a year. 



AUDIC-CAMEX 



SOUND-ON-FILM 

RECORDING 

SYSTEM 



Original 

Direct Current 

Interlocking 

Meter/ 

fcr 

Si unci Pictures 



PLACED ON THE MARKET 
SEPTEMBER, 1930 



"CLICKED** 

jrom ilie 

START 



For information and prices 
write, cable or phone 



JfllAMERl Exchange 

^_y CABLEHOCAMEX-15J1 CAHUENGABLVD -PHONE HO ?43I 



Amateur Aicvie Making 



by WILLIAM STULL, A. S. C. 



LAST NIGHT at dinner, tne conversation swung to amateur 
movies. My host — a confirmed professional globe- 
trotter and amateur cinematographer — turned to me with 
this remark: "You know, Stull, amateur or not, when it 
comes to scenes with people in them, either as long-shots or 
closeups, I'm not the least bit ashamed of the results I get; 
but when it comes to landscapes — particularly distant ones — 
I'm an awful duffer. I almost always overexpose them, and, 
whatever I do, I can't help getting them pretty hazy and flat. 
What's the matter, anyway?" 

Proper Exposure in Landscapes. 

It was not the first time that this question had been asked 
me, for Mr. Blank's trouble is one he shares with many another 
expert 1 6mm. worker. The answer is that he has not learned 
that his eye and his film (even Panchromatic I do not see 
things the same way. He overexposes his picture because he 
forgets that, although to his eye a landscape appears to re- 
flect less light than a normal close scene, in reality it reflects 
far more, just as a large reflector will reflect a greater quantity 
of light than a small one will. The safest way to secure cor- 
rect exposure for such scenes is to use one of the exposure- 
meters which actually measure the light reflected from the 
subject (like the Drem "Cinephot" or the Bell & Howell 
"Photometer") — and to trust the meter implicitly. There 
■will be times when the exposure indicated by the meter will 
seem unbelievably small; when every instinct will cry out that 
you can't possibly get a decent exposure under such circum- 
stances: that is the time to remember that the scientists 
responsible for your meter know far more about photography 
than you do— and to follow their recommendation devoutly. 
If you don't the overexposed film you will get back from the 
laboratory should be enough to convince you of the error of 
your ways! 

But not all of us have such meters. Some of us may feel 
that the ten or fifteen dollars which such things cost can be 
better spent elsewhere — and quite forget that if the meter 
were to keep us from ruining only two or three rolls of film 
per year they would be paying for themselves, with more than 
sufficient interest to boot. Some of us may feel that we have 
had enough experience to worry through without the extra 
bother of using a meter — and forget that although we may be 
able to estimate the correct exposure for ninety-nine scenes 



out of every hundred, that hundredth scene which we go astray 
on is almost invariably an important, irreplaceable one. And 
sometimes, those of us who do have meters forget them when 
we most need them. In cases such as these, the only thing 
to do is to remember that we cannot trust to either our eyes or 
our instincts, and that the only thing to do is to reduce the ex- 
posure to a point considerably beyond the stop which our 
instinct tells us will give us an underexposed film. 

Cutting Out the Haze. 

But, even when landscapes are correctly exposed, we still 
will frequently find that our picture is hazy and flat. This, 
again, is due to the fact that our eyes and our films do not 
see things the same way. To our eyes, the region of greatest 
brilliancy is in the yellows; to the film, it is usually somewhere 
among the blues, exactly where depending upon the make of 
the film, and whether it is Pan or Ortho. 

Now, even on days that are quite clear, we often find that 
our pictures show the distance as shrouded in a sort of hazy 
mist. This is because the air — except in the desert or at high 
altitudes, actually contains a considerable quantity of mist, or, 
to put it scientifically, suspended water-vapor. These sus- 
pended particles of water-vapor are practically transparent to 
the longer waves of light (the yellows, reds, browns, etc., 
which form the larger proportion of the visual image I, but 
they scatter the blues, violets, ultra-violets and, sometimes, 
the greens — which are the important photographic rays. 
Therefore, although a distant scene may seem clear and dis- 
tinct to the eye, it may (and usually does) seem quite misty 
to the film, which obediently gives us an accurate picture of 
what it sees. So we must trick the film into seeing the view 
more nearly as our eyes do. In other words, we must absorb 
this scattered blue and violet light — and most particularly the 
invisible ultra-violet light — if we are to get the good, clear 
picture that we want. 

To gain this end we must first of all use a film which is sen- 
sitive to the remaining colors of the spectrum, as well as to 
the blues and violets. Therefore, Panchromatic film, of course. 

But "Pan" is still sensitive to the blues and violets — and 
therefore to this blue-violet haze which we are trying to elimi- 
nate. So we must in some way absorb this objectionable haze 
(which is there, whether we can see it or not) before we let 
(Continued on page 361 




An excellent example of results obtained by use of a filter. Left, no filter used; right, same scene under same conditions but a Ramstcin- 

Optochromc filter was used. 

30 



NOW— A NEW LOW PRICE 

for the famous Filmo 70- A 

the original automatic personal movie camera 



What you see, you get 
— with Filmo 



$ 



140 



with 1-inch F 3.5 lens 

The camera that first brought the world its own per- 
sonal movies as we know them today has now been 
reduced in price to $140. We believe that, without 
question, the Filmo 70-A enjoys more prominence 
and popularity among movie makers than any other 
movie camera made. And with its new low price, it 
is one of those values that one cannot afford to miss. 
With its advanced 216° shutter, its 8- and 16-frame 
film speeds, and the ready interchangeabililty of its 
lenses, Filmo 70-A provides the all-round flexibility 
and dependability which good personal movies 
demand. 

Equipped for Kodacolor 

The added exposure-time made possible by its 
unique shutter and its 8-frame film speed makes the 
Filmo 70-A a perfect camera for Kodacolor. Equip- 
ped complete with Cooke 1-inch F 1.8 lens and 
Kodacolor filters, the Filmo 70-A now costs but 
$190; without Kodacolor filters, $175; Kodacolor 
filters alone, $15; Kodacolor projection lens assem- 
bly for Filmo 57 Projector, $35. 
You've been thinking "Filmo" for a long time. 
Now is your opportunity to make that dream come 
true. Drop into a Filmo dealer's today and ask for 
a demonstration. Bell & Howell Co., 1848 Larch- 
mont Avenue, Chicago, 111., New York, Hollywood, 
London (B & H Co., Ltd ) Established 1907. 





• The famous Filmo 70-A, with its spy-glass view- 
finder, two film speeds, and interchangeability of 
lenses. With Cooke 1-inch F 3.5 lens, $140. 
Equipped complete for Kodacolor, $190. 



*Filmo 70-D, a supremely versatile camera with 
three- lens turret, seven film speeds, and variable view- 
finder. From $245 up with Sesamee-locked case. 
Critical Focuser optional. 



BELL & HOWELL 

FILMO 



• • • 



Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



31 



Thirty-two 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



June, 1931 







T— : ~ 


-%■-■'■ 

SELL j jl ! -- ■ 


wKM 


wmm 













*—i 


, ~r r 1 




SS?>i 




n8 


/uv 






Upper left, Paimpol potato market. Upper right, hasty retreat of man from bad bargain. Left center, Cuingamp market, 
a house at Paimpol. Right center, Cuingamp street on "Pardon" day. Lower left, Paimpol general market. Lower rigf 

gamp cattle market. 



Center, 
ght, Cuin- 



Babbling About Brittany 



by LAWRENCE GRANT 



This is the third article of an unusually interesting series which 
Mr. Grant has written for this magazine. The next will appear in 
the July issue — Editor's Note. 

I HAD heard much of Paimpol and the Me de Brehat. Paimpol 
because it was the place where Pierre Loti's famous tragic 
story "Le Pecheur d'lslande" was laid; the Me de Brehat be- 
cause of its wild North Brittany beauty. 

From Paimpol the fishing fleet sets out once a year to the 
icy seas of Newfoundland, and the shores of Iceland. When 
they return the famous "Pardon" of the fishermen takes place 
in gratitude for the safe return of those who have been on 
either of these very dangerous trips. 

The Paimpol people are extraordinarily industrious, for no 
sooner have they come home from the fishing expeditions and 
disposed of the fish, than they change their occupation and 
become ardent agriculturists. Crowing potatoes and other 
vegetables, working hard at this until just before the time 
comes round again for them to get their ships ready for the 
next departure to the distant seas. 

Thus there is not only a fine fish market and tremendous 
amount of business done with Paris and London, but there is a 
potato market in which vast quantities of Paimpol new pota- 
toes are packed and sent off to the same destinations. 

But the rain is frequent on this north coast, and while it is 
good for agriculture, it is bad for photography, and here on 
market day it was raining all the time. However you have 
to make your pictures, rain or shine, you cannot make a "loca- 
tion call, weather permitting" there as you can in a picture 
studio, the markets and "Pardons" go on whatever the weather, 
and you must "shoot" or lose the picture. 

I made friends with a potato dealer here, he had visited some 
of his London customers one year, and had taken the oppor- 
tunity to see Aldershot and Chiselhurst, the latter place he 
told me was "where Mrs. Napoleon lived." It took me some 
time to realize that he was serious, and that this was his 
republican way of referring to the late French Empress Eugenie, 
who was a great friend of Queen Victoria and lived for many 
years in England after the last Revolution. 

I spent a few days at Cuingamp before coming to Paimpol 
trying to hire a cart to drive me around to neighboring places 
for eight or ten days. I finally settled with a man for horse 
and "victoria" for 17 francs a day. But the next day the 
cocher who was employed to drive it, (cochon would be a better 
word) said the proprietor was not paying him enough out of 
it, and refused to go, unless I consented to pay twenty 
francs a day. I said I would not do that, for I found that it 
was not so much the money that was upsetting him, but the 
idea of being away from the comforts of the hovel he called 
his home, and the hag he called his wife. It was an unthink- 
able hardship, particularly as he would be likely to have a 
different bed each night with linen, nasty cold clean linen, to 
sleep in. It made him shudder to think of it, so it was "off." 

Then I arranged with a Ford car for 30 francs a day and 
started off for Paimpol, but when I got back to Cuingamp all 
ready for the trip, the Ford man refused to carry out the 
bargain. Why? He did not know, but he could not go. 
Maddening people, at times these French peasants. 

Paimpol is situated rather far from the open sea, at the 
head of an estuary, so if you want a seaside resort for summer 
vacationing you go down to Kerity, where small houses and 
cabins can be rented and bathing is good. 

After making friends in the market and listening to political 
talk of the Customs officials, who said that so many relatives of 



local politicians had to be taken care of and given Customs 
jobs, that the money provided for this service was split up 
into so many portions that no one got enough to make an 
honest living from his salary, so what could you do but get 
a little "on the side," I went on to the "Me de Brehat," a 
wild, rocky and picturesque place. Do not miss it. The ar- 
rival of an "American," for that is what they thought me, was 
soon noised around the little place from Mairie to market, and 
from market to the Inn. 

I lunched with the local lights, the Mayor and the Rotarians 
of the Island, and for half a dollar we had: 

RESTAURANT CASPARD. 

Me de Brehat. 

Dejeuner. 

*Homard a la Americain 

Rognons aux Truffes 

Gigot d'agneau roti. 

Pommes de terre. Salade. 

Fraises aux Kirche. 

Entremets. 

Demi tasse. 

Vin rouge. Cidre. Vin blanc. 

Prix Frcs. 2.50. 
*This item in my special honor. 

In Brittany we shall see many large monoliths, and clusters 
of other large stones, called by various names. Here is one the 
size of which can be computed by the girl who stands guard 
under it. We will go into this matter in a later talk, but in 
the meantime, I printed this here because I wish you to notice 
the resemblance of the Stone to the Church tower — even if to 
nothing else. They are, in fact, the origin of all towers and 
spires. Their own origin goes back to the dawn of the world, 
the beginning of man, and his worship of that which created 
him. 

There is another thing I would like to draw your attention 
to in Brittany, that is, the importance of Women, and their 
activity in every field of work. You do not have to take my 
word for it. Just look at these pictures as we go along to- 
gether. Look at those which are illustrating this chapter. 
Women, under the umbrellas in the Paimpol potato market, 
women in the market where the tents are, women in the 
market square of Cuingamp, women in the street of the Fair 
at Cuingamp, women almost entirely even in the cattle market, 
and women, five of them, inside the gates of the potato market, 
and a solitary man leaving with a jaded expression as one who 
has just been "bested" in a business deal. 

So having spent some time in viewing the beauties of the 
island, but more in convivial lapping up of "le cocktail" 
vin rouge, benedictine, and cafe cognac with cigars in company 
of the Mayor and other sober, respectable and important people, 
I returned to Paimpol, and having given very positive instruc- 
tions that I must be called at 5 A. M. to catch the 6 o'clock 
train back to Cuingamp, I retired sleepily to bed. 

And they called me at 5.45! 

Yet nevertheless I was down at the station a few minutes 
before the train left, and it left on time! How did I do it? 
I do not know. Everyone got to work on, or for me. Loud 
shoutings in the inn yard, jingling of harness while the voiture 

33 



Thirty-four 



AMERICAN CINEMATOCRAPHER 



June, 193' 



was being prepared for me. Clattering, chattering, commo- 
tion everywhere. Throwing all false prudery aside and all 
false modesty to the four winds of heaven the young daughter 
of the Inn, and her still young and lovely mother came into my 
room and literally dressed and packed me, while another lovely 
chambermaid brought me the inevitable cafe with crescents, 
and in ten minutes I found I had been dressed and packed 
and drunk warm coffee, and said "Good-bye" and was seated 
with a crescent in each hand and all my luggage and cameras 
aboard en route for the station. 

And all this time I had never noticed anything except three 
very charming women were intent on getting me ready and 
that "Honi soit qui mal y pense" was a good motto. 

Anyhow there I was at the station at 5.55 and there was 
the station master. Did I say station master? No. He was 
everything there was. As usual "pendant la guerre" the sta- 
tion was being run, and run well by one individual! Like the 
late Will Cressy, that splendid Vaudevillian, in "Town Hall To- 
night," when he informed a visiting artist that he was every- 
thing from Manager to Call Boy at the local "opry house": — 
"Whatever there is — I am. Whatever I'm not — there isn't." 

Well, our Cuingamp station master was old, very old, but 
he was all there was, and this train starting was going to be 
done according to Hoyle, or in other words, to the credit of 
the "Chemins-de-fer de-l'Etat-de-Normandie, Bretagne, et 
lignes diverses en correspondance" in particular, and of France 
during war time in general, if it killed him. 

First he unlocked the station doors and let us into the 
booking hall, then he locked the door again. The door leading 
to the platform being already locked, he had us safely here 
and could deal with us at leisure, or as much leisure as five 
minutes to starting time gave him. He went into the booking 
office and sold us our tickets. Then he snapped down the 
little window, ran back to the booking hall, weighed our bag- 
gage and gave us the checks for it. Then he hurried back to 
a private door to the platform, and like a quick change artist, 
appeared at the door, unlocked it, examined and punched the 
tickets to see that there had been no error committed by the 
man who had sold them, (himself) then he locked the door 
again. Forgetting the characters of ticket seller, baggage mas- 
ter, and ticket inspector, he became now the station master. 
He herded us to the train. For a moment he became the porter 
and flung our baggage into the baggage car. Back to the sta- 
tion master, he slammed every door along the train shouting 
the French equivalent to "All aboard for Cuingamp and places 
South," gave a last inspecting look, and then the signal to 
start! 6 A. M.!! 

And the signal to start was by the usual French method. A 
toot or two on an instrument between a child's toy trumpet 
and an old fashioned powder horn, a blow on a whistle, as a 
concession to the twentieth century, and the engine, making 
more noise than the Century Limited, announced to Paimpol 
and the waiting world that the event was happening, the 
train was leaving on time, on its perilous journey for that dis- 
tant and important spot, Cuingamp, at the hair raising speed 
of twelve miles per hour. 

However even twelve miles an hour got us back to Cuingamp 
in time for that great "Pardon." 

Now we talk frequently of drinking vin rouge and other 
more "forte" liquids, but aside from being pleasant and ex- 
hilarating they are safe, which water in Brittany most decidedly 
is not. To drink it may be fatal. During your visit I can- 
not too strongly urge you to listen to Julian Eltinge's advice 
occurring in one of his songs: "Don't go near the water 
daughter." It carries typhoid risks in every sip for strangers, 
or it may do so, for the wells in the smaller places are fre- 
quently in amazing proximity to the farm yard and the drain 
(if any), or the drain is near the river and the river flows 
just behind the kitchen, and so — - 

Yet local people can drink and be immune, though I have 
seen a modern separator separating cream from milk, pigs 



food being prepared, and a large wooden bucket full of manure, 
all in the same cottage room, and the wooden bucket had 
every evidence of being used at other times for flour. Yet 
their caps, their faces, their linen and their cottages are spot- 
less. 

I remember after doing two hours work in a farm yard with 
my cinema camera, the farmer's wife asked me if I would 
have some refreshment. I said I would take a bowl of cider. 
She brought it, in a big bowl. I started to drink. Immediately 
all the baby pigs I had been photographing came squeaking 
and jostling round me. I asked Why? She did not know, 
unless perhaps it was because she usually brought them out 
their food in the bowl I was drinking from! 

Nevertheless everything is picturesque, even if to be so, 
makes it sometimes impracticable, and sometimes not so sani- 
tary. For instance Cuingamp. Famous for its Market day, its 
church of "Notre Dame de Bons Secours" with its great Virgin 
dressed in costly robes, which is carried round the town 
at the great Feast of Notre Dame. (Note that every little 
place in Brittany is famous, even if it is famous for not being 
known at all by casual visitors, and there are some we will 
visit that are famous just for that) . Well, in Cuingamp on 
Market day the Narrow Rue Notre Dame is practically closed 
to all but pedestrian traffic, with boutiques, (market stalls) 
blocking the side walks, and in the great square a mass of 
jabbering, bargaining, jollying crowd of farmers, their wives, 
and their hens and their calves and their pigs, and their "truck 
garden" produce, and their butter — and please do not ask me 
to describe Brittany butter — it must be eaten to be believed 
— delicious! 

Under the trees round the corner another lot of women 
haggling over milch cows and calves with proddings and ap- 
praisals and accusations of extortionate prices they are asking 
compared to those they got at St. Brieuc last week, and what 
bad weather for the crops. "Very unusual for the time of 
year" (and I wonder where have I heard that before), and 
how fodder is running low, and hog feed running high, and 
daughter is going to marry a man from St. Malo, a French- 
man and a city man, so probably no good, and "Voulez vous 
prendre quelquechose a boire?" And the reply: "Now 
you're talking" or breton words to that effect, and into the 
estaminet they go. When will they come — or be dragged — 
out? 

It is a never to be forgotten scene, the procession of the 
Pardon of Notre Dame de Bons Secours, for it is a Marche 
aux Flambeaux at night. Bonfires in the square — torches 
carried by everyone — relics under golden canopies — carried 
shoulder high by stalwart costumed peasants, or lovely girls 
in pure white — Sacred banners — the Great Virgin in robes 
rivalling a Queen's at a coronation — and the choir — and the 
crowd and the priests in gorgeous copes — preceded by thurifers 
swinging great smoking censers. And singing — by a chorus 
perhaps ten thousand strong. 

And then a carousal into the early hours of dawn. 

A great night. 

And no questions asked. A great day, and comes but once 
a year and Youth must be served, and you can dabble in a holy 
fountain on the road home and purify the hand, perhaps, that 
has offended, and tell your beads in the cart as you jog along, 
and all is forgiven, but such a night can never be forgotten. 

They have another Virgin there, called the Black Virgin, 
and she used to be the one that was carried in procession, 
but observing that it always rained when she came out, they 
now leave her in her place in the Church and carry the pale 
one. The black one is not really black, for if you examine 
her you will find her quite pink in the corners of her eyes 
and wrinkles of her nose. The black is only the dust of ages, 
I think. 

(Continued on page 39) 



June, 1931 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



Thirty-five 








Upper left, City Hall. Upper right, typical, narrow, picturesque road. Left center, church tower. Center, St. Hervc. Right center, 
one of the countless Menhirs of Brittany (N. D. Photo). Lower left, breakwater of rocky coast, Isle dc Brchat. Lower right, 

cattle market and Pardon; Menez Bre. 



Thirty-six 



AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 



June, 1931 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from page 30) 
the rest of the picture record itself on the film. To do this, 
we interpose light filters — bits of colored glass or gelatine — 
between the subject and the film. Photographic light filters 
are made in a variety of colors, but the ones which we want 
are those particular yellow ones which will absorb the ultra- 
violet rays entirely, and much of the violet and blue ones, as 
well. There are quite a few filters of different manufacture 
which will do this; but the standard ones are the Wratten "K" 
series, which come in several shades, and are known as the 
K-l; the K-IV2; the K-2; and K-3. As they remove the 
powerful blue and violet rays, without supplying anything to 
take their places, they naturally increase the exposure needed, 
•so that the less powerful rays which remain can do their work. 
They have been scientifically measured, however, and the 
exact exposure increase for each filter is known. For the sake 
of convenience, this is called the "filter (or multiplying! 
Factor". For the K-l, this factor is 1 Vz, which means that 
the normal exposure (as given by your meter) must be 
multiplied by 1 Vz. For the K-l Vz, the factor is 2; for the 
K-2, it is 3; and for the K-3, it is 4Vz. The exact filter to 
use depends, naturally, upon the degree of haze present, and 
-the nature and distance of the scene. For most distant land- 
scapes, the K-2 and K-3 are the best, the latter especially. 
For closer scenes, and for more distant ones on exceptionally 
.clear days, the lighter filters are more suitable. 

On the other hand, for extreme telephoto work — that is, 
with lenses of six inch focal length or over — the best landscapes 
are secured with an even deeper and sharper filter. Telephoto 
■shots are usually characterized by an exaggerated flatness at any 
time, and for distant landscapes a very sharp-cutting filter will 
help to correct this. Therefore for such use the Wratten "C" 
filter is by far the best. It is of deeper, more orange hue than 
the K-3, but its multiplying factor is much the same, vary- 
ing from 4V2 to 5. In use with reversal film, where a slight 
•underexposure is far preferable to a slight over-exposure, the 
factor had best be taken as 5. Of course, too, with telephoto 
lenses (or with any fast cine lens, for that matter) it is im- 
portant that a good, deep lens hood be used at all time, to 
shield the lens, not only from direct sunlight, but from all 
light that is not actually being used to make the picture. Most 
cine lenses come equipped with fairly adequate lens-hoods, 
but you can hardly go wrong by making an additional hood 
for your telephoto and speed lenses. 

In the Mountains 

Mountain work presents some peculiar problems of its own. 
As you ascend to higher altitudes, the air becomes steadily 
clearer, requiring less and less exposure. A good rule to fol- 
low is to give normal exposures below the 4,000 foot level; 
from there to around 5,000 feet, 3 A normal; above 5,000 
-feet, Vz normal, and so on. Besides this, the clearer atmos- 
phere requires iighter filters, if the proper balance between 
sky, trees, rocks, and snow is to be maintained. For most 
mountain landscapes a K-l or K-IV2 will usually be satis- 
factory, though if there is much color in the foreground, a 
K-2 is often advisable. For telephoto work in the mountains, 
the K-2 is also all that is necessary, as the "C" filter otherwise 
used is too strong, unless there is a bit of haze or fog in the 
distances. 

That Bald-headed Sky 

Another thing that all too frequently detracts from amateur 
landscape cinematography is the nakedness of the skies. The 
professional has long since learned that, where landscapes are 
concerned, clouds make the picture; accordingly, he avoids, 
whenever possible, photographing a landscape if an unclouded 
sky is to figure in it. And if professional film companies are 
willing to delay production until they can get some beauti- 
ful clouds to float across the tops of their landscape shots, 
-the amateur, who is not shackled to an overhead expense of 



many hundreds or thousands of dollars per day, can certainly 
do likewise. A few pretty clouds can make a real picture out 
of an otherwise ordinary landscape, while a "bald-headed" 
sky can ruin the best view. 

Clouds, of course, being in the intense blue field of the 
sky, naturally require filtering if they are to be photographed 
to the best advantage. The exact filter to use is obviously 
dependent upon the atmospheric conditions and the type of 
clouds, as well, of course, as the relation of the clouds to the 
sun. In general, it is probably best to use a good, heavy filter, 
like a K-3, although this will sometimes make the sky seem 
darker than is strictly pleasing. There are also times when 
it is wise to use a graduated filter, which ranges from a deep 
yellow at the top, to clear glass at the bottom, thereby 
equalizing between the sky and foreground. But, whatever 
filters you use, don't neglect your skies, if you want to get 
the best landscapes possible! It may often mean waiting a 
few hours or even days, but it also means the difference be- 
tween a scene that you will be proud of and one which will 
remain either a lasting disgrace, or an encumbrance on your 
cutting-room floor. 

• 

Screen of Metal Mesh Placed On the Market 

AFTER several demonstrations with good results, a new type 
^ metal mesh projection screen, under the trade name of 
"Lustro-Pearl" and designed especially for high grade the- 
atres, has been placed on the market by the Mandaiian Manu- 
facturing Co., North Attleboro, Mass. 

The advanced features claimed for this new screen include: 
A surface treated with the purest of known chemicals, entirely 
free from gloss, eliminating all distortion common to ordinary 
types. 

Highest reflection factor known to reputable light testing 
laboratories, effecting a considerable saving of electric current. 

Constructed so as to distribute sound very clearly and uni- 
formly throughout the entire theatre. 

Can be washed with hot water and soft brush without 
injury to its surface. 

Affords a clear view of any picture from any angle of 
observation, eliminating eye strain or discomfort to patrons. 

Surface may be sprayed periodically for many years, and for 
this purpose, the company plans to loan for a period of ten 
years a complete up-to-date spraying outfit with each screen 
purchased, and furnish chemical solutions from time to time 
for resurfacing this type screen. 

Its high reflective qualities bring out objects in a manner 
which might be termed the nearest approach to three dimen- 
sional pictures, the company claims. 

R-K-0 Proctor's 58th Street, New York, is among the first 
houses to install this new type screen. 



Foreign Sales Increase 

PRELIMINARY figures compiled by the motion picture 
division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
reveal the fact that approximately $5,000,000.00 worth of 
American made motion picture equipment was sold abroad 
during the year 1930. This is an increase of $4,000,000.00 
over the foreign sales for 1929, and gives a fair idea of the 
tremendous sales possibilities for our equipment there are in 
foreign fields. Among the outstanding items were the follow- 
ing: 2,160 35 mm. projectors, 946 35 mm. cameras, 1,667 
cameras of less than 35 mm., and 1,634 16 mm. projectors. 



Two R-K-0 Features in Color 

R-K-0 will make both "The Bird of Paradise" and ".Con- 
doning Wives" entirely by the recently improved Techni- 
color process, it is announced. Paramount also is to make 
"Rose of the Rancho" under the process. 



// 



What Projection Lamp Should I Use? 



// 



A discussion of the characteristics of the different types of Projection Lamps 

available for 16 mm. projectors. 

by R. FAWN MITCHELL 

Technical Service — Bell & Howell Co. 



(NOTE: — As representative of a Company selling projectors equipped 
with different lamps, this article is offered in an endeavor to present 
the facts concerning the merits and otherwise of the different lamps 
in a strictly impartial manner. — R. F. M.) 

THE AVERAGE amateur movie maker has available to him 
quite a large selection of projection lamps. From this 
selection, he has to choose one or rather a projector using 
one (or possibly two) of these lamps with which to project 
his pictures. 

Naturally, the choice of the lamp or lamps used depends 
on the work being done. If long throws of brilliant quality 
are needed, then the most powerful projector available is 
obviously indicated. When the projector is only going to be 
used in the home to show a picture three feet by four feet 
at the most, then the more powerful projector is not necessary. 

On the other hand, if the movie maker concerned is a Koda- 
color fan, the more powerful light is desirable on account of 
the great absorption of light by the filters of the Kodacolor 
lens. 

Between these extremes, there is a "middle ground," as it 
were, where the choice is not so definitely indicated. In any 
case, an analysis of the theoretical as well as of the practical 
characteristics involved, should be of great interest. 

In a projection optical system, one of the chief requirements 
is that the projection lens be uniformly filled with light eman- 
ating from a light source (the lamp filament). To accom- 
plish this the condensers must be so designed that an image 
of the filament is produced within the projection lens. This 
image must be of sufficient size to fill the lens. (The image 
of the filament is focused actually at the nodal plane of 
admission of the projection lens.) 

In carbon arc lamps we deal with a small spot of light, the 
image of which, in order to fill the projection lens, must be 
magnified a great number of times. However, since the 
intensity of an arc is very high, a very bright image is produced 
within the projection lens in spite of the magnification. 

With the Tungsten filament, the case is different. Tungsten 
cannot be brought to as high a degree of incandescence as a 
carbon arc. Consequently Tungsten filament produces a light 
source which is nowhere near equal in intensity to the arc 
and therefore does not permit of the same enlargement of the 
image at the projection lens. To make up for this deficiency, 
a filament must be made larger in area in order that it will 
not be necessary to enlarge its image excessively. In other 
words, the larger the source of a given intensity, the greater 
the light intensity within the lens. 



The accompanying sketches give a comparison of the factors 
involved in using a 20 volt, 250 watt lamp and the 375 watt, 
75 volt lamp. Figure l illustrates the using of a 20 volt lamp, 
which has but two filaments. It will be seen that the image 
of these two filaments will have to be enlarged many times in 
order to fill the lens with light. 

Figure 2 illustrates the condition existing when a 75 volt 
lamp is used. This lamp has six filaments so that they do not 
have to be magnified anywhere near as much in order to 
fill the lens. It is obvious from this that the six filament lamp 
should concentrate far more light than the 20 volt lamp. Of 
course the 20 volt 250 watt filament, because it is designed 
to carry 12.5 amperes of current as against the 5 amperes 
carried by the 50 volt 250 watt and the 75 volt 375 watt 
filament, is considerably heavier and can be operated at a 
higher temperature; consequently it produces a slightly whiter 
light than the 50 volt 250 watt and the 75 volt 375 watt 
filaments. However, even allowing for this difference, it is 
easy to see that the 375 watt lamp still concentrates more 
light in the projection lens than the 20 volt. 

Because of this color difference, in making visual compari- 
sons it appears that the light of the 20 volt, 250 watt lamp 
is more intense than that of the 50 volt, 250 watt. Actually 
the light flux of the former is equal to that of the latter when 
measured with a photo-cell foot candle meter. The same 
meter shows that the 75 volt, 375 watt lamp produces 41 
percent greater light intensity than either the 20 volt, 250 
watt or the 50 volt, 250 watt lamp. 

Following is an accurate comparison of the various types 
of lamps, from which the foregoing percentages have been 
obtained. 

Foot Candles 

Lamp 1 90 

135 
135 
115 
100 

An optical bench was set up in such a manner that the 
lamp position was fixed. The lamp was aligned so that it 
was focused on a screen 4%" high and broad in proportion 
(about 6"). The arrangement was such that lamps could be 
inserted in the receptacle so that they would be exactly in 
the same position and aligned so that the filaments were 
correctly centered. The same lens and condenser set-up was 
used with all lamps and the voltage was set each time with a 
(Continued on page 40) 



Voltage 


Wattage 


75 


375 


50 


250 


20 


250 


50 


200 


30 


165 








20-voll 

niaiiKnls Condenser Aperture 




75-voll 375-walt 
Lens filaments Condenser Aporture 



Lens 



Figure 1 



Figure 2 



37 



The Last Word 

for Professionals 
or